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Doddridge, Joseph, 1769- 

Notes on the settlement and 
Indian wars of the western 

JUN 2 1953 

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A new edition of the valuable Notes of Dr. Doddridge 
having been long called for, his daughter, the late Narcissa 
Doddridge, had, prior to her death which occurred several 
years ago, written a Memoir of her father with a view 
of prefixing it to a new edition of the book which she 
- contemplated publishing. Her design having been in- 
terrupted by her death, the undersigned has now, at the 
request of her family, undertaken the task of supervising 
the publication of a new edition of the Notes, with the 
Memoir above referred to prefixed. 

T The Notes of Dr. Doddridge have long been recog- 
% nized as an authentic and valuable authority as to matters 
relating to the pioneer history of the west. The work 
v being thus acknowledged as an original authority, the 
editor does not deem it advisable to encumber the pages 
of the work with notes, or illustrations derived from the 
investigations of later writers. 

The ably written Memoir, in addition to particulars 
relating to the life of the author, will be found to con- 
tain many facts of interest concerning the early history 
of the west, and especially concerning the foundation of 
the Episcopal church in Western Virginia and Ohio. 


Preface . 

I have added to the volume, by way of appendix, a 
number of interesting sketches illustrative of the pioneer 
history of the west, written by Miss Doddridge, and being 
a selection from a number found among her papers. She 
devoted many years of her life to inquiries of this cha- 
racter, and she exercised such good judgment in the selec- 
tion of incidents for record, and such thoroughness and 
care in her investigations as to entitle her narrations to 
entire credit as to authenticity. 

The Reminiscences of Judge Scott included in the 
appendix are republished as well deserving of preserva- 
tion in a more accessible form than in a newspaper. The 
Dirge with which the volume closes is interesting as one 
of the earliest specimens of western poetry now extant. 

Alfred Williams. 

Circleville y Ohio. 




The author of the following Notes, the Rev. Dr. Joseph Dodd- 
ridge, was the eldest son of John Doddridge of Maryland, of 
English descent, and of Mary daughter of Richard Wells, of the 
same state. He was born Oct. 14, 1769, in Friend’s Cove, a 
valley situated a few miles south of the town of Bedford, in Bed- 
ford county, Pennsylvania. His father having lost his estate in 
Bedford county, by neglecting to complete his title to a settle- 
ment right, in the spring of 1773 removed to the western part 
of Washington county, Pennsylvania, settling a short distance east 
of the line which divides that state from Virginia. 

Thus in the fourth year of his age, the subject of this memoir 
became a resident of the western country, then an immense wilder- 
ness, and the greater part of it in the possession of its native inhabit- 
ants, the Indians. The opportunities afforded by his early and 
continued association with the pioneer settlers, assisted by a habit 
of close observation, a tenacious memory, and the interest he took 
in gathering up incidents indicative of the times and illustrative of 
the character of those among whom he lived, preeminently quali- 
fied him for giving an impartial and correct description of the 
country at its first settlement, as well as a truthful account of the 
manners, customs and wars of those who with himself labored to 
transform into fruitfulness and beauty its interminable forests. 

From the picture which he has presented of the society in 
which he was reared we may justly conclude that his facilities for 
obtaining an education were very limited, and that to his own 
energy and perseverance he was mainly indebted for whatever 
intellectual culture he possessed. His views of life, its purposes 
and its duties, were just and liberal, drawn as they were from the 
Bible, general experience and observation. Regarding man as 
accountable to his creator for the due improvement and practical 


Memoir of the Rev . 

exercise of the talents committed to him, he endeavored by a life 
of active usefulness and uniform Christian effort to discharge his 
obligations to God and his fellow men. 

Leaving his mother before he was eight years of age, his father 
sent him to Maryland to school, where he remained some years. 
After his return, until he attained the age of eighteen years, he 
was mostly occupied in labors on the farm. His father, a strict 
disciplinarian in the training and government of his family, was 
a member of the Wesleyan Methodist society, then in its infancy, 
and differing but little in its doctrines and public ritual from the 
Church of England, to which he had been attached in his native 
state. He was a man of intelligence and remarkable for firmness 
and decision of character, qualities which, as they were always 
exerted in favor of morality and religion, rendered his influence 
in the neighborhood in which he resided decidedly healthful and 
salutary. Shortly after identifying himself with the settlers in 
Washington county, he erected on his own premises a house for 
public worship, designed also for educational purposes. This 
memento of his piety and the interest he took in the moral and 
intellectual improvement of those around him is yet standing, 
though in a dilapidated condition, still retaining its original cog- 
nomen, Doddridge’s Chapel. 

All the children of Mr. Doddridge’s first marriage, viz: Joseph, 
Philip, Ann, and Ruth, were at an early day brought under the 
influence of religious truth, and became members of the adopted 
church of their father, Joseph, the subject of this notice, accord- 
ing to the reminiscences furnished the writer by the Hon. Tho- 
mas Scott, late of Chillicothe, Ohio, labored several years as an 
itinerant in the Wesleyan Society. Mr. Scott, who was at the 
period referred to a traveling preacher of the Methodist church, 
says : My acquaintance with the Rev. J. Doddridge com- 

menced at the house of Rev. JohnJ. Jacobin Hampshire county, 
Va., in July, 1788. He was then in company with Rev. Fran- 
cis Asbury by whom he was held in high esteem. At a conference 
held at Uniontown, Pa., a short time previous, he had been re- 
ceived as a traveling preacher in the Wesleyan connection, was 
then on his way to the Holston circuit, and subsequently labored 
on the West River and Pittsburg circuits.” 

At the request of the Rev. Mr. Asbury he studied the German 
language with a view to preaching in German settlements. His 
knowledge of this language, which was thorough, he found very 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

useful to him in after life. In April, 1791, he was recalled from 
his field of labor to attend the death bed of his father, who had 
previously appointed him executor of his estate. The duties 
thus devolving upon him, together with the unprotected situation 
of his step-mother and the younger members of the family, which 
required his personal supervision, rendered it necessary for him 
to relinquish his duties as an itinerant preacher of the Methodist 
church, which, as his subsequent history will show, wer£ never 
again resumed. 

After arranging the business entrusted to him by his deceased 
father, finding some available means at his disposal, he resolved 
to qualify himself more thoroughly for the responsible calling 
which he had chosen, by devoting a portion of time to the ac- 
quisition of learning, more particularly to perfecting himself in 
a knowledge of languages ; his education thus far, having been 
prosecuted under disadvantageous circumstances. Accordingly 
he entered Jefferson Academy at Cannonsburg, Pa. His brother 
Philip, who had been from childhood associated with him in 
efforts to acquire knowledge, both laboring by day in field or 
forest, and at night poring over books at the family hearth stone, 
became a student in the academy at the same time. Philip, who 
subsequently became very eminent as a jurist and a statesman, 
died in 1832 at Washington, D.C., while he was a member of 

The following extract from a letter written by a Presbyterian 
clergyman, the Rev. Robert Patterson, late of Pittsburg, shows 
the estimation in which the brothers were held in the institution 
at Cannonsburg. 

Green Tree P. O., near Pittsburg, June, 1850. 

It affords me pleasure to comply with your request respecting my early 
acquaintance with the Rev. Dr. Doddridge for whose memory I cherish the 
most profound regard. From 1791 until 1794 I was a student in Jefferson 
academy. During a portion of this time Dr. Doddridge was there. We 
were room mates, boarding in the family of Rev. Mr. Mercer. David 
Johnson, the principal, and the students generally, as is usual in literary in- 
stitutions, soon determined the grade of his intellect, his moral character 
and his personal worth 5 and none, during my connection with the academy, 
stood higher than he in the estimation of those who knew him. Being 
his senior in years and science it was sometimes my privilege to give him 
explanations and help him through knotty passages in his lessons, in doing 
which, I soon discovered that it was not necessary to tell him the same 
thing twice, so retentive and comprehensive was his mind. His brother 


Memoir of the Rev. 

Philip was a student with him at the same time. Both of them were re- 
markable for original genius, intellectual strength, and close investigation 
of any subject that came before them. These qualities, combined with in- 
genuous, amiable dispositions and uprightness of deportment, endeared them 
to all who had the pleasure of knowing them. 

It was probably about this time that the subject of this memoir 
resolved to take orders in the Protestant Episcopal church. This 
determination was not, we presume, the result of any diminution 
of his regard for the society with which he had been previously 
connected ; for through life, he manifested a warm attachment to 
that people, treated their ministers with the greatest courtesy and 
hospitality, and was ever ready to testify to their zealous and 
self-denying labors in the cause of their Lord and Master. In 
the absence of any direct information as to the cause of his with- 
drawal we have grounds to conclude that as his mind became 
more matured, and his reading more extended, his confidence in 
the Episcopacy of that body was lessened. We are, furthermore, 
well assured that his judgment and preferences were decidedly in 
favor of a precomposed ritual of public worship. The labors 
subsequently performed by Dr. Doddridge as a member of the 
Episcopal church were so extensive and valuable, and his devo- 
tion to that church so zealous, that we consider it proper to give 
our readers all the information upon the subject now attainable. 

We therefore, in connection with this subject, give his views 
on these points as expressed in a letter written in 1822 to the 
Rev. John Waterman, a talented and highly respectable clergy- 
man of the Methodist church. The letter was written in reply 
to one from Mr. Waterman, inviting him to attend a camp-meet- 
ing shortly to be held in the neighborhood of one of his parishes, 
and hinting that if he did not do so, he should conclude that he 
was deterred from so doing by the fear of offending a clerical 
brother who was supposed to hold extreme views on the subject 
of the apostolic succession of the bishops. 

Dear Brother : Your letter inviting me to attend your camp-meeting 
is before me. I should be pleased to meet with you one day at least. But 
even this is uncertain. You live by the altar, Ido not. I must depend on 
my medical profession for a support. You are aware that the time of a 
physician is not at his own disposal. ***** I certainly would not do 
anything that would bring me into collision with a clerical brother, but not 
from a feeling of fear. I value consistency of character. ***** The 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

first Christian service I ever heard was that of the Church of England in 

When I was a minister in your society a prayer book was put into my 
hands with an order to use it every Sunday, Wednesday, Friday and Holy- 
day 5 also on baptismal and sacramental occasions, which I did. So I may 
say, that in the main the forms of worship I now use have been those of 
my whole life, and I think I shall end as I began. If you have left the 
venerable church of your ancestors, and built an Episcopacy on the priest- 
hood 5 if you have laid aside the prayer-book, and become presbyterial in 
your forms of worship, the faults, if any, are not mine. I am truly sorry that 
these events have happened. Glad should I be if we were still one people. 

As to the apostolic succession of the bishops, to which you refer, it is a 
subject to which I have not devoted much attention, and probably never 
shall. The subject for reasons which I have mentioned to you is not agreea- 
ble to me j yet I respect the claim and feel satisfied that my ordination has 
descended through so valid and respectable a channel. From this claim, 
however, I will not conclude against the efficacy of the ministry in other 
hands. It is enough for me to know and feel that other societies are Christ- 
ian too. Therefore, I will not curse whom God hath not cursed ; and I 
am willing to join in worship with them, so far as I can do so consistently 
with the duties which I owe to the church of which I am a member. * * * 

As in the preceding letter Dr. Doddridge had adverted to the 
subject of apostolic succession, we deem it not amiss to give the 
reader a more extended expression of his views on this long con- 
troverted subject. The quotation is from a letter to a friend in 
the interior of the state of Ohio, who, hearing the subject much 
discussed there, desired to have his opinion. 

Wellsburg, Va., Feby., 1823. 

You ask my opinion on the subject of apostolic succession. A learned 
discussion of the question would be too lengthy for a letter. I respect and 
venerate the claim, and feel gratified that my ordination has descended 
through this valid and venerated channel, but whether this succession is 
essential to the efficacy of the ordinances, is an awful question and one 
which my feelings incline me to answer in the negative. If the mercies of 
our God, flowing from the labors and sufferings of the Redeemer, have 
been transmitted to a succession of generations for a period of nearly two 
thousand years, through limited, sometimes dubious, and often impure chan- 
nels, what then is the value of a system so partial in its application ? If 
it be said that none but that small portion of mankind who have any 
shadow of claim to this succession are within the reach of mercy, how does 
the declaration comport with the extent of the mercy of Him, who, by the 
grace of God tasted death for every man. This is a point which we may 
safely leave to the Divine decision. It is a case not within our control, 
therefore we need not concern ourselves about it. 

The annunciation of this claim on the part of our clergy, is a declaration 


Memoir of the Rev. 

of war against all other denominations. It has arrayed them all against us, 
and the result may easily be foreseen. 

In March, 1792, being then a resident of Pennsylvania, Dr. 
Doddridge was admitted to the order of deacons, in the Epis- 
copal church, in Philadelphia, by the Right Rev. Bishop White. 
By the same prelate and in the same city, he was in March, 1800, 
ordained a priest, having in the interval between his ordinations 
removed to Virginia. His reasons for preferring at this time to 
continue under the jurisdiction of Bishop White are thus given 
in a letter to Bishop Moore of Virginia, in 1819. 

When I received deacon’s orders I lived in Pennsylvania, but previous to 
being admitted to the priesthood, I removed to Virginia. I stated the cir- 
cumstance to Bishop White, at the time, urging that the residence of the 
bishop of Virginia was so far from my own that I could not hold the re- 
quisite correspondence with him without great inconvenience, and also that 
from what I had learned concerning our church in that state, I did not 
think that my uniting with its convention would be in any way satisfactory 
to myself, or beneficial to others 5 the church in Virginia, having at that 
period little more than a nominal existence. Therefore I preferred re- 
maining in fact, though not canonically, under his jurisdiction. The bishop 
was satisfied with my reasons and accordingly all my communications have 
been made to him. 

To the doctrines and formularies of the Protestant Episcopal 
church. Dr. Doddridge was devotedly attached, regarding them 
as promotive of piety and edification. And, although for nearly 
twenty-five years he occupied the cheerless position of an ad- 
vanced guard in her ministry, yet he faltered not in his labors, 
but untiringly exerted himself to promote the growth and pros- 
perity of the church, and to awaken an interest in the transmontane 
dioceses by appeals to their bishops in behalf of the scattered 
members of the fold, who, in the vast regions of the west were 
as sheep without a shepherd, destitute of that nourishment and 
fostering care essential to their spiritual growth and happiness. 
The convention which organized the diocese of Ohio was held 
at Columbus in 1818. For twenty years prior to that date Dr. 
Doddridge had been preaching frequently at various places in 
Eastern Ohio, and there formed a number of congregations which 
afterwards became members of the diocese of Ohio. Of his 
labors as a minister we now propose to give some details which 
will show how truly apostolic were the services which he ren- 
dered to the church. 

Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 


Early Churches in North Western Virginia and Ohio. 

We shall now give a brief notice of the congregations formed 
by Dr. Doddridge during the early years of his ministry in the 
Episcopal church, and our authority for the same. We do not 
find among his papers any indicating that he entered into written 
agreements with his parishioners to perform clerical duties previous 
to the year 1800. He attended to such duties continuously from 
the year 1792, but probably, prior to 1800, all his receipts were 
from voluntary contributions, which we may conclude did not 
amount to much, from the fact that a few years after his entrance 
into the ministry he was under the necessity of combining with 
his clerical profession that of medicine in order to obtain a support. 

His lovely and amiable wife, when speaking of this early period 
of her married life, would playfully say, that before her husband 
commenced the practice of medicine, he was too poor to buy him- 
self a second suit of clothes, and when Saturday afternoon inter- 
vened, he was obliged to remain incognito, while she adjusted his 
habiliments for his appearance in the pulpit on Sunday. The 
labor of the laundress as well as the skill of the seamstress were 
frequently called into requisition on these occasions, knee breeches 
and long stockings being then in vogue. 

Dr. Doddridge’s subscription papers for the year 1800, and for 
some years thereafter, show that in his country parishes, the re- 
muneration promised him for clerical services was to be paid in 
cash, or wheat delivered in some merchant mill, or such other 
produce as might be agreed upon by the parties. 

In Virginia he seems to have found many who desired to walk 
in the u old paths,” by worshiping God in the way of their 
fathers. As a matter of interest to their descendants, we shall give 
the names of the supporters of the church in several of these 
parishes built up in the wilderness, as they stand in the subscrip- 
tion book of their pastor for the year 1800. From these lists 
may be gleaned some knowledge of the number of their descend- 
ants who still adhere to the faith of their forefathers. They will 
also show that the number of those in the western regions who 
felt a decided preference for the Episcopal church at that early 
day was by no means small. 

In the notes furnished the writer by Judge Scott he says: 
“In the year 1793, Rev. J. Doddridge had three parishes in 


Memoir of the Rev . 

Virginia, viz: West Liberty in Ohio county, St. John’s and 
St. Paul’s in Brooke county.” 

St. John’s Church. 

St. John’s parish, which is still in existence, was doubtless the 
first one organized by Dr. Doddridge in North Western Virginia. 
As early as 1793 it was provided with a small log church, since 
replaced by a handsome brick edifice. This parish continued 
under the charge of its first pastor for nearly thirty years, when 
declining health compelled him to sever a relation around which 
clustered many endearing and fondly cherished associations of his 
youthful and maturer years. 

The names of subscribers in this parish in the year 1800, are 
as follows : 

George Atkinson, 
Absalom Wells, 
Archibald Ellson, 
John Davis, 

Charles M’Key, 
Charles Elliot, 
William Atkinson, 
John Strong, 

George Swearengen, 
William Davis, 
Richard Wells, 

Asel Owings, 
Andrew Maneally, 
Thomas Nicholson, 
John Myers, 

John Foster, 

Abel Johnson, 
William Baxter, 
James White, 
George Wells, 
George Mahon, 
Simon Elliot jun., 
Simon Elliot, 

Daniel Swearengen, 
Anthony Wilcoxen, 
Andrew Morehead, 
Alex. Morrow, 
George Elliot, 
William Lowther, 
William Adams, 

James Britt, 

John Crawford, 
John Ellson, 

Peter Hay, 

George Richardson, 
Andrew Lackey, 
Hugh Lingen, 

John Hendricks, 
Richard T. Ellson, 
Israel Swearengen, 
Richard Ellson, 
Thomas Crawford, 
Jane Morrow. 

Church at West Liberty. 

In the summer of 1792, Dr. Doddridge collected a congrega- 
tion at West Liberty, the seat of justice for Ohio county, Va. 
Hon. T. Scott says in his reminiscences of Dr. Doddridge that 
in this place Episcopal services were held in the Court House. 
This parish was much weakened by the removal of many of its 
members to Wheeling when the county seat was removed to that 
place. Dr. Doddridge, however, still held services in West 
Liberty every third Sunday in the year 1800. The supporters 
of the church there in that year were : 

Moses Chapline, Nathan Harding, Isaac Taylor, 

Benjamin Biggs, Charles Tibergein, Thomas Beck, 

Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 


Andrew Fout, Ebzy Swearengen, 

Silas Hedges, William Griffith, 

John Wilson, Christian Foster, 

Walter Skinner, Lyman Fouts, 

Abraham Roland, Ticy Cooper, 

Thomas Dickerson, James Wilson, 

John Cully, Jacob Zoll, 

Nicholas Rogers, John Abrams, 

Samuel Beck, John Kirk, 

Thomas Wyman, 
Stephen G. Francis, 
William Dement, 
Zaccheus Biggs, 

Benijah Dement, 
William Cully, 

George G. Dement, 
John Willius, sen., 
William Willius. 

Amount subscribed $98. 

West Liberty, like many other places in the western country 
in the early part of the present century, presented a fine opening 
for Episcopal missionary labor, in the absence of which the field 
has been successfully cultivated by others, and at the present 
period there is probably not an Episcopalian in the place. It 
may not be amiss in this connection to call attention to the fact 
that the ritual of the Episcopal church was exceedingly popular 
among the rude pioneers of the west. The book of Common 
Prayer has always been found suited to all classes and conditions 
of mankind. 

We have no means of posititively ascertaining when this pri- 
mitive structure was erected. We presume, however, that it 
was prior to 1793, as Judge Scott in his reminiscences speaks of 
it as one of the churches of which Dr. Doddridge had charge in 
that year. It was located about five miles east of Charleston and 
the Ohio river. The building was of logs, and surrounded by 
noble forest trees, amid which in subsequent years might be seen 
the “ narrow houses ” of many of those who had worshiped 
within its walls. The list of names in this parish for the year 
1800 is small, containing only the following : 

Aaron Robinson, William Hendling, James Robinson, 

Israel Robinson, John Harris, Peter Mooney. 

Peter Ross, Benedict Wells, 

At a later period St. Paul’s was principally sustained by the 
late George Hammond, Esq., and some of his relatives and 
friends, among whom we find the names of Gist, Hood, Craw- 
ford, Wells and others. In the summer of 1818, the writer was 
one of a large number of sympathizers who met in this humble 

St. Paul’s Church in Brooke County, Va. 


Memoir of the Rev . 

edifice to hear from the lips of its rector, words of solemn im- 
port on the subject of death and eternity. The occasion which 
called us together was the sudden death, by accident, of an 
interesting youth, William eldest son of the late Charles Ham- 
mond, the distinguished editor of the Cincinnati Gazette. The 
sermon was preached in accordance with the request contained 
in the following letter from Mr. Hammond to Dr. Doddridge : 

Belmont, July, 1818. 

Rev. and Dear Sir: When I saw you I mentioned that I wished you 
to preach a funeral sermon for our son William, from Matthew, 19 : 13- 
14. I had then shaped in my own mind, the various views in which I 
thought the subject might be profitably considered. I felt a repugnance to 
mention this, lest you should think I wanted to dictate a sermon for you. 
However, after mature deliberation, I have concluded, that to present you 
the following view, can give no just cause of offense to you. If you think 
proper to adopt it, I shall be much gratified, if you do not, there is, I trust, 
to me a common saying, u no harm done.” 

1. This portion of scripture may justly be regarded as important, both as 
example and precept ; the transaction being very minutely detailed by three 
of the Evangelists, viz : Matthew, Mark, and Luke. 

2. It illustrates the extent and character of the atonement — the child 
being incapable of doing anything as a means of salvation $ and, in the lan- 
guage of Dr. Clarke, it “ utterly ruins the whole inhuman diabolic system 
of what is termed 4 nonelect infant damnation ’ — a doctrine which sprang 
from Moloch, and can only be defended by a heart in which he dwells.” 

3. It may be considered as asserting literally that a great part of the 
heavenly kingdom are infants. 

4. It illustrates the character of the true Christian. 

Like a child, he is open and generous in his feelings. 

Like a child, he knows no distinctions among men. 

Like a child, his wish is only to do good to his fellow-man. 

Like a child, he feels universal good will for the whole world. 

Like a child, he is devoid of guile. 

Like a child, his heart is not set upon worldly wealth. 

Like a child, he is not bent upon worldly ambition. 

In short, like that of a child, his soul is unstained with folly or crime. 

Our Lord was particular in defining the true character and final destina- 
tion of infants, for wise and benevolent purposes j this condition of the child 
being a means of inducing the parents and other relatives to seek salvation, 
as the only course by which they can again rejoin the beloved object of 
which they have been bereaved j affording at the same time, a source of 
unspeakable comfort and consolation to the mourners, in the well grounded 
confidence that the child is in eternal rest. And here an occasion fairly 
offers to confound the predestinarian, by contrasting the dark horror which 
assails his mind upon the death of an infant, with the heavenly hope and 
comfort enjoyed by the true Christian. 

Dr . Joseph Doddridge . 15 

In its application, the subject admits of a very strong appeal to the adult 
and more aged. * * 

It is my wish that the sermon should be delivered in the old church 
This will be more necessary and will render the service the more solemn, 
if you join me in the idea of a direct, personal appeal from yourself to those 
who, twenty-five years ago, met to hear the gospel from you. * * * 

I should not have intruded these hints upon you, had you not said that it 
was your intention to devote some time to preparing a sermon for the 
occasion, and, as it will be the last expense I shall incur for our dear boy, I 
contemplate having it printed. Yours sincerely, 

C. Hammond. 

George Hammond, mentioned above as one of the supporters 
of St. Paul’ s church, was the father of Charles Hammond, the edi- 
tor and jurist. Charles Hammond represented St. James’s church, 
Jefferson county, as a lay delegate in the convention which organ- 
ized the diocese of Ohio, at Columbus, in 1 8 1 8. With the 
talents, learning and reputation of Mr. Hammond as a writer 
and lawyer the public are familiar ; but it may not be so gene- 
rally known that he was a diligent student of the Bible, as well as 
a firm believer in its truths. 

Church in Steubenville, Ohio. 

To David Moody, one of the early settlers of Steubenville, the 
writer is indebted for the following items of information respecting 
the introduction of the Episcopal church in that place. He says: 
“ The Rev. Dr. Doddridge was the first Christian minister who 
preached in our little village. As early as 1 796 he held monthly 
services in it, his congregation meeting in a frame building which 
stood on the south side of Market and Water streets. In 1 798 
the first court house for the county was built, in which an upper 
room was reserved for religious purposes, free to all denomina- 
tions. In this room the Episcopalians met for worship. With 
sbme intervals this early missionary of the church continued to 
officiate in Steubenville until Dr. Moore took charge of the 
parish in 1820.” 

Trinity Church at Charlestown, now Wellsburg. 

At Charlestown, now Wellsburg, Brooke co., Va., the resi- 
dence of Rev. J. Doddridge, Episcopal services in 1800 were 
held in Brooke Academy. This town was at an early period of 


Memoir of the Rev. 

its settlement a stopping place for immigrants from beyond the 
Alleghanies, some of whom became permanent citizens. From 
the number of names attached to the subscription paper of Dr. 
Doddridge for the year 1800 it is inferred that the congregation 
was then large. There is now a neat church edifice in the place, 
and notwithstanding numerous removals, a few families remain 
who are warmly attached to the church. The subscribers for 
1800 were as follows: 

Philip Doddridge, 
Patience Vilettle, 
Elizabeth Taylor, 

Silas Bent, 

John Connel, 

Thomas Hinds, 

Wm. McConnell, 
John Bly, 

A. Green, 

John T. Windsor, 
Alex. Caldwell, 
Robt. T. Moore, 
James H. White, 
Robt. H. Johnson, 
Charles Prather, 
Nicholas Murray, 
Samuel Talman, 

Oliver Brown, 
Sebastian Derr, 
Josias Reeves, 
James Darrow, 
William Thorp, 
Henry Prather, 
James Clark, 
John Fling, 
Thomas Oram. 

In December, 1800, Dr. Doddridge entered into an agreement 
with a number of individuals living west of the Ohio, to perform 
the duties of an Episcopal clergyman every third Saturday at the 
house of the widow McGuire. The subscription book, which 
is dated December 1, 1800, contains the following names : 

George Mahan, 
William Whitcraft, 
Eli Kelly, 

George Halliwell, 
William McColnall, 
John McConnell, 

Benj. Doyle, 

Joseph Williams, 
John Long, 

Mary McGuire, 
John McKnight, 
Frederick Allbright, 

William McConnell, 
John Scott, 

George Ritchey, 
Moses Hanlon. 

The little congregation was, we conclude, the germ of the pre- 
sent parish of St. James on Cross creek, Jefferson co., Ohio, 
as among the above names we find four of those attached to the 
petition signed by that parish, on the 1st of Dec., 1816, to be 
sent to the general convention in 1817, asking leave of that 
body to form a diocese in the western country. These names 
are George Mahan, Wm. McConnell, John McConnell and 
Benj. Doyle. 

We are not acquainted with the gradations .by which the con- 
gregation at the widow McGuire’s expanded into the parish of 
St. James, nor how long services were held at her house ; but 
from the pastor’s papers we find that from 1814 until his resig- 
nation in 1823, he remained rector of the parish of St. James' 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

the Rev. Intrepid Morse then assuming charge of it in connec- 
tion with that of St. Paul's at Steubenville. That the services of 
Dr. Doddridge were efficient at St. James s church is shown by 
the fact that when the diocese of Ohio was organized in 1818 he 
reported fifty-two communicants, and over one hundred baptisms 
within two years. 

At Wheeling, Grave Creek, and some other points, were many 
families from Maryland and Eastern Virginia, who having been 
brought up in the Church of England, now in their wilderness 
homes longed to unite in prayer and^praise to God in the language 
of her incomparable liturgy. These people Dr. Doddridge 
visited as often as his other engagements would permit, not un- 
frequently holding service in the open air, the stately forest trees 
being their only surroundings and shelter from sun and shower. 

u Ah, why 

Should we, in the world’s riper years, neglect 
God’s ancient sanctuaries, and adore 
Only among the crowd, and under roofs 
That our frail hands have raised ? ” 

From several records before us, it appears that the few Episco- 
pal clergymen in the west, at an early period continued for many 
years to keep up a church organization, and intimate relations 
among their people and with each other. These meetings were 
probably appointed for prayer, consultation and the mutual edi- 
fication of ministers and people, and seem to have been held 
semi-annually. The secretary designates them as conventions. 
We give below one of these memoranda verbatim. It is worthy 
of note for its antiquity and also as indicating that if the church 
in the western country was languishing it was not yet dead. 


At a convention held in St. Thomas’ Church in Washington county, 
Pa. $ present Rev. Robt. Ayres, Rev. Joseph Doddridge, Rev. Francis 
Reno. - After divine service Rev. Robt. Ayres was appointed chairman, 
and Stephen G. Francis, secretary. 

Resolved , That applications for supplies be made to the convention in 
writing with the names annexed of those persons who wish the supply, and 
that they shall be responsible to the minister sent for not less than four dollars. 

Resolved , That Rev. Francis Reno have leave of absence. 

Resolved , That the next convention be held at the church near General 
Nevill’s old place, on Chartier’s creek, Pa., to commence the Saturday be- 
fore next Whitsunday and that Rev. Robt. Ayres preach the opening sermon. 

Done in convention, Sept. 25, 1803. 

Stephen G. Francis, Secretary. 


Memoir of the Rev. 

A similar memorandum states that at a meeting of the Protest- 
ant Episcopal clergy held in St. Thomas’s Church in Washington 
county in 1810, it was resolved, That Rev. Dr. Doddridge do 
open a correspondence with the Rt. Rev. Bishop White of 
Philadelphia, for the purpose of obtaining through him permission 
from the general convention to form a diocese in the western 
country. From another source we learn that the object of the 
memorialists at this time was to unite the western counties of 
Pennsylvania, Western Virginia and 'the state of Ohio in one 

Dr. Doddridge was an indefatigable laborer and while buoyed 
up by the hope that his efforts for promoting the interests of the 
Episcopal church in the western country would be seconded by 
the zeal and ministrations of missionary brethren from beyond 
the Alleghanies, he exerted himself to visit and cheer desponding 
members of the same faith at widely distant points. But alas ! 
they were doomed to bitter disappointment. Their appeals were 
vain. No missionaries came, and those who ardently desired for 
themselves and families the formula of the church to which they 
had been attached in earlier days and more favored localities, were 
compelled to join other communions,, or live and die without the 
ordinances of the gospel. 

After his removal to Virginia in 1800, Dr. Doddridge ex- 
tended his missionary operations into the north western terri- 
tory. His reasons for so doing are thus given in a letter to the 
bishop of Virginia. 

With a view to the attainment of an Episcopacy in this country as early as 
possible, my clerical labors have of late years been mostly in the state of Ohio, 
conceiving that that object would be more speedily accomplished by forming 
congregations in a state in which there was no bishop, than by doing the 
same thing in the western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia in each of 
which states there is a diocesan. 

St. Thomas’s church in St. Clairsville, Belmont county, Ohio, 
was brought into existence in 1813 by the removal of some of 
Dr. Doddridge’s former parishioners to that place, to whom he 
made occasional visits. Some years later, however, he held 
monthly services there, and also at Morristown, ten miles distant, 
where he had organized a congregation. The parish of St. 
Thomas was represented in the first annual convention of the 
diocese of Ohio by John Carter as a lay delegate. In the same 
convention St. Peter’s church at Morristown was represented by 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

Walter Thrall as a lay delegate. About the same period Dr. 
Doddridge began preaching at Zanesville, Ohio, and soon organ- 
ized a parish there of which he was rector in 1818. This par- 
ish was represented in the first convention by John Matthews as 
lay delegate. Ten churches were represented in the first annual 
convention of the diocese of Ohio, of whicji four had been organ- 
ized by the missionary labors of Dr. Doddridge, and this while 
he had charge of several parishes in Virginia, and was extensively 
engaged in the practice of medicine. 

In many of the places which he visited in his various missionary 
excursions he left the nucleus of congregations which, for the want 
of subsequent spiritual nurture, never expanded into active life. 
If a proper supply of missionaries could have been had, there 
might now be ten Episcopal churches in Ohio, where there is one. 
As a minister of the cross, Dr. Doddridge was untiring in his 
exertions, his services on such occasions generally averaging two 
per day and often more. 

Dr. Doddridge’s correspondence with his clerical brethren was 
extensive, and we regret that our limits will admit of but a small 
portion of it. We select from numerous others a letter to Bishop 
White, as possessing special historical interest, inasmuch as it gives 
a synopsis of the religious aspect of the country, his reasons for 
desiring an Episcopal organization, at an early period of its 
settlement, and his efforts to effect that object. From it the reader 
will learn the fate of the memorial sent to the general convention 
in 1810; also a brief reference to the preliminary convention 
held in Worthington, Ohio, in 1816. Before giving the letter 
of Dr. Doddridge, we will give an extract from the communica- 
tion of Bishop White to which it is an answer. 

Philadelphia, Sept. 23, 1818. 

Rev. and Dear Sir : I received your letter recommending y e imme- 
mediate consecration of Rev. Mr. Chase, and delivered it to our standing 
committee at their last sitting. It has been my line of conduct not to inte- 
rest myself in y e preparatory measures for an occasion of this sort, and I knew 
that doubts were pressing on y e consciences of that body, which have issued 
in their declining to sign y e requisite testimonial. 

The bishop then gives sundry reasons for not responding to calls 
from the west for missionaries, which it is not necessary to insert, 
adding : 

I am not like y e centurion, who could say to this man go and he went, 
and to another come and he came. There are many parts of y e Atlantic states 



Memoir of the Rev . 

from which calls come to ye bishops ; and ye same complaints as from y e 
western, of our not supplying them with ministers. In one point of view 
such complaints are agreeable ; as they show, that if “ some things remaining 
are ready to perish,” it appears they are not yet dead, although requiring to be 
“strengthened,” as much as ye providence of God may enable. It ought 
however to be considered, that we cannot outrun this Holy agency. 

While I say these things in justice to myself, I do not withhold from you, 
dear brother, y e credit due to you for interesting yourself in y e good work. 

And I remain, 

Your Aff. Brother, 

Wm. White. 

Answer to the Foregoing Letter. 

Wellsburg, Dec. 14, 1818. 

Rt. Rev. and dear Brother: Yours by the Rev. Mr. Johnson came 
duly to hand. Its contents gave me no small degree of grief 5 but the 
arrival of Rev. Mr. Chase, which took place soon after its receipt, dissipated 
the uneasiness occasioned by the prospect of a failure in our endeavor to ob- 
tain an Episcopacy in this country — a majority of the standing committees 
having signed the requisite testimonials. Thus an event which ought to 
have taken place many years ago, is likely to take place at last. 

The contents of your letter seem to require of me a frank and candid 
statement of my views, in doing the little I have done, for the benefit of 
the Episcopal church in this country. 

Considering the Christian religion as the basis of all that is good and 
great among men, I ardently desired its promotion in that church whose 
doctrines appeared to me truly evangelical and whose forms of worship unite 
piety, morality, and edification in the most effectual manner and on the 
broadest basis. Such was, and still is, my view of the doctrines and formu- 
laries of the Protestant Episcopal church. 

I trust that I possess all the Christian charity which is due from me to the 
religious societies of this country, and I am free to say that much credit is 
due to all of them for the zeal and steadiness with which they have pro- 
secuted their pious labors. 

To the Presbyterians alone, we are indebted for almost the whole of our 
literature. They began their labors at an early period of the settlement of 
the country, and have extended their ecclesiastical and educational establish- 
ments so as to keep pace with the extension of our population 5 with a 
Godly care which does them honor. 

Were it not for the herculean labors of the Methodist society, many of 
our remote settlements would have been at this day almost in a state of 
barbarism. There is scarcely a single settlement in the whole extent of the 
western country which has not been blessed with the ministry of this people. 
To this ministry the public morality and piety are immensely indebted. 

With the Anabaptists I am but little acquainted, but have been in- 
formed that their establishments are respectable. The settlements and 
meeting-houses of the Friends in the state of Ohio, are numerous and in a 
flourishing condition. 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

The Roman Catholic clergy, without making any ostentatious parade, are 
traversing every part of the country, carrying the ministry to almost every 
family of their people. 

All these communities, as to every thing belonging to apostolic zeal for 
the salvation of men, have certainly gone far beyond ourselves. They have 
not waited for a request from their people for spiritual help ; but have gone 
into the “ hedges and highways,” or to use a more appropriate phraseology 
into the tc bush and woods ” to seek for them ; and their labors have been 
for the most part marked with a degree of disinterestedness which entitles 
their clergy to highest credit. * * * * 

It is to be regretted that the Calvinists in this country are cleft into many 
divisions and that they are as Jews and Samaritans towards each other. 

I formerly indulged the hope that the Methodist society would, sooner or 
later, in obedience to the order of their spiritual father, adopt the use of the 
service book which he gave them, and that with the increase of their number 
and wealth, they would found literary institutions, so as to associate science 
with their zeal in the public ministry of the gospel. This hope may yet be 

One serious objection, in my opinion, applies to all the religious denomi- 
nations in this country — the want of established forms of public worship. 
My zeal for their introduction will not be considered a zeal without know- 
ledge, when it is remembered that, until the Reformation, the Christian 
world knew no other, and that even the present exceptions to the practice in 
this respect, are on a very limited scale. The public reading of the scriptures 
and the participation of the people in the public offices of devotion, are cer- 
tainly matters of the highest importance to the edification, faith and piety 
of all. 

To some extent the aspect of the religious profession in the western 
country, as to its intrinsic character, is by no means such as I think it 
ought to be. In many instances, it is not that of the steady exercise of 
faith, hope and charity, exemplified by a constant succession of good deeds ; 
but that of a certain routine of supernatural feelings in which science, faith, 
and moral virtue, have little to do. Private instruction and it is to be 
feared private devotion also, have been partially laid aside for public pro- 
fession and the exhibition of enthusiastic raptures, which certainly have, 
for their ultimate object, the making of proselytes. In some parts, a pro- 
fession of supernatural feelings of a particular stamp and configuration in 
conformity to the respective models furnished by different societies, con- 
stitute the larger amount of the claims of the applicant to church mem- 
bership and the ministry. 

What a misfortune that a test purporting to be of so much importance, 
and yet so equivocal and delusive, so favorable to hypocrisy, should have 
been so extensively adopted by societies in which there is certainly much of 
real piety. 

As a patriot, as well as an Episcopalian, I wished for that system of 
Christian doctrine, those forms of worship, and that form of ecclesiastical 
government, which bear the impress of the primitive ages, and which, of 
course, are best for this world as well as for the next. For the spiritual benefit 


Memoir of the Rev. 

of the many thousands of our Israel here I was most anxious for the organi- 
zation of the Episcopal church in this country at an early period of its settle- 

All my endeavors to obtain these objects were unsuccessful. From year 
to year, I have witnessed the plunder of our people to increase the number 
and build the churches of societies, in my view, less valuable than their 

How often have these people said to me in the bitterness of their hearts, 
u must we live and die without baptism for our children, and without the 
sacrament for ourselves ?” 

The great states of Kentucky and Tennessee have been, for the most part, 
settled by the descendants of members of the Church of England. Not 
one in a thousand of these people have, to this day, ever heard the voice of 
a clergyman of their own church, but they have heard those of every other 
denomination. Hence it results, that by far the greater number of these 
people are lost to us forever. 

The course I have pursued for the attainment of an Episcopacy in this 
country is partially known to you. The treatment of which I spoke to 
the Rev. Mr. Johnson — alluded to in your letter, shall be frankly stated, 
and I trust for the last time. As I have never asked for promotion in the 
church nor received any emolument from it, these subjects of complaint 
are of little importance to myself. In proportion as they bear the aspect of 
negligence on the part of the fathers of the church to the spiritual interests 
of our people in these immense regions, they have been subjects of deep 
regret to me, and but little so on any other account. 

When, in 1810, the few Episcopal clergymen in this country made ap- 
plication through you, to the general convention, to be associated together 
in a separate diocese, we confidently expected that, as our situation so evi- 
dently required the arrangement, it would be made. We never received 
the slightest information respecting the fate of our petition until the arrival 
of a clergyman at my house from Philadelphia, whose name I do not now 
recollect — in 1812, about eighteen months after the session of the general 
convention in which the subject had been agitated. The issue of the busi- 
ness blasted our hopes. From that time our intercourse with each other 
became less frequent than it ever had been before ; our ecclesiastical affairs 
fell into a state of languor, and one of our clergymen, wearied with disap- 
pointment, and seeing no prospect of any event favorable to the prosperity 
of the church, relinquished the ministry. 

I kept my station, cheerless as it was, without hope of doing anything 
beyond keeping together a few of my parishioners during my own life time, 
after which, as I supposed, they and their descendants must attach them- 
selves to such societies as they might think best 

Such was the gloomy and unpleasant prospect before me. How often, 
during these years of hopeless despondency and discouragement, have I 
said to myself, Is there not a single clergyman of my profession, of a zeal- 
ous and faithful spirit, who would accept the holy and honorable office of 
a chorea episcopus for my country, and find his reward in the exalted 
pleasures of an approving conscience in gathering in the lost sheep of our 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

Israel, and planting churches in this new world ? Is there not one of 
our bishops, possessed of zeal and hardihood enough to induce him to cross 
the Alleghany mountains, and engage in this laudable work ? Year after 
year answered these questions in the negative. 

You may judge how strange it appeared to me to see the annual state- 
ments of the contributions of my Atlantic brethren to Bible societies and 
other institutions for propagating the gospel in foreign countries, while no 
concern was expressed or measures adopted for the spiritual relief of their 
own people, in their own country, who were perishing for lack of know- 

Meantime other ecclesiastical societies here were blessed with the pre- 
sence and ministrations of their Episcopal fathers, while, to this day, this 
country has never been favored with the presence of a bishop of our 
church. 1 

We claim, and as I hope justly, the apostolic succession, but where, I 
ask, is our apostolic zeal for the salvation of mankind ? While the Roman 
Catholic missionaries for the society de propaganda, as well as those of other 
denominations, are traversing the most inhospitable climes, encountering 
every difficulty, privation, and danger for the laudable purpose of making 
converts to the Christian faith, will the spiritual fathers of our church 
never leave the temples erected by the piety of their fore-fathers, to visit 
and administer to the spiritual wants of their destitute people even in their 
own country ? 

I beseech you, my friend and brother, not to consider any thing in this 
letter as dictated by a spirit of asperity, or the chagrin of disappointment. 
The statements I make proceed from the anguish of my heart, and truth 
compels me to say, that fortunately for the Christian world, but to the 
disgrace of our community, such an instance of the utter neglect of the 
spiritual interests of so many people, so near at hand, and for so long a 
continuance, is without a parallel in the whole history of the Christian 

When, about three years ago, I heard through indirect channels, some 
favorable reports concerning the prospects and the extension of the Episco- 
pal church in the eastern states, I determined to make one more effort, 
for the purpose of ascertaining the practicability of planting churches to the 
westward. Accordingly, in the autumn of 1815, I made a missionary tour 
in the interior of the state of Ohio, going as far as Chillicothe, where I 
held divine service twice. I also officiated both going and returning in 
nearly all the intermediate towns between that place and my place of resi- 
dence. The prospect which this service presented was not discouraging. 
In almost every place, I found skeletons of Episcopal congregations. 

The year following, in Oct., 1816, according to an agreement made 
with the Rev. James Kilbourn, at my house a few weeks previous, 1 went 
to Worthington, Ohio. During the tour I officiated eighteen times. The 
proceedings of our meeting at that place are known to you. The commu- 

1 In the year 1824, Bishop White made an attempt to visit the western country, but 
an accident on the road prevented his coming farther than Pittsburg. 


Memoir of the Rev. 

nications which I made to you and Bishop Hobart at that time concerning 
them, were never answered. 

Last week I made a tour of six days in the southern parts of Belmont and 
Monroe counties, Ohio, during which I officiated seven times and formed 
one congregation — in the latter county — in which I baptized thirty child- 
ren, and had it not been that a mistake of one day occurred in the appoint- 
ment, I was informed that the baptisms would have exceeded one hundred. 
Many of these people had been my parishioners previous to removing to 
their present localities, and, together with their neighbors, had delayed the 
baptism of their children, in the hope of receiving that rite from a clergy- 
man of their own church. This occurrence affected me deeply. * * * * 

Your brother in Christ, 

Jos. Doddridge. 

Among the papers of Dr. Doddridge, we find the copy of a 
letter of six pages, addressed to the Rt. Rev. Bishop Hobart, 
written in Wellsburg in Dec., 1 8 1 6, soon after the meeting at 
Worthington, above alluded to as remaining unanswered. In 
this letter he gives the bishop much information respecting the 
state of religion in the western country, the openings presented 
for Episcopalian missionaries and the anxiety of the people for 
their services, etc., etc. He also speaks of the meeting at Worth- 
ington, giving their proceedings in detail, and in conclusion, 
“ begs his Rt. Rev. brother speedily and freely to communicate 
to him his remarks on the course they had taken,” adding, “ If 
in any thing we have done amiss, or omitted to do any thing we 
ought to have done, pray let us know it.” 

The important meeting at Worthington, Ohio, referred to in 
the preceding letter has heretofore been wholly ignored in the 
written history of the Protestant Episcopal church in Ohio. We 
propose, therefore, from Dr. Doddridge’s letters and other sources 
to establish the fact of its existence, and to show that in it were 
initiated the measures which finally resulted in the formation of 
the diocese of Ohio, and the elevation to the episcopate of that 
eminent man Philander Chase, to whose active zeal and devotion 
to the cause of Christ, and Christian education, the diocese was 
indebted in a great measure for its early prosperity, and the es- 
tablishment of one of its noblest institutions, Kenyon college. 

The time and place for holding the convention were agreed 
upon between Dr. Doddridge and Rev. James Kilbourn of 
Worthington, at the house of the former in Wellsburg, Va., in 
the early part of September, 1 8 1 6. Mr. Kilbourn insisted that his 

Dr. Joseph Doddridge , 


place of residence should be named as that for holding the meeting. 
To this proposition Dr. Doddridge very reluctantly assented, urging 
its great distance from the three clergymen in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, who he thought would not undertake such a long journey on 
horseback, then the usual mode of traveling over clay pikes, and 
corduroy bridges. As he predicted, they did not attend, but 
sent by letter their acquiescence in any measures which might be 
determined upon by the meeting, two of them naming their 
choice for bishop. 

On his way to Worthington, Dr. Doddridge wrote to one of 
his daughters as follows : 

Zanesville, Oct. 18, 1816. 

So far, all is well. I havea ttended to all my appointments and have had 
large congregations. You know the size of the Court House here. It has 
been full both evenings since I came. Yesterday the congregation met, 
chose their vestry and wardens, who immediately made me the pastor of 
their infant church. 

I lodge with Dr. Horace Reed, who sets out with me this morning as a 
delegate from this parish to the convention at Worthington. ***** 

We are indebted to Gen. G. H. Griswold of Worthingtor, 
Ohio, for the following memoranda relative to this convention. 

Worthington, Ohio, June 17, 1861. 

Relative to the convention or meeting of Episcopalians in Ohio, in 1816, 
for the purpose of taking measures to organize a diocese, electing a bishop, 
etc., I can answer : That such a meeting was held at this place on the 
21st and 22d days of October of that year, which was attended by Rev. 
Dr. Joseph Doddridge of Virginia and Rev. James Kilbourn, at that time 
I believe the only Episcopal clergymen in the west : also by a number of 
lay delegates of whom I can name but the following, Ezra Griswold and 
David Prince, who represented the parish at this place, a Mr. Cunningham 1 
from near Steubenville, and a Mr. Palmer. The two latter made their 
quarters at our house. 

This convention, originating with the clergymen before named, was, as 
I understand, the first ever held in Ohio, and from which has arisen what- 
ever of success and importance our church has attained. As 1 have no 
copy of the proceedings of that convention, I cannot inform you what was 
therein done beyond the adoption of a circular, an appeal to the church 
east for help, and some order for further action, or subsequent conventions. 

Dr. Doddridge held services and preached three times at this place, fore- 
noon, afternoon and evening on Sunday, 20th Oct., and went to Columbus 

1 Mr Cunningham was a delegate from the parish of St, James in Jefferson co., 
Ohio, but may have represented the parish at Steubenville also. Ed. 



Memoir of the Rev. 

and preached in the evening of Tuesday 22d ; myself and a Mr. Goodrich 
were in attendance, at Columbus, from this place. 

Dr. Doddridge was, as I well recollect, very popular with the people, 
and very generally mentioned as probably the future bishop. 

The foregoing facts I get mostly from the records of this parish, some 
old books of my father, and my own private diary kept at the time. My 
residence has been continuous at this place since 1803. 

Miss N. Doddridge. Yours truly, 

G. H. Griswold. 

Extracts from St. John’s Parish Record, Worthington, Ohio. 

Sept. 10, 1816. Ezra Griswold and David Prince were appointed dele- 
gates to the convention to assemble Oct. 21, 1816, 
and a committee of three were appointed to prepare 
the Academy Building for the convention and for the 

meeting of the 20th Oct. 

From Day Book 13 ^ page 271, of E. Griswold. 

1816, Oct. 22. St. John’s Church, Dr. 

Cash handed Col. Kilbourn for Rev. Joseph 

Doddridge, $3.00 

Also for keeping Mr. Cunningham, who was a 
delegate from Steubenville, two days and 

nights, self and horse, 2.00 

1816, Oct. 22. Thomas Palmer, Dr. 

Entertainment while attending the Episcopal 

convention, self and horse, 2.00 

From my Own Diary . 

Wed. 1 6th Oct., 1816, Great ring bear hunt. 

Sun. 20 Oct., M Cloudy and some rain; attended church. Rev. 

Mr. Doddridge preached twice in day and once 
in evening. 

Tues. 22 Oct., ic Went to Columbus in afternoon with Mr. Good- 
rich. Rev. Dr. Doddridge preached in even- 

Wed. 23 Oct., “ Second grand bear hunt. 

This preliminary convention issued a circular addressed to the 
bishops and clergy of the Protestant Episcopal church east of the 
Alleghanies, setting forth in feeling terms the destitution of the 
church in the west, and concluding with the very appropriate 
scriptural invocation, “ Come over into Macedonia and help us.” 
Shortly after this circular was issued, petitions, numerously 
signed, from the several parishes in Ohio and Virginia, asking 
leave to form a diocese in the western country were sent to 
Bishops White and Hobart to be laid before the general con- 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

vention at its setting in New York, in the spring of the year 
1817. Dr. Doddridge received no direct information of the 
action of the convention upon these petitions, until August, when 
a letter reached him from Rev. Roger Searle. From this letter 
and a subsequent one we shall make some extracts bearing upon 
the subject. 

Plymouth, Conn., Aug. 4, 1817. 

Rev. and Dear Brother : 

I wrote you both from Pittsburg and New York. Your long silence 
leads me to the conclusion that my letters have not reached you. 

It was a matter of extreme regret to me that I could not see you on my 
way from the interior of Ohio. At Zanesville I learned that you were to 
officiate there the next Sunday, but my time was limited to be in New 
York at the session of the general convention as a delegate from this 

At Zanesville, Cambridge, Morristown and St. Clairsville, I heard of 
your pious and zealous exertions in behalf of our beloved Zion, and I trust 
that the time is not far distant when I shall be permitted to unite with you 
in labors for this glorious cause in Ohio. 

With a view to the organization of the church in the state of Ohio, a 
convention is duly appointed to convene at Columbus, 5th of January next, 
and you will have perceived from the journal of its proceedings, that the 
provisions of the late general convention are such as to have met your 
wishes as made known by you to the house of bishops and to the bishops 
and others separately. 

You will also learn from the journal, that our worthy friend from Zanes- 
ville, Dr. Reed, was not allowed a seat in the convention. Feeling as I 
did, a common interest in the welfare of the church in the west, it was 
then, and still is my opinion, that that body ought to have dispensed with 
its general rules in reference to that individual. His deportment on the 
occasion was that of a Christian and a gentleman, and I sincerely hope he 
will feel satisfied that the convention had no reference to himself personally, 
but to the general rules of the church in its conventional capacity. 

From the same. 

Zanesville, Dec. 1, 1817. 

Rev. and Dear Brother : 

It is with more than ordinary pleasure I acknowledge the receipt of 
yours of the 24th ult., and while I most sincerely regret that you did not 
receive a copy of the journal of the proceedings of the late general conven- 
tion, 1 cannot for a moment entertain the idea that this neglect was a 
matter of design on the part of the bishops and clergy whose immediate 
duty it might have been to forward it to you with other communications 
regarding the church generally in this western country. 

I should indeed have sent you one myself without delay, had I not 
thought you would receive several copies through Bishops White, Hobart 
and others. But, my dear friend, I herewith send you one per mail, and 


Memoir of the Rev. 

beg you will accept it as a small token of my very great regard and sincere 
respect for your personal character, and indefatigable and useful labors in 
the cause of our beloved Master. You will readily perceive from the 
journal that your communications to the convention were duly recognized, 
and the measures you urged were adopted with such modifications as were 
deemed essential by that body. 

Very truly your Brother 

in the Gospel of Christ, 

Roger Searle. 

Dr. Doddridge could not but feel deeply wounded by this 
omission to make him acquainted as early as possible with the 
proceedings of a convention in which it was known that he felt 
the deepest interest. He knew how pressing was the need for 
the organization of a diocese in the west, and that in consequence 
of the failure of the effort made in 1810 to obtain an Episcopate 
in the western country, several of the clergy, though still faithful 
to the church, discouraged and hopeless of ever seeing their 
dearest wishes realized, made no exertions to extend her borders 
by forming new congregations. Dr. Doddridge, however, had 
never remitted his efforts, and although the measures recom- 
mended to the general convention were, with a few modifica- 
tions, adopted, his name was not mentioned in the convention, 
no direct reference was made to the labors he had performed, 
and worst of all no official or unofficial notice of its action was 
ever sent to him. This discourteous treatment of him by the 
ecclesiastical authorities of his church certainly justifies the severe 
terms in which he refers to this subject in his Notes. 

In accordance with the action of the general convention the 
preliminary convention for organizing the diocese of Ohio met 
at Columbus on the 5th of January, 1818. Owing to the want 
of timely notice, but one of the four parishes organized by Dr. 
Doddridge in Ohio was represented in that body. On the 
evening of the second day John Matthews, from St. James’s 
church, Zanesville, appeared and took his seat. In the re- 
port on the state of the church made to the convention by 
Rev. Philander Chase he stated that in Zanesville he found a 
very respectable congregation of Episcopalians, duly organized 
under the pious and praiseworthy exertions of the Rev. Mr. 
Doddridge. The preliminary convention having organized the 
diocese by the adoption of a constitution and the appointment of 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

a standing committee, adjourned to meet at Worthington, Ohio, 
on the 5th of June, 1818. 

The prospect of having, at length, a bishop for the west filled 
the heart of Dr. Doddridge with great joy. He attended the 
first annual convention at Worthington accompanied by delegates 
from the four parishes he had organized in Ohio. The lay 
delegates were admitted without question, but the right of Dr. 
Doddridge to a seat was doubted, and a committee of five mem- 
bers appointed to examine and report whether, according to the 
true interpretation of the canons, he could be admitted a member 
of the convention. The committee after due deliberation made 
report as follows : 

It is the opinion of the committee that according to the existing canons 
and resolutions of the last general convention, Dr. Doddridge, in his present 
relative situation, cannot be admitted to a seat as a member of this con-' 

The committee highly appreciate the labors of the reverend gentleman, 
rendered to the church both in this state and the adjoining states, and hope 
that at no distant day he may be placed in such circumstances that they 
may recognize him as a canonical member of this diocese. They recom- 
mend that the convention adopt the following resolutions : 

Resolved , That the Rev. Dr. Doddridge cannot now be received as a 
member of this convention. 

Resolved , That this convention entertain a high sense of the useful and 
important labors of Dr. Doddridge in the cause of the church in the 
western country and particularly within this diocese; and trust that he will 
lose no time in taking such measures as, under the existing canons of the 
church, are essential to constitute him a member of this convention, so that 
the diocese may more fully profit by his labors. 

The report and resolutions having been adopted it was, on 

Resolved , That the Rev. Dr. Doddridge be requested to take a seat in 
this convention as an honorary member, during the remainder of the ses- 
sion ; and that the Rev. Mr. Searle, Mr. Webb, and Mr. Douglas, wait 
upon Dr. Doddridge, and communicate this resolution. 

The service under this resolution having been performed, Dr. 
Doddridge appeared in convention and took his seat with the 
clergy. This strict enforcement of a technical construction of 
the canons did not at all please him. He thought the circum- 
stances of his case were such as to make it unnecessary to raise 
the question. \n a letter to a clerical brother written soon after 
the event he says : “ When at the convention at Worthington, it 


Memoir of the Rev. 

seemed to me that I was doomed to drink the last dregs of the 
cup of humiliation. Almost the first thing that took place after 
I entered was a lengthy discussion on the question of my right to 
a seat in the convention. ’’ It must be remembered in this con- 
nection that there were only four clergy in the convention aside 
from Dr. Doddridge, and that of the four two, viz: Rev. Phi- 
lander Chase and Rev. James Kilbourn, sat for St. John’s church, 
Worthington, while Dr. Doddridge represented four flourishing 
parishes. Moreover the very existence of the convention itself 
was owing to measures initiated by him. 

The convention at Worthington on the 4th of June, 1818, 
elected Rev. Philander Chase bishop of the diocese of Ohio. 
Dr. Doddridge not being entitled to vote, but sitting as an 
honorary member in convention, expressed his entire satisfaction 
and hearty concurrence in the election of a bishop which had 
been made. On the next day Dr. Doddridge, by request, made 
his report of the state of the church as follows : 

St. James’s church, in the county of Jefferson, nine miles from Steuben- 
ville, was formed about two years ago j it contains about thirty families, and 
is increasing. The number of communicants is fifty-two 5 the number of 
baptisms within two years, has considerably exceeded one hundred. They 
are a steady, pious people, and zealously attached to the doctrines and 
worship of our church. Should an Episcopal congregation be formed in 
Steubenville, which it is hoped will take place at no very distant period of 
time, the two congregations in that case, would form a convenient care for 
one clergyman. They are taking measures to commence the building of a 
church this season. 

St. Thomas’s church, in St. Clairsville, has been organized some time. The 
number of baptisms is considerable 5 the holy sacrament has never been ad- 
ministered here. There is every prospect that this congregation will be 
large and respectable 5 the number of families attached to it, at present, is at 
least thirty. 

St. Peter’s church, in Morristown, consists of about twenty families 5 and 
bids fair to become respectable. This congregation and that of St. Clairs- 
ville, which are but ten miles from each other, would form a convenient 
charge for one clergyman j and the present rector humbly hopes that through 
the blessing of Divine Providence, they will shortly have one settled among 

He has officiated several times in Cambridge 5 and finds that a congre- 
gation of about twenty-five families might be formed there. There are 
also some families of Episcopalians in and about New Washington, ten miles 
distant from Cambridge. These places certainly require the attention of the 
clergy of the diocese. 

St. James’s church, in Zanesville, which was formed by him and of 

Dr. Joseph Doddridge , 


which he is still the rector, will be reported through some other channel. 
He indulges the hope that this church will always hold a very respectable 
rank among the churches of the diocese of Ohio. 

The Rev. Dr. Doddridge is thankful to the great Shepherd and Bishop 
for the event of an election of a bishop for this diocese $ and from the 
good account which he has uniformly heard of the learning and piety of the 
bishop elect, he expects every good thing and favorable to the church com- 
mitted to his charge. Intending, as soon as practicable, to become a member 
of this diocese, he earnestly solicits the attention of the bishop and clergy 
to the congregations which he has formed in the state of Ohio. His attend- 
ance upon them is accompanied with great personal inconvenience 5 and it 
would give him the highest pleasure to feel justified in relinquishing it in 
consequence of the settlement of clergymen among them. 

After the adjournment of the first annual convention of the 
diocese of Ohio, Dr. Doddridge continued his ministration to 
his Ohio congregations with as much regularity as possible. In 
the spring of 1819, he had the satisfaction of being relieved of 
his charge of the parish at Zanesville by the Rev. Intrepid Morse, 
an able and zealous minister. The second annual convention 
of the diocese of Ohio, met at Worthington on the second day 
of June, 1819. Dr. Doddridge did not attend this convention, 
interesting as the first one presided over by a bishop, not yet 
being entitled to a seat in it. 

The address of the bishop on this occasion is one of rare in- 
terest as containing a vivid picture of the manner of preaching 
the gospel in those early times. As the address contains many 
references to Dr. Doddridge we propose to transcribe them here 
as illustrative of the character and value of the work he per- 
formed. The bishop says : 

Tuesday, May 4, I met, according to previous arrangement, the Rev. 
Dr. Doddridge, at Cambridge, twenty-five miles east of Zanesville. After per- 
forming the service together, in the Court House, congregation small, we pro- 
ceeded up Hill’s creek to Seneca village, about twenty miles. At the 
desire of the family, I read prayers at the bedside of a sick woman, exhort- 
ing her to repent and trust in God. She appeared penitent and thanked me. 
I gave her the blessing. 

May c;, we proceeded on our journey to fill an appointment made for me 
by Dr. Doddridge to hold services at Mr. Dement’s, about ten or twelve 
miles from the village. The roads being bad and the country new, we were 
somewhat delayed, the congregation had been assembled some time, and 
anxiously awaiting our arrival. At the sight of us they were greatly rejoiced ; 
and being too numerous to be all accommodated with seats in the log 
cabin, they removed to a convenient place in the adjoining wood. Here, 


Memoir of the Rev. 

with a small table taken from the cabin and covered with a coarse white 
cloth, on which to lay the holy book, the trees and the sky for our canopy, the 
doctor and myself performed the solemn services of the church and baptized 
a number of children. 

As soon as the services were over the congregation crowded to the cabin, 
whither we had repaired. Here a most interesting scene took place. A 
number of young men and women, being deeply affected at beholding the 
services, particularly that of the holy sacrament of baptism, applied for 
spiritual instruction. It was given them and several were baptized. Wit- 
nessing the good effects of our endeavors thus far, were encouraged to ap- 
point another service the same evening. The house was again crowded 
and a number of adults and infants were baptized. Dr. Doddridge de- 
livered a lecture in a very impressive manner, on the subject of the Christ- 
ian church and Christian ordinances. During the interval of our services 
this day we learned that a number of families on Little Beaver creek, be- 
longing to this recently organized parish, were desirous of public ministra- 
tions. Accordingly the next day, guided by a Mr. Bryan across the high 
hills, we went thither. 

The congregation were assembled, Dr. Doddridge read prayers and the 
sermon was preached by myself. One adult and several children were bap- 
tized ; the whole parish being here present, at Mr. Wendell’s on Little 
Beaver, they proceeded to elect a delegate to the convention, and to take 
measures for the building of a church ; which, though it will not be expensive, 
will be of great importance to the growing interest of our Zion in this 
quarter. Dr. Doddridge manifested his zeal and ability in the cause of the 
church by an appropriate address. Service having been appointed at Barnes- 
ville about ten or twelve miles further on our journey, we hastened, in com- 
pany with Mr. Leek for our guide, to fulfill our appointment. But it beginning 
to rain we were somewhat delayed on the way, and did not arrive at Barnes- 
ville until the congregation had dispersed. At evening, however, the 
people assembled ; the service of our church was performed and a sermon 
preached in the Methodist meeting house. 

The next day, May 7, at Morristown, the people had assembled in great 
numbers at a convenient schoolhouse. Here divine service was performed 
and a sermon preached ; three persons desiring the rite of confirmation and 
the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper both these ordinances were administered 
to them. The audience never having witnessed the like before, seemed 
deeply affected. The impression was evidently in favor of better things to 
come. On our way to St. Clairsville the same day, the sacrament was admin- 
istered to five or six children. 

May 8. Saturday, at eleven o’clock, divine service was celebrated in the 
Court House, St. Clairsville, and an impressive discourse delivered by Dr. 
Doddridge. In the evening the same duty was repeated, and the sermon 
was preached by myself. 

Sunday, May 9. The day being uncommonly fine, the people began to 
assemble at an early hour; and the house, ere the service began, was much 
crowded. In the morning divine service was performed, and the rite of 
confirmation was administered to thirteen persons, and the sacrament of 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

the Lord’s Supper to eleven. At the evening service the sacrament of 
baptism was administered. This congregation is among those in which 
the Rev. Dr. Doddridge regularly officiates $ yet some peculiar circumstances 
had hitherto prevented him from attempting the administration of the 
Lord’s Supper among them. Happily those impediments are now set aside $ 
the people are becoming seriously impressed with a sense of their religious 
duty, and much good is expected. The word of God is quick and power- 
ful, and in nothing does it take more deep effect than in the solemnities of 
the eucharist. 

At St. Clairsville, Dr. Doddridge left me, to visit his family $ and on 
Monday, May io, at his particular request I passed over the Ohio river to 
Wheeling on the Virginia side. I attempted the exercise of no Episcopal 
office here, being without the diocese of Ohio. I however performed 
morning prayer in public, and preached a sermon to the people j after 
which they saw fit to organize a parish, by choosing their wardens and 
vestrymen. Also, while on the Virginia side, I performed the visitation 
office to a sick man, a Mr. Wilson ; and the next day (May 12) preached 
and performed divine service at West Liberty. Stayed the same evening at 
Mrs Hammond’s, and was treated with great kindness. 

May 13. I again joined my worthy friend and brother, Dr. Doddridge, at 
his house in Charleston (alias Wellsburg) and was welcomed by himself and 
excellent family, with urbanity and unfeigned good will. Twice the same 
day we held divine service. In the evening the congregation was large and 
very attentive. The particular excellencies of our liturgy become more and 
more visible, in proportion as people, old and young, join in it ; and where 
they do so join, increase both of numbers and piety never fails to be the 
happy effect. No church which neglects the liturgy will eventually pros- 
per. God honors those who will honor him 5 and withdraws his blessing 
from those who refuse to worship him. 

May 14. Attended by the doctor and some of his family I went to St. 
John’s parish, a small church about ten miles north-east of Charleston. 
Here the morning service was performed and a sermon preached $ after 
which I visited a sick woman, and the same night passed over to Steuben- 
ville, on the Ohio side of the river. 

May 1 5. Morning and evening service were celebrated this day in Steuben- 
ville, the former in the Methodist meeting house, and the latter in the 
Court House. The congregations in both places were numerous and 

Sunday, May 16. This day having been previously appointed for the ad- 
ministration of the apostolic rite of confirmation, and the sacrament of the 
Lord’s Supper in this place, the congregation, by the kind and pressing 
request of the Methodist society, met in their meeting house. The dis- 
course was delivered by Dr. Doddridge. I administered confirmation to 
thirty-eight, and the Lord’s Supper to about twenty-five. Great reverence 
and devout attention appeared in the behavior of all present. In the 
afternoon of this day, divine service, at the request of the minister and people 
of the Presbyterian denomination was in their meeting house. Six or seven 
children were baptized. At candle lighting I again performed service in the 


Memoir of the Rev. 

Methodist meeting house, and gave notice that Episcopalians would meet 
me the next morning at the house of Mr. Dickinson. 

Monday, May 17. I organized a parish by the name of St. Paul’s church, 
in Steubenville to the great satisfaction of the friends of our Zion. They 
appointed their delegate to the convention and took measures for procuring 
regular services ; I also this day baptized twenty children. 

Tuesday. Being joined by Dr. Doddridge, who had been on Sunday after- 
noon called away to attend the sick, I proceeded across the woods to St. 
James’s Church, a small building erected for public worship, about ten or 
twelve miles from Steubenville. For public services they depend on Dr. 
Doddridge, who attends a certain portion of his time. The number of 
communicants I could not exactly know ; as the holy sacrament of the 
Lord’s Supper was through mistake not provided for at this visitation. The 
probable number is, however, about fifty. After morning prayer and a 
sermon, I administered confirmation to twenty-one persons. Here I took 
leave of my worthy friend and brother and proceeded on my way towards 
Cadiz where divine service had been appointed on the morrow. 

These extracts from the journal of the second annual conven- 
tion of the diocese of Ohio, show that the hardships under which 
the early missionary work was carried on required a zeal and 
faith equal to that of the apostolic age of the church. The 
valuable character of the work performed by Dr. Doddridge is 
shown by the fact that the churches were scattered over a terri- 
tory extensive enough for a modern diocese, in a region almost 
entirely destitute of the gospel. 

Some years after Dr. Doddridge had taken orders in the pro- 
testant Episcopal church, which, within the bounds of his labors 
furnished him but a meagre support, he found it necessary, in 
order to meet the wants of an increasing family, to combine with 
his clerical profession one that would be more lucrative in the 
region in which he lived. He chose that of medicine, complet- 
ing his course of preparation in Philadelphia, under Dr. Benja- 
min Rush. 

Several years previous to this time he had entered into a matri- 
monial connection with Jemima, orphan daughter of Capt. John 
Bukey, who had at an early period of the settlement west, emi- 
grated from New Jersey, locating on a farm on Short creek, in 
Ohio county, Virginia. Mr. Bukey died some years after his 
arrival in the country, leaving a wife, three sons and four daughters ; 
the youngest of whom, at the age of sixteen, became the wife of 
Dr. Doddridge. Mary, the eldest, married Major John M’Col- 
loch, of Short Creek, Virginia. Marcie united her destiny with 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

that of Colonel Harman Greathouse, late of Kentucky. Two 
of the sons, John and Hezekiah, at an early age, were employed 
as spies under Captain Samuel Brady, of Indian war notoriety. 
The youngest, Rudolph, while yet a youth, settled in Shelby 
county, Kentucky. 

In the department of medicine Dr. Doddridge was eminently 
successful and deservedly popular, and to the avails of an exten- 
sive but laborious practice he was indebted for the means to rear 
and educate a large family of children. 

That he occupied a high position in the estimation of his 
brethren of the medical fraternity, who had opportunities for 
knowing him well, is unquestionable. One evidence of this fact, 
is a certificate under the seal of the Medico-Surgical Society of 
East Ohio — instituted in 1821 — announcing to him that “ said 
society, being well convinced of his abilities and scientific skill, 
had made him an honorary member of their association.” The 
secretary of the society, in a note enclosing the document, says : 

I do not know, dear brother, that the accompanying certificate will be 
acceptable to thee, yet it may, at some future day, serve to remind thee of 
the high esteem in which thee was held by such of thy medical brethren as 
had the best opportunity of judging of thy professional and moral worth. 

Truly thy friend, 

Anderson Judkins. 

While Dr. Doddridge was pursuing his medical studies in 
Philadelphia in the year 1800, he became acquainted with some 
scientific characters, and as we learn from a printed communica- 
tion over the signature of Reuben Haines, corresponding secretary, 
he was, “on the 1st day of 12th month, 1812, duly elected a 
corresponding member of the Academy of Natural Sciences,” in 
that city. 

He was at an early day initiated into the mysteries of masonry, 
regarding the institution in its fundamental principles, as impos- 
ing on the initiated the obligation practically to illustrate in their 
lives the virtues of faith, hope, charity and fraternity, and as 
being secondary to the Christian religion in its meliorating in- 
fluences upon the human family. 

He was W. M. of the lodge at Wellsburg, Virginia, and per- 
haps of a pioneer lodge at Mingo Towns, 1 holding a warrant from 

1 The Mingo Towns were situated on the Ohio river, three miles below 
the site of the present city of Steubenville. 



Memoir of the Rev. 

the grand lodge of Pennsylvania, which charter was recalled in 
1806, having been extinct some years. 

His conversational powers were of a high order. He was 
easy of access, fond of innocent anecdotes and possessed in an 
eminent degree the tact for adapting his subjects and language to 
the peculiar tastes and capacities of those with whom he con- 

Ordinarily he was fond of the society of ladies and children, 
saying, that men in general were so engrossed with business mat- 
ters, in which he took but little interest, that they could not be 
induced, for any length of time, to converse on any other subject ; 
but the former, he could understand and sympathize with, 
and they could mutually interest each other. 

He never departed from that unaffected cordiality of manner, 
simplicity of dress, style of living, and generous hospitality which 
characterized the pioneer society in which he had been brought 
up, and which, in these respects, he considered much superior 
to the code of manners and etiquette of modern days. 

In his intercourse with his neighbors he was cheerful and 
social, in his habits industrious, temperate and domestic. To 
the gratification of the palate, he was indifferent, discounte- 
nancing both by example and precept the indulgence or cultiva- 
tion of a fastidious appetite. 

When in health, he always rose at four o’clock, devoting the 
morning hours to meditation and literature. To those who 
trimmed the midnight lamp and indulged the morning slumber, 
he would say in the elegant phraseology of Scripture, why do 
you purchase light, when the good providence of Him who said, 
u Let there be light and there was light/’ gives you that blessing 
“ without money and without price.” 

His benevolence was proverbial, and like that of the good 
Samaritan, was exemplified in acts of kindness to the poor and 
afflicted, to whose relief he liberally contributed of his limited 
means ; on some occasions — known to the writer — using his 
own house as a hospital for the sick, who were destitute of 
friends as well as of funds — where they gratuitously received the 
benefit of his medical skill together with such other appliances 
as their comfort and necessities required, until restored to health. 

His philanthropic feelings induced him in various ways to en- 
deavor to provide employment for the poorer class of laborers 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

around him, in doing which, as he possessed no skill in the 
mat.agement of financial matters and little discrimination in his 
judgment of human character, he very nearly impoverished 

In horticulture and the culture of bees, he found an interesting 
and agreeable relaxtion in his intervals of professional labor. 
His garden and orchard, both of which were well cultivated, 
added greatly to his home pleasures. The morning carols of 
feathered songsters among the leafy bowers, were to him sweetest 
music ; and he was often out betimes, as he said, mentally to 
unite with them in offering the matin song of praise to the giver 
of all mercies. He would not allow one of these winged tenants 
to be injured on his grounds, telling his children, who sometimes 
objected to the birds having the nicest cherries and other fruits, 
that “ the same good Being who provided food and clothing for 
them, provided also for the little birds, and if He sent them to 
his premises for that provision, they must not be molested.” 
And they were not. 

In experimenting with bees, he deviated from the mode then 
prevailing — that of destroying them in order to procure their 
honey. And his success proved that his views respecting the 
economy and habits of these interesting in'sects were not incorrect. 

In 1813, he published a Treatise on the Culture of Bees, in 
which he gives a minute description of his apiary, and details his 
plan of treatment of the bees, which was that of colonizing them 
instead of killing them to procure the fruit of their labor. 

Below we give a letter written to his eldest son which will 
give some idea of his appreciation of his domestic surroundings. 

Wellsburg, June 4, 1822. 

My Dear Son : It is now early in the morning, and I am pleasantly 
situated in the bower, which has been removed from the spread apple tree 
to the saloon — an oblong grass plat, studded on each side by a row of large 
fruit trees — at the request of your excellent mother, who often has tea and 
sometimes dinner set in it. She has just risen from a night’s repose, looks 
young and joyous as a girl of eighteen. She is engaged in talking to the 
gardener, and is feeding about fifty chickens, which are thanking her for her 
munificence, in their noisy, gabbling way. 

Many changes have been made here since you left us, an account of 
which will no doubt be acceptable to you. The foundery lot is at present a 
first rate garden, mostly planted in vegetables. The old garden is enclosed 
in a close fence, six feet high, and finished with a coping. I have made a 



Memoir of the Rev. 

flower garden for Susan. It is tastefully laid out in circular beds, and if 
well taken care of, and stocked with flowering shrubs and plants, will in a 
few years present a fine parterre of variegated beauty. Gardener as I have 
always been, Susan is the only one of my family, who manifests a taste for 
this delightful employment ; in addition to which I strongly suspect she is 
to be my prettiest daughter. 

The bees have all been removed to the new bee house, which stands on 
the north-east corner lot below the turnpike. It is twenty feet long, and 
eight feet wide, of brick, and plastered inside and out, with a circular dome 
above. The family vault of the same dimensions. 

I am at present, much amused with the playful gambols of some squirrels 
which are frisking about, sometimes on the trees, sometimes on the ground. 
About a month ago, I made a den for some of these little animals, into 
which I put two pair. They now seem well satisfied $ but will they stay, 
or decamp after some time J I am a republican, and like pets but not 
prisoners. I do not like to see a bird in a cage, or an animal tied by the 

Joseph is still at the seminary, and doing well. He is much beloved by 
his teacher and fellow students. It is my wish to make him a finished 

Reeves and Charles are fine little fellows. Charles has the character of 
a “good boy.” Reeves has a little of the Indian in him j but I think not 
so much as you had at his age. As you are a business man, and will proba- 
bly become rich, I think you ought to take one of these fine boys and teach 
him, what he will never learn from his father, the art, trade, or mystery of 

Little Mary has got up and come to me in the bower. Dear little Dutch 
stumpy, her affection for me is sometimes a little troublesome, as her chief 
concern is to be with me wherever she can find me. ****** 

God bless you and yours, my dear son, 

Philip B. Doddridge, 
Portsmouth, Ohio. 

Jos. Doddridge. 

The fatigue and exposure to which Dr. Doddridge was sub- 
jected in his practice of the healing-art, unavoidable in a new and 
sparsely settled country, in the lapse of years, gradually under- 
mined his constitution — not naturally robust — and engendered a 
disease which was at times attended with much acute suffering 
and nervous irritability. 

When laboring under its paroxysms, his distress was greatly 
augmented by mental depression, despondency, and a morbid 
sensitiveness ; characteristics entirely foreign to him when in 
health, being then uniformly cheerful, self-reliant and hopeful. 

His published writings in addition to those already mentioned. 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

v ere Logan , the Last of the Race of Shikellimus, a dramatic piece, 
sermons on special subjects, and orations delivered at masonic 
festivals, and other occasions. In 1825, he commenced the 
Russian Spy , a series of letters containing strictures on America, 
and an Indian novel, neither of which was completed. 

During the winter of 1824, he arranged and prepared his 
manuscript of the Notes, etc., etc., for the press, but owing to 
ill health he could not give the necessary attention to the correc- 
tion of proof-sheets, consequently many errors were overlooked, 
and on the whole, the issue proved to its author an unprofitable 
investment of time and money. 

Early in the fall he started eastward, having in view a two- 
fold object, that of improving his health by travel and the dispo- 
sition of some of his books. 

The letter which follows, contains a brief review of his journey : 

Bedford, Sept. 24, 1824. 

My Dear Wife : We are here. Our progress has been slow 5 but I have 
enjoyed the journey, and think my health is somewhat improved. 

The mountain scenery through which we passed is varied, some beautiful, 
some grand and sublime beyond description. Whilst gazing with delight 
upon these displays of the Creator’s power and goodness, my pleasure was 
suddenly checked by the reflection that those faculties by means of which I 
now hold communion with the beautiful in nature must soon be closed in 
death. But thanks be to Him, who made all things, I can look forward 
by faith to a world where beauty, peace and purity are eternal, where none 
shall know sickness and weariness, such as I now feel. 

At Brownsville, and Uniontown, I was invited to officiate, which I did, 
at the latter place baptizing two children. Have preached once in this place 
also. Thus without expecting it, I have become a missionary. 

Before arriving here, I intended, if possible, to find the house in which I 
first drank coffee, 1 in 1777 — and in the event of finding it, to invite a few 
friends to take a cup with me in the same room. Remembering the name 
of the landlord, Nagel, and being able to give a tolerable description of the 
house, I found upon enquiring that Dillon’s Hotel, where we put up, now 
occupies the site of Nagel’s house. 

Yesterday I went out to see the famous Bedford springs, about two miles 
from the town. The site, owing to the surrounding mountains, is highly 
romantic. The buildings of this watering-place, consist of baths, boarding- 
houses, and dormitories. The great Hall for amusements presents many 

1 See index to subsequent page. 


Memoir of the Rev. 

fanciful and gorgeous decorations. On a low piece of ground, some dis- 
tance from the Hall, on a pedestal of rock, stands a naiad, a large, half naked 
female figure, with a Grecian face and costume, holding in her left hand a 
huge concha, from the top of which the water of the spring is thrown up- 
ward to the height of ten or twelve feet 5 but poor girl, her fine white 
drapery is turning yellow, from the action of the sulphate of iron contained 
in the water which is constantly falling on it. 

The spring issues from the western side of the Cove mountain, at the height 
of nearly twenty feet above the creek which runs at its base. It is large, 
and rises with great force through apertures in immense rocks, which still 
retain their primitive situation and aspect. A few rods higher up is another, 
but a smaller spring. The water of the principal spring, is conducted into 
a large reservoir, supplying a long range of baths, which are filled at pleasure, 
by raising a small flood-gate. The water in the baths is reached by a flight 
of steps. I had not, however, the courage to make the descent. The side 
of the mountain from which the spring issues, is cut into serpentine walks, 
for the convenience and benefit of pedestrians who wish to take exercise and 
inhale the mountain air. 

I have been examining the oldest records here, for names of my family, 
but can only find that of my grand-father Joseph Doddridge, who is men- 
tioned as foreman of a grand jury in 1777. 

Being within ten miles of the place of my nativity, I wished to learn 
something concerning my father’s title to the land on which he lived in 
Friend’s Cove, but could find nothing, as his title, whatever it was, originated 
when this was a part of Cumberland county. I am informed here, that the 
land is now owned by a Mr. Cissner, and that my father was unjustly de- 
prived of it, but by whom I have not learned. 

The Court House here was built in the reign of George III. The edifice 
is of stone, and is, without exception, the most misshapen, sombre-looking 
building I ever saw. I do not think the Bastile itself could have presented 
a more forbidding and gloomy aspect. I seated myself for a moment on 
the bench of justice, and after taking a survey of the antiquated, ill-shapen 
jury-boxes and council-table, gladly made my escape from the forum of my 

Jos. Doddridge. 


Soon after his return from Bedford, Dr. Doddridge received a 
letter from Bishop Chase just landed in America after his first 
visit to England to solicit funds to assist him in carrying out his 
enlarged views relative to the missionary and educational interests 
of his infant diocese — announcing his return, and appointing the 
3d day of November for the meeting at Chillicothe of the dio- 
cesan convention 

Taking with him a little son of eleven years, as traveling com- 
panion, he proceeded, by easy stages, to the convention, and 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

while there, at the request of St. James’s parish, at Zanesville, he 
accepted a missionary appointment to that church. 

In consequence of the impaired state of his health, he had some 
time previous relinquished the charge of his parishes in Virginia 
and Ohio ; and, from the same cause, he had been compelled to 
discontinue the practice of medicine in his vicinity, where atten- 
tion to its duties involved the necessity of his being on horseback 
much of the time and exposure to every change of weather. 

By restricting his labors to the parish at Zanesville, with proper 
care, he fondly hoped to regain a portion of his former health 
and vigor. But He, in whose hand are all our “ times,” ordered 
otherwise. When winter set in, he had a-severe attack of pneu- 
monia, which, together with his asthmatic disease, brought him to 
the verge of the grave, and a tedious convalescence ensued before 
he recovered sufficient strength to again resume his parochial duties. 

During the continuance of his sufferings and confinement from 
debility, he acknowledged that he had much cause of gratitude to 
God, the oft repeated kindnesses of friends who did all they could 
to alleviate his sufferings and cheer him in his solitary confine- 
ment. But, notwithstanding these kind offices, how many hours 
of loneliness and despondency must have intervened, known only 
to God and himself. After recovering some strength he thus 
wrote to a friend : 

My life is fast ebbing away. It has been spent for others, and now, in- 
stead of enjoying those accommodations and that repose which my infirmi- 
ties require, I am alone, in exile from my dear family. But I must not 
murmur. God’s will be done. In due time, rest will be mine, through 
the undeserved mercy of Him in whom I trust. 

To his other afflictions this winter was added the loss of his 
little son who had accompanied him to Chillicothe, and whom he 
had left there at school. This sad bereavement deeply affected 
him, yet he endeavored to exercise a cheerful acquiescence in the 
will of Him who orders all things wisely. 

In a letter to his son in Bloomingburg, of Feb. 8th, he says : 

The death of little Reeves has been a severe affliction to me. So far as 
I have been able, I have done my duty to his excellent memory. I have 
published your letter to me concerning his death, also his elegy, both of 
which I presume you have seen. A short time since I delivered a dis- 


'Memoir of the Rev. 

course on immortality, with reference to the melancholy event. This ser- 
mon has been a subject of conversation, and I have been requested to deliver 
it. a second time, with which request I shall comply next Sunday evening. 

My health, although not good, is on the whole better than it has been 
for several winters past, owing mainly to the circumstance of my keeping 
within doors in bad weather. I have been able to preach twice on every 
Sunday since I have been here, and sometimes on Sunday and other even- 
ings. But I find that I am worn down with toil and trouble so that I 
cannot promise myself a single day of life beyond the present. The pros- 
pect of death is now familiar to my mind. It is by no means unpleasant, 
and I am faithfully, as I trust, preparing for the event, as it respects this 
world and the next. 

I seem to have but little to do here, in comparison with my former 
labors. In the course of the week I write a sermon on some interesting 
subject of theology. This I deliver in the forenoon. In the afternoon 
the sermon is extempore. Thus I am accumulating a set of manuscripts 
which may be read when I am no more. 

The Episcopal congregation here is small, and environed with an invete- 
rate prejudice on the part of all other societies against them — a prejudice 
created by the injudicious announcement, at the outset, of the high claim 
of the Episcopal church to the apostolic succession. 

To this prejudice I have made no contribution. * * * 

I find from experience that the carbonic acid gas discharged from the 
burning stone coal is very hurtful to me. Before I left Chilicothe — where 
wood was used for fuel — I was much better of my asthma $ as soon as I 
came here, it returned. We have had several long continued calms this 
winter, during which I was much distracted with difficulty of breathing, 
but as soon as a wind sprung up I was instantly relieved. 

Jos. Doddridge. 

Below is another extract from the reminiscences of Hon. T. 

Prior to the renewal of my intercourse with Dr. Doddrige, in 1793, he 
had taken orders in the Protestant Episcopal church, and now had charge 
of several parishes in Western Virginia. At West Liberty I occasionally 
attended on his ministrations. 

In person, he was tall but not thin, dark hair, fair complexion, blue eyes, 
which were full of expression, and his whole appearance imposing. 

When preaching, there was nothing in his manner that savored of pe- 
dantry or rusticity, yet he did not possess that graceful action and delivery 
which are often met with in speakers in every other respect his inferiors. 
These apparent defects were, however, amply compensated by the earnest- 
ness with which he addressed his hearers, the purity of his style and 
language and the substance of his discourses. 

After the lapse of more than thirty years I again had the pleasure of 
meeting Dr. Doddridge, at the house of his sister, Mrs. Nathan Reeves, in 


Dr. Joseph Doddridge. 

Chillicothe. He was now a valetudinarian traveling in search of health. 
Disease and years had wrought a great change in his external appearance $ 
but he was still the same cheerful, companionable man as formerly. Pos- 
sessing an inexhaustible fund of valuable information, his conversation was 
uniformly interesting and edifying. I could not, however, divest myself of 
the persuasion that this friend of my youth must soon pass from the church 
he had loved on earth, to the church triumphant in heaven. The proba- 
ble proximity of this great change was adverted to in several of our interviews, 
and, though not surprised, I was rejoiced to find that, that saving faith in 
Christ, which he had so long recommended to others, was now his support. 
He spoke calmly of death, and as an event, in his case, rather to be desired 
than otherwise. 

During the remainder of his life he was unable to labor in a 
professional way ; he still, however, found some relief in travel 
which, in his debilitated state, was necessarily slow. 

In the course of the summer, he spent some weeks with 3 
sister in Chillicothe, after which he visited his son in Blooming- 
burg, Ohio. But finding that he gained no strength, hopeless of 
any favorable change in regard to his health, preferring in the 
bosom of his family to await the summons which should release 
him from suffering, and from earth, he returned home, as he 
emphatically said, “To die.” 

When in full possession of his mental powers, he spoke of 
death with great composure. Relying solely on the merits of 
Christ for salvation, he felt no fear, but seemed anxious to depart 
and be with God. 

His protracted sufferings terminated on the 9th of November, 
1826, in the fifty-eighth year of his age, at his home in Wells- 
burg, Brooke county, Virginia. 

Of the twelve children of the subject of this Memoir, four 
preceded him to the spirit-land, his wife and four others have 
since joined him there. One son, Joseph, and three daughters, 
Susan A., widow of Capt. Robert Lari mo re, of Chillicothe, 
Matilda D., wife of Mr. John Winters of New York, and the 
writer, are all that remain of the cheerful group which once 
surrounded his humble hearth-stone. 

Two of his children died in infancy. The other two whose 
deaths preceded his were Eliza M , who died in Wellsburg, in 
January, 1819, aged nineteen years, and R. Reeves, who died 
in Chillicothe in January, 1825, aged 12 years. 


Memoir . 

Of those who have since joined him, his wife died in Wellsburg, 
in Sept., 1829, aged 52. 

Charles Hammond, died in Chillicothe, in October 1834, 
aged 18. 

Harriett T., wife of Maj. William Duval, of Fort Smith, 
Ark., died in Jan., 1841. 

Mary D., wife of B. T. Brannan, of Cincinnati, died in 
April, 1857, aged 34. 

Philip B., his elder son, died in Columbus, O., Sept. 9th, i860, 
aged 63. 



To the Reader. 

After considerable delay, I have fulfilled my engage- 
ment to the public, with respect to the history of the 
settlement and wars of the western parts of Virginia and 
Pennsylvania. The causes of the delay of the work 
were unavoidable, and a recital of them can be of no 

Whether the Notes are well executed, or otherwise, 
must be left to the candid decision of my country, and 
I am well aware the decision will speedily be made. It 
will be the opinion of some readers, that I have bestowed 
too great a portion of the book on the primitive aspect 
of the country, and the history of the state of society 
and manners of its early inhabitants. My reason for 
having bestowed so much attention on these subjects is 
this : these matters of our early history, which, if faith- 
fully preserved, will hereafter be highly interesting, are 
fast hastening into oblivion, and in a few more years 
would be totally lost. On the contrary, the events of 
the war are much longer remembered. 

Had we a similar history of the early state of any of 
the European countries, to that which is here presented 
to the world, of our own, with how much interest would 
this record be read by all classes of people. For instance, 
had we the memorials of the people who erected those rude 
monuments which are scattered over our country, the re- 
cord would give a classic character to every section of the 

46 Early Settlement and Indian TVars. 

new world ; but in every region of the world, except our 
own, the commencement of the period of their history 
was long posterior to that of their settlement ; their early 
history is therefore buried in impenetrable oblivion, and 
its place is occupied by immense regions of fable and 

To the two first parts of this history, it is presumed, 
no great additions will hereafter be necessary. Future 
generations will be competent to mark any changes 
which may take place in the physical condition, and in 
the scientific and moral state of our country, from the 
data here given, and unquestionably the changes which 
are to take place in all those departments, in the progress 
of time, will be great indeed. 

The history of our Indian wars is, in every respect, 
quite imperfect. The very limited range of the war, 
which I had in view, in this work, is not fully executed. 
The want of health, and in some instances, the want of 
proper information, have prevented the relation of several 
events which took place in this section of the country 
in the course of our conflicts with the sons of the forest, 
and which, although of minor importance in their final 
results, would nevertheless form an interesting portion 
of the history of those conflicts. 

The various attacks on Wheeling fort, and the fatal 
ambuscade near Grave creek, have been omitted for 
want of a correct account of those occurrences. These 
omissions are the less to be regretted as Noah Zane, Esq., 
has professed a determination to give the public the 
biography of his father, Col. Ebenezer Zane, the first 
proprietor and defender of the important station at Wheel- 
ing. This work will be no more than a measure of 
justice to the memory of a man who held such an im- 
portant and perilous station, as that which fell to the lot 
of Col. Zane, and who filled that station with so much 
honor to himself and advantage to our infant country, 
as he did. This biography will contain an accurate ac- 

Tb the Reader . 


count of all the attacks on Wheeling, as well as all other 
events of the war which took place in its immediate 

A well written history of the whole of our wars with 
the Indians in the western regions would certainly be a 
valuable acquisition to our literature. It would, how- 
ever, be a work of time and considerable labor, as its 
materials are scattered over a large tract of country, and 
in point of time, extend through half a century. 

The whole amount of our present memorials of this 
widely extended warfare consists merely of detached nar- 
rations, and these are for the most part but badly written. 
In many instances they are destitute of historical pre- 
cision, with regard to the order of time, and the succes- 
sion of facts, so that they are read only as anecdotes, 
and of course with but little advantage to science. 

This work is desirable, on many accounts. The 
bravery, victories and sufferings of our forefathers, ought 
to be correctly and indelibly recorded. Those who 
have lived and died for posterity ought to be rewarded 
with imperishable fame, in the grateful remembrance of 
their descendants The monuments conferred on moral 
worth, by the pen of the historian, are more durable than 
those erected by the chisel of the sculptor. 

A measure of justice is certainly due to our barbarian 
enemies themselves. For whatever of system, prudent 
foresight and arrangement, they observed in their wars 
with us, they ought to have full credit. For the full 
amount of all the patriotic motives by which these un- 
fortunate people were actuated in their bloody conflicts, 
they deserve our sincerest commiseration. 

The wars of these people are not to be regarded as 
wholly the offspring of a savage thirst for blood. They 
fought for their native country. They engaged in the 
terrible war of 1763, with a view to recover from the 
possession of the white people the whole of the western 
settlements. Their continuance of the war, after the 

48 Early Settlement and Indian IV ars. 

conclusion of our revolutionary contest, had for its ob- 
ject the preservation of as much of their country as they 
then had in possession. On the part of the most intelli- 
gent of the Indian chiefs, they fought from a motive of 
revenge and with a valor inspired by desperation. They 
foresaw the loss of their country and the downfall of 
their people, and therefore resolved on vengeance for 
the past, and the future wrongs to be inflicted on them. 

There is yet another reason for the work under con- 
sideration. The present generation are witnesses of both 
the savage and civilized state of mankind. Both ex- 
tremes are under our inspection. To future generations 
the former will exist only in history. The Indian nations 
are now a subjugated people, and every feature of their 
former state of society must soon pass away. They 
will exist only through the medium of their admixtures 
with the white people. Such has been the fate of many 
nations. Where are now the Assyrians, Chaldeans, and 
Romans ? They no longer exist ; and yet the English, 
French and Italians are, in part, descendants of the an- 
cient Romans. Such will be the fate of the aborigines 
of our country. They will perish, or lose their national 
character and existence, by admixtures with their con- 
querors. To posterity therefore their history will be 
highly acceptable. Indeed it may be said of all history, 
that like good wine it grows better by age. 

In the execution of this work I have aimed at truth, 
and nothing but truth. Impartiality imposes no restraint 
on my pen ; for independently of the circumstance that 
the contents of this history, in general, interfere with 
no party, I am incumbered with but few individual ob- 
ligations of gratitude. To political party, religious and 
other communities, I owe no obligations of any kind, 
for any benefits conferred on me, so that I have felt 
fully at liberty to speak the truth concerning all classes 
of our people, and I trust I have done so. 

If any material facts in the historical parts of this 

To the Reader . 


work have been omitted, the omission has happened 
from want of information. Incorrect statements, if there 
be any, have taken place in consequence of improper 
information. In either case I am not blamable, as I 
have done the best my circumstances allowed, in collect- 
ing materials for the work. 

Should my humble attempts at writing the history of 
my country meet with good acceptance among my fellow 
citizens I shall continue to collect, from all quarters, the 
materials for the work herein recommended, as a de- 
sideratum in the literature of our country. 

As aids in this work, I earnestly invite communica- 
tions from all those gentlemen who possess a knowledge 
of occurrences which took place during our Indian war, 
and not narrated in this work. I am particularly anxious 
to obtain the history of the settlements of the Dunkards, 
on Dunkard creek, and the Dunkard bottom on Cheat 

Joseph Doddridge. 

Wellsburg , June 17, 1824. 



For some years past, I have had it in view to write 
the Notes on the Settlement and Indian Wars of the west- 
ern parts of Virginia, and Pennsylvania, which are now 
presented to the public. At times I was deterred from 
commencing the work by an apprehension of my ina- 
bility to execute a task of so much labor and difficulty : a 
labor, not of compilation as most histories are, but con- 
sisting mainly of original composition from memory of 
events which took place when I was quite young. 

Encouraged, however, by the often repeated solicita- 
tions of those whose friendship I esteem, and whose 
good opinion I respect, I concluded that, as with my 
forefathers I had toiled amongst the pioneers of our 
country in cc turning the wilderness into fruitful fields,” 
I would venture to act in the same character, as an his- 
torian of that part of the western country with which I 
am best acquainted, and whose early history has never 
yet, to any extent, been committed to record, in hopes 
that having saved the principal materials of this history 
from oblivion, some abler hand may hereafter improve 
upon the work, by giving it any enlargement, different 
arrangement, or embellishment of style, which it may be 
thought to require. 

Many considerations present themselves to the gene- 
rous and enlightened mind of the native of the west, to 
induce him to regard a work of this kind as a sacred duty 
to his country and his ancestors, on the part of him who 
undertakes to execute it, rather than a trial of literary 
skill, a toil for literary fame, or a means of procuring gain. 



Something is certainly due to the memory of our brave 
forefathers, who, with but little aid from the colonial 
governments before the revolutionary war, and with still 
less assistance from the confederation, after the declara- 
tion of independence, subdued the forest by their perse- 
vering labor, and defended their infant country by their 
voluntary and unrequited military service, against the 
murderous warfare of their savage enemies, 

The extensive catacombs of ancient Greece, and 
Palestine, the pyramids of Egypt, and even the rude 
sepulchral monuments of our own country, serve to show 
the sacred regard of generations of remote antiquity for 
the remains of the illustrious dead. This pious regard 
for the ashes of ancestors, is not without its useful in- 
fluence on the morals and piety of their descendants. 
The lettered stone and sculptured monument contain the 
most impressive lessons of biography, because the 
mournful remains of the subjects of those lessons are so 
near at hand, when they are presented to us on the se- 
pulchres where their ashes repose. 

Is the memory of our forefathers unworthy of historic 
or sepulchral commemoration ? No people on earth, in 
similar circumstances, ever acted more nobly, or more 
bravely than they did. No people of any country, or 
age, ever made greater sacrifices for the benefit of pos- 
terity, than those which were made by the first settlers 
of the western regions. What people ever left such noble 
legacies to posterity, as those transmitted by our fore- 
fathers to their descendants ? A wilderness changed into 
a fruitful country, and a government the best on earth. 
They have borne the burden and heat of the day of trial. 
They have removed every obstacle from our path, and 
left every laudable object of ambition within our reach. 

Where shall we now find the remains of the valiant 
pioneers of our country, so deserving the grateful re- 
membrance of their descendants ? Alas ! many of them, 
for want of public burying grounds, were buried on their 

52 Early Settlement and Indian W ars. 

own farms, which their labor had ravished from the 
desert. The land has passed to other hands, and the 
fragile wooden enclosures which once surrounded their 
graves have fallen to decay, and never to be replaced. 
The swells which once designated the precise spot of 
their interment, have sunk to the common level of the 
earth. In many instances the earthy covering of their 
narrow houses will, if they have not already, be violated 
with the plow-share, and the grain growing over them 
will fill the reaper’s sickle, or the grass the mower’s 
scythe. Ungrateful descendants of a brave and worthy 
people to whom you owe your existence, your country 
and vour liberty, is it thus you treat with utter neglect 
the poor remains of your ancestors ? 

In how many instances has the memory of far less 
moral worth than the amount possessed by many of the 
fathers of our western country, occupied the chisel of 
the sculptor, the song of the poet, and the pen of the 
historian ; while the gloomy shade of impenetrable ob- 
livion is rapidly settling over the whole history, as well 
as the remains, of the fathers of our country. 

Should any one say u no matter what becomes of the 
names, or remains of these people,” it is answered, if 
such be your insensibility to the calls of duty, with regard 
to the memory of your ancestors, it is not likely that 
your name will, or ought to, live beyond the grave. 
You may die rich ; but wealth will be your all. Those 
worthy deeds which spring from the better, the generous 
feelings of our nature, can never be yours ; but must 
the well earned fame of the benefactors of our country 
perish as quickly as a prodigal offspring may dissipate 
your ill gotten estates ? No ! This would be an act of 
injustice to the world. They lived, toiled and suffered 
for others : you, on the contrary, live for yourself alone. 
Their example ought to live, because it is worthy of 
imitation; yours, on the contrary, as an example of sordid 
avarice, ought to perish forever. 



The history of national origin has been held sacred 
among all enlightened nations, and indeed has often been 
pursued beyond the period of the commencement of 
history far into the regions of fable. Among the Greeks 
the founders of their nation and the inventors of useful 
arts were ranked among the gods, and honored with 
anniversary rites of a divine character. The Romans, 
whose origin was more recent and better known, were 
not slow in recording the illustrious deeds of the founders 
of their empire, and bestowing anniversary honors upon 
their memory. The benefits of the histories of those 
illustrious nations were not confined to themselves alone. 
They gave light to the world. Had they never existed 
what an immense deduction would have been made from 
the literary world. The fabulous era would have been 
drawn nearer to us by at least two thousand years. 

National history is all important to national patriotism, 
as it places before us the best examples of our forefathers. 
We see the wisdom of their councils, their perseverance 
in action, their sufferings, their bravery in war, and the 
great and useful results of their united wisdom and 
labors. We see in succession every act of the great 
drama which led us from infancy to maturity, from war 
to peace, and from poverty to wealth, and in proportion 
as we are interested in the results of this drama, we value 
the examples which it furnishes. Even the faults which 
it exhibits are not without their use. 

History gives a classic character to the places to which 
it relates, and confers upon them a romantic value, as 
scenes of national achievements. What would be the 
value of the famous city of Jerusalem, were it not for 
the sacred history of the place ? It is a place of no local 
importance in any respect whatever. Palestine itself, so 
famous in history, is but a small tract of country, and for 
the most part poor and hilly. The classic character of 
Greece and Rome has given more or less importance to 
almost every mountain, hill, and valley, lake and island, 

54 Early Settlement and Indian Wars. 

which they contain, on account of their having been the 
places of some great achievements, or of their having 
given birth to illustrious personages. Classic scenes, as 
well as classic monuments and persons, constitute an 
impressive part of national history, and they contribute 
much to the patriotism of the nation to which they belong. 

If the Greeks should succeed in their present contest 
with the Turks’, their liberty will be justly attributable, 
in a great degree, to the potent efficacy of the history of 
their ancestors. This history may produce another 
Leonidas, Epaminondas, Lycurgus, Sophocles, Timon, 
and Demosthenes, to rival the mighty deeds of their 
forefathers, and establish a second time the independence 
of their native country. 

The history of our own country ought to furnish the first 
lessons of reading for our children, but unfortunately 
most of them are too large for school books. The se- 
lections in common use for schools are mostly foreign 
productions. They are good in themselves ; but better 
adapted to mature age than youth, because the historical 
facts to which they allude have reference to times, places, 
and persons of which they have no knowledge, and 
therefore must be read by our children without an under- 
standing of their contents. This circumstance retards 
the progress of the pupil. This practice ought to be 
discontinued ; our youth ought first to be presented with 
the history of their own country, and taught to believe 
it to be of greater importance to their future welfare, 
than that of any other nation or country whatever. 

The notes now presented to the public, embrace no 
very great extent of our country, nor do they detail the 
events of many years, yet the labor of collecting and 
arranging them was considerable, as there never existed 
any printed records of the greater number of events 
herein related ; or if such did exist, they never were 
within the reach of the author. 

The truth is, from the commencement of the revolu- 

Preface . 


tionary war until its conclusion, this country and its 
wars were little thought of by the people of the Atlantic 
states, as they had their hands full of their own share of 
the war, without attending to ours. Far the greater 
number of our campaigns, scouts, buildings, and defenses 
of forts were effected without the aid of a man, a gun, a 
bullet, or charge of powder from the general government. 
The greater number of our men were many years in 
succession engaged in military service along our front- 
iers, a considerable part of their time from spring till 
winter, without an enlistment by government, or a cent 
of pay. Their officers were of their own election. 
Their services were wholly voluntary, and their supplies 
while in service were furnished by themselves. Thus 
owing to our distant situation, and the heavy pressure of 
the revolutionary war upon the general government, the 
report of the small, but severe and destructive conflicts 
which very frequently took place in this country, was 
lost in the thunder of the great battles which occurred 
along our Atlantic border ; campaigns begun and ended 
without even a newspaper notice ; as a printing press 
was then unknown in the country. 

It was not until after the conclusion of the revolu- 
tionary war that the general government undertook to 
finish the Indian war, first by placing a cordon of spies, 
and rangers, and forts, along the frontiers, and afterwards 
by the campaigns of Harmar, St. Clair, and Wayne. 
These latter campaigns are matters of history, and need 
not be repeated here. 

The want of printed documents was not the only 
difficulty the author had to contend with ; when he 
traveled beyond the bounds of his own memory he 
found it extremely difficult to procure information from 
the living, concerning the events which he wished to re- 
late ; in personal interviews with several gentlemen 
extensively concerned in the events of the war, they 
promised to furnish the documents required, but they 

56 Early Settlement and Indian Wars . 

have not been furnished, and he soon found that he had 
no chance of obtaining them but that of writing them 
from their verbal narrations. 

I do not intend this observation as a reflection on the 
integrity of the gentlemen to whom I allude. They are 
men who are not liberal scholars, and therefore not in 
the habit of writing on historical subjects, so that however 
vivid their remembrance of the transaction in question, 
when they undertake its narration on paper, they never 
can please themselves, and therefore give up the task 
for fear of public exposure ; not knowing that the historian 
will give the facts narrated by incompetent scribes his 
own dress and arrangement. 

In delineating the manners and customs of the early 
inhabitants of our country, the author presents to his 
readers a state of society with every advantage afforded 
by experience to aid him in giving its faithful portrait, for 
it was the state of society in which he himself was 
raised, and passed his early years. 

In this department of history every reader wishes to 
be told not only the truth, but the whole truth. Let 
the picture of human manners be ever so rude, barbarous, 
or even savage, he wishes to see it in its full dimensions, 
and in all its parts. The reader, it is hoped, will not 
complain if the author has introduced him to the interior 
of the cabins, the little forts and camps with their coarse 
furniture, which were tenanted by our forefathers. The 
rude accommodations presented to his inspection, in the 
homely visit, will form an agreeable and even a romantic 
contrast to the present state of society in our country. 
This contrast will show him what mighty changes may 
be effected under an enlightened and free government 
in the course of a few years ; while the worst states of 
society in other regions of the world have remained the 
same from time immemorial, owing to the influence of 
that despotism which regards any change of the manners 
or the condition of society as criminal, and therefore pre- 

Preface . 


vents them by the severest penalties, because ignorance 
and poverty are favorable to the perpetuity of that slavery, 
on the part of the common people, which is essential to 
its existence. 

In the whole of these Notes the author has given the 
English names, alone, to our plants, birds and beasts. 
Men of science may apply the Linnean names if they 
choose, the mere English reader can do better without 

Thus, reader, the author has brought his work to a 
conclusion. He has faithfully endeavored to fill up the 
little chasm which existed in the history of our country. 
He can only answer for a good intention, and a strict 
regard to truth in all his narrations ; for all its results to 
his country, and himself personally, he most willingly 
submits to the imperial court of public opinion, from 
whose awful decisions there is no appeal ; without invok- 
ing that justice which, whether asked or unasked, the 
work will be sure to receive. 


(fchj Settlement and Indian 


Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 


State of the Wilderness. 

To a person who has witnessed all the changes 
which have taken place in the western country, since its 
first settlement, its former appearance is like a dream, 
or romance. He will find it difficult to realize the fea- 
tures of that wilderness which was the abode of his infant 
days. The little cabin of his father no longer exists : 
the little field and truck patch, which gave him a scanty 
supply of coarse bread and vegetables, have been swal- 
lowed up in the extended meadow, orchard, or grain field. 
The rude fort, in which his people had resided so many 
painful summers, has vanished, and “Like the baseless 
fabric of a vision left not a wreck behind.” Large farms, 
with splendid mansion houses and well filled barns, ham- 
lets, villages, and even cities, now occupy the scenes of 
his youthful sports, hunting or military excursions. In 
the place of forest trees or hawthorn bushes, he sees the 
awful forum of justice, or the sacred temple with its 
glittering spire pointing to the heavens ; and instead of 
the war whoop of savages or the howling of wolves he 
hears the swelling anthem, or pealing organ. 

60 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Every where surrounded by the busy hum of men, 
and the splendor, arts, refinements and comforts of 
civilized life, his former state and that of his country 
have vanished from his memory ; or, if sometimes he 
bestows a reflection on its original aspect, the mind 
seems to be carried back to a period of time much more 
remote than it really is. The immense changes which 
have taken place in the physical and moral state of 
the country have been gradual, and, therefore, scarcely 
perceived from year to year ; but the view, from one 
extreme to the other, is like the prospect of the opposite 
shore, over a vast expanse of water, whose hills, val- 
leys, mountains and forests present a confused and 
romantic scenery, which loses itself in the distant 

One advantage, at least, results from having lived in a 
state of society ever on the change, and always for 
the better, it doubles the retrospect of life. , With me, 
at any rate, it has had that effect. Did not the definite 
number of my years teach me the contrary, I should 
think myself at least one hundred years old, instead of 
fifty. The case is said to be widely different with those 
who have passed their lives in cities, or ancient settle- 
ments, where, from year to year, the same unchanging 
aspect of things presents itself. There life passes away 
as an illusion, or dream, having been presented with no 
striking events, or great and important changes, to mark 
its different periods, and give them an imaginary distance 
from each other, and it ends with a bitter complaint of 
its shortness. It must be my own fault if I shall ever 
have occasion to make this complaint. I do not recol- 
lect to have ever heard it made by any of my cotemporary 
countrymen, whose deaths I have witnessed. 

A wilderness of great extent, presenting the virgin 
face of nature, unchanged by human cultivation or art, 
is certainly one of the most sublime terrestrial objects 
which the Creator ever presented to the view of man ; 


Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 

but those portions of the earth which bear this character, 
derive their features of sublimity from very different 
aspects. The great deserts of Africa wear an imposing 
aspect, even on account of their utter barrenness of vege- 
tation, where no tree affords fruit, or shelter from the 
burning heat of the day, no bird is heard to sing, and no 
flower expands its leaves to the sun, as well as from 
their immense extent. 

In the steppes of Russia, the oriental plain of Tartary, 
the traveler, did not his reason correct the illusion of his 
senses, at the rising and setting of the sun, would imagine 
himself in the midst of a boundless ocean, so vast, so 
level and monotonous is the prospect around him. 

What must be the awful sublimity of the immense 
regions of polar solitude, where the distant sun reflects 
his dazzling rays from plains of snow, and mountains of 
ice, but without warming. 

The valley of the Mississippi, whose eastern and 
western boundaries are the Alleghany and Rocky moun- 
tains, the northern the chain of lakes which separate us 
from Canada, and the southern, the gulf of Florida, in 
addition to the imposing grandeur of its vast extent, is 
an immense region of animal and vegetable life, in all 
their endless varieties. In all this vast extent of coun- 
try, no mountain rears its towering head to vary the 
scenery, and afford a resting place for the clouds, no 
volcano vomits forth its smoke, flame and lava in sublime, 
but destructive grandeur. Even those portions of this 
valley which in ages past were the beds of lakes, but 
have been drained by the sinking of the rivers, present a 
rich vegetable mould . 1 

1 There is every evidence that those tracts of our country which consist 
of beds of rounded gravel and stones have formerly been lakes, which have 
been drained by the lowering of the beds of the rivers. These tracts of 
country have been covered with a vegetable mould, from the decay of vege- 
table matters on their surface, so as to have become good land for cultiva- 
tion. Such are the Pickaway and Sandusky plains, and indeed the greater 


62 Early Settlement and Indian ITars of 

This great countrv seems to have been designed by 
Divine Providence for the last resort of oppressed 
humanity. A fruitful soil, under a variety of climates, 
supplies abundantly all the wants of life, while our geo- 
graphical situation renders us unconquerable. From this 
place of refuge we may hear, as harmless thunder, the 
military convulsions of other quarters of the globe, with- 
out feeling their concussions. Vice and folly may con- 
quer us : the world never can. Happy region ! large 
and fertile enough for the abode of many millions. 
Here the hungry may find bread, and conscience the 
full possession of its native rights. 

With the geography and geology of this country I 
have no concern. I leave these subjects to the ge- 
ographer, and natural historian. The aspect which it 
bore at the time of its discovery and settlement, must 
alone be presented to the reader. 

One prominent feature of a wilderness is its solitude. 
Those who plunged into the bosom of this forest, left 
behind them, not only the busy hum of men, but domes- 
ticated animal life generally. The parting rays of the 
setting sun did not receive the requiem of the feathered 
songsters of the grove, nor was the blushing aurora 
ushered in by the shrill clarion of the domestic fowls. 
The solitude of the night was interrupted only by the 
howl of the wolf, the melancholy moan of the ill-boding 

part of the Scioto country, as well as many other tracts of land along other 
rivers. The Ohio river has lowered its bed from fifty to eighty feet. Steuben- 
ville, Beavertown and Cincinnati stand on the first alluvion of the river 5 
this alluvion is at least seventy feet above the present bed of the river. 
This phenomenon of the lowering of the waters is not confined to our own 
country. The former bed of the Red sea is from thirty to forty feet above 
the present surface of its waters. The Black sea is sinking by the wearing 
down of the canal of Constantinople ; and it seems every way probable that 
a considerable portion of the deserts of Africa, next the sea, were once 
covered with the waters of the Atlantic. Large tracts of our southern sea 
coasts are evidently alluvial. The causes of the sinking of the beds of 
rivers, and the recession of the sea from its shores, must be left to the inves- 
tigation of geologists. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 63 

owl, or the shriek of the frightful panther. Even the 
faithful dog, the only steadfast companion of man among 
the brute creation, partook of the silence of the desert ; 
the discipline of his master forbid him to bark, or move, 
but in obedience to his command, and his native sagacity 
soon taught him the propriety of obedience to this severe 
government. The day was, if possible, more solitary 
than the night. The noise of the wild turkey, the 
croaking of the raven, or u the woodpecker tapping the 
hollow beech tree,’’ did not much enliven the dreary 

The various tribes of singing birds are not inhabitants of 
the desert; they are not carnivorous and therefore must 
be fed from the labors of man. At any rate they did not 
exist in this country at its first settlement. 

Let the imagination of the reader pursue the track of 
the adventurer into this solitary wilderness. Bending 
his course towards the setting sun, over undulating hills, 
under the shade of large forest trees, and wading through 
the rank weeds and grass which then covered the earth. 
Now viewing from the top of a hill the winding 
course of the creek whose stream he wishes to explore, 
doubtful of its course, and of his own, he ascertains the 
cardinal points of north and south by the thickness of 
the moss and bark on the north side of the ancient trees. 
Now descending into a valley and presaging his approach 
to a river, by seeing large ash, bass-wood and sugar trees, 
beautifully festooned with wild grape vines. Watchful as 
Argus, his restless eye catches every thing around him. 
In an unknown region, and surrounded with dangers, he 
is the sentinel of his own safety, and relies on himself 
alone for protection. The toilsome march of the day 
being ended, at the fall of night he seeks for safety some 
narrow, sequestered hollow, and by the side of a large log 
builds a fire, and, after eating his coarse and scanty meal, 
wraps himself up in his blanket, and lays him down on 
his bed of leaves, with his feet to the little fire, for re 

64 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

pose, hoping for favorable dreams ominous of future 
good luck, while his faithful dog and gun repose by his 

But let not the reader suppose that the pilgrim of the 
wilderness could feast his imagination with the romantic 
beauties of nature, without any drawback from conflict- 
ing passions. His situation did not afford him much time 
for contemplation. He was an exile from the warm 
clothing and plentiful mansions of society. His homely 
woodsman’s dress soon became old and ragged ; the 
cravings of hunger compelled him to sustain from day to 
day the fatigues of the chase. Often had he to eat his 
venison, bear meat, or wild turkey, without bread or salt. 
Nor was this all, at every step the strong passions of 
hope and fear were in full exercise. Eager in the pur- 
suit of his game, his too much excited imagination some- 
times presented him with the phantom of the object of 
his chase, in a bush, a log, or mossy bank, and occasioned 
him to waste a load of his ammunition, more precious 
than gold, on a creature of his own brain, and he repaid him- 
self the expense by making a joke of his mistake. His 
situation was not without its dangers. He did not know 
at what tread his foot might be stung by a serpent, at 
what moment he might meet with the formidable bear, 1 or, 
if in the evening, he knew not on what limb of a tree, over 
his head, the murderous panther might be perched, in a 

1 It is said, that for some time after Braddock’s defeat, the bears, having 
feasted on the slain, thought that they had a right to kill and eat every 
human being with whom they met. An uncle of mine, of the name of 
Teter, had like to have lost his life by one of them. It was in the summer 
time, when bears were poor, and not worth killing $ being in the woods, 
he saw an old male bear winding along after him $ with a view to have the 
sport of seeing the bear run, he hid himself behind a tree 5 when the bear 
approached him, he sprang out and hallooed at him ; but cuffee, instead of 
running off as he expected, jumped at him with mouth wide open ; my 
uncle stopped him by applying the muzzle of his gun to his neck, and firing 
it off: this killed him in an instant. If his gun had snapped, the hunter 
would have been torn to pieces on the spot. After this, he says he never 
undertook to play with a bear. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 65 

squatting attitude, to drop down upon, and tear him to 
pieces in a moment. When watching a deer lick from 
his blind at night, the formidable panther was often his 
rival in the same business, and if, by his growl, or other- 
wise, the man discovered the presence of his rival, the 
lord of the world always retired as speedily and secretly 
as possible, leaving him the undisturbed possession of the 
chance of game for the night. 

The wilderness was a region of superstition. The 
adventurous hunter sought for ominous presages of his 
future good or bad luck in every thing about him. 
Much of his success depended on the state of the weather ; 
snow and rain were favorable, because in the former he 
could track his game, and the latter prevented them from 
hearing the rustling of the leaves beneath his feet. The 
appearance of the sky, morning and evening, gave him 
the signs of the times, with regard to the weather. So 
far he was a philosopher. Perhaps he was aided in his 
prognostics on this subject, by some old rheumatic pain, 
which he called his weather clock . Say what you 
please about this, doctors, the first settlers of this 
country, were seldom mistaken in this latter indication 
of the weather. The croaking of a raven, the howling 
of a dog, and the screech of an owl, were as prophetic 
of future misfortunes among the first adventurers into 
this country, as they were amongst the ancient pagans ; 
but above all, their dreams were regarded as ominous of 
good or ill success. Often when a boy I heard them re- 
late their dreams, and the events which fulfilled their 
indications. With some of the woodsmen there were 
two girls of their acquaintance, who were regarded as the 
goddesses of their good or bad luck. If they dreamed 
of the one, they were sure of good fortune ; if of the 
other, they were equally sure of bad. How much love 
or aversion might have had to do in this case I cannot 
say, but such was the fact. 

Let not the reader be surprised at the superst tion 

66 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

which existed among the first adventurers into the west- 
ern wilderness. Superstition is universally associated 
with ignorance, in all those who occupy perilous situa- 
tions in life. The comets used to be considered harbingers 
of war. The sea captain nails an old horse shoe to the 
foot of the mast of his ship to prevent storms. The 
Germans used to nail the horse shoe on the door-sill, to 
prevent the intrusion of witches. The German soldier 
recites a charm, at the rising of the sun, when in the 
course of the day he expects to be engaged in battle, by 
the means of which he fancies that he fortifies himself 
against the contact of balls of every description . 1 Charms, 
incantations, and amulets, have constituted a part of the 
superstition of all ages and nations. Philosophy alone 
can banish their use. 

The passion of fear excited by danger, the parent of 
superstition, operated powerfully on the first adventurers 
into this country. Exiled from society, and the comforts 
of life, their situation was perilous in the extreme. The 
bite of a serpent, a broken limb, a wound of any kind, 
or a fit of sickness in the wilderness, without those ac- 
commodations which wounds and sickness require, was 
a dreadful calamity. The bed of sickness without 
medical aid, and, above all, to be destitute of the kind 
attention of a mother, sister, wife, or other female friends, 
those ministering angels in the wants and afflictions of 
man, was a situation which could not be anticipated by 
the tenant of the forest with other sentiments than those 
of the deepest horror. 

Many circumstances concurred to awaken in the mind 
of the early adventurer into this country the most serious 
and even melancholy reflections. He saw everywhere 
around him indubitable evidences of the former existence 

1 Many years ago, I saw a manuscript of this wonderful charm, but have 
so forgotten its contents, that I cannot now undertake to give a translation 
of it. 


Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 

of a large population of barbarians, which had long ago 
perished from the earth. Their arrow heads furnished 
him with gun flints ; stone hatchets, pipes, and fragments 
of earthen ware, were found in every place. The re- 
mains of their rude fortifications were met with in many 
places, and some of them of considerable extent and 
magnitude. Seated on the summit of some sepulchral 
mound containing the ashes of tens of thousands of the 
dead, he said to himself : “ This is the grave, and this, 
no doubt, the temple of worship of a long succession of 
generations long since mouldered into dust ; these sur- 
rounding valleys were once animated by their labors, 
hunting and wars, their songs and dances ; but oblivion 
has drawn her impenetrable veil over their whole history ; 
no lettered page, no sculptured monument informs who 
they were, from whence they came, the period of their 
existence, or by what dreadful catastrophe the iron hand 
of death has given them so complete an overthrow, and 
made the whole of this country an immense Golgotha. 

Such, reader, was the aspect of this country at its first 
discovery, and such the poor and hazardous lot of the 
first adventurers into the bosoms of its forests. How 
widely different is the aspect of things now, and how 
changed for the better the condition of its inhabitants ! 
If such important changes have taken place in so few 
years, and with such slender means, what immense im- 
provements may we not reasonably anticipate for the 
future ! 

68 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 


Remains of an Extinct People. 

The western country, in common with almost every 
other region of the earth, exhibits evidences of a numerous 
population which must have existed and perished long 
anterior to the period of history. The evidences of the 
most remote population of our country are found only in 
the few and rude remains of their works which have 
escaped the ravages of time. Such of these antiquities 
as have come under the notice of the author shall be 
described with some remarks upon them. 

Arrow heads, at the first settlement of the country, 
were found everywhere. These were made of flint 
stone of various sizes and colors, and shaped with great 
art and neatness. Their fabrication required more skill 
and labor than that of making our ordinary gun flints. 
From the great numbers of these arrow points, found all 
over the country, it is presumable that they must have 
been in general use, by a large population, and for a great 
length of time. The author has never been informed 
whether, at the discovery and settlement of America by 
the Europeans, the Indians were in the habit of ysing 
them. Some of these arrow points were of great size 
and weight, so that those who used them must have been 
gigantic fellows, and of great muscular strength. Fora 
long time after the settlement of the country the Indian 
arrow heads furnished the main supply of gun-flints for 
our hunters and warriors, many of whom preferred them 
to the imported flints. The arrow points have nearly 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 69 

vanished from the country. I have not seen one for 
many years. 

Stone pipes and hatchets were frequently found here 
in early times. The pipes were rudely made, but many 
of them of very fanciful shapes. The existence of these 
pipes shows very clearly that the practice of smoking 
acrid substances is of great antiquity. Before the use of 
tobacco, the Indians smoked the inner bark of the red 
willow mixed with sumac leaves. They do so still, when 
they cannot procure tobacco. 

Some fragments of a rude kind of earthen ware were 
found in some places. It was made of potter’s-earth 
mixed with calcined shells, and burnt to a proper hard- 
ness. This ware was no doubt used for cooking. 

Some rude trinkets of copper have been found in 
some of the Indian graves. These, however, were but 
few in number, and exhibited no skill in the art of work- 
ing metals. Many years ago I procured ten copper 
beads, which were found in one of the smaller graves 
on Grave-creek flat. The whole number found at the 
time was about sixty. They appeared to have been 
made of hammered wire, cut off at unequal lengths, and 
in some of them the ends were not more than half their 
surface in contact, and so soldered. 

The ancient forts, as they are called, are generally 
formed in the neighborhood of the large graves along 
the river, and mostly on the first alluvion of their 
bottoms. They are of all shapes and various dimen- 
sions. They have been so often described by different 
authors that a description of them is not necessary here. 
Whether they were really fortifications, or ordinary in- 
closures of their towns, is not so certain. It is said to 
be a common practice among the Indians of Missouri 
to inclose a piece of ground, which they intend for a 
town, with stockades, on each side of which they throw 
up a mound of earth, and that, when one of their towns 
has been so long deserted that the stockading has rotted 

70 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

down, the remaining mound of earth has precisely the 
same appearance as one of the ancient forts. If this 
was their origin, and most probably it was, they were 
fortifications in the same degree that the walls of all an- 
cient towns and cities were, and not otherwise. The 
circular mounds at Circleville, in Ohio, are the only 
ones I have ever seen, which appear to have been ex- 
clusively intended for a fortress. 

The sepulchral mounds make by far the greatest 
figure among # the antiquities of our country. In point of 
magnitude some of them are truly sublime and impos- 
ing monuments of human labor for the burial of the 

The large grave, on Grave-creek flat, is the only large 
one in this section of the country. The diameter of its 
base is said to be one hundred yards, its altitude at least 
seventy-five feet, some give it at ninety feet. The dia- 
meter at the top is fifteen yards. The sides and top of 
the mound are covered with trees, of all sizes and ages, 
intermingled with fallen and decaying timber, like the 
surrounding woods. Supposing this august pyramid to 
contain human bones, in equal proportion with the lesser 
mounds which have been opened from time to time, 
what myriads of human beings must repose in its vast 
dimensions . 1 

The present owner of this mound, the author has 
been informed, has expressed his determination to pre- 
serve it in its original state during his life. He will not 
suffer the axe to violate its timber, nor the mattocks its 

1 President Jefferson mentions having made a perpendicular cut through 
an Indian grave on the river Rivanna, near Monticello, with a view to 
examine its internal structure and contents. The base of the grave was 
forty feet in diameter, its height seven feet and a half. After a careful 
examination of the bones contained in the sepulchre, he concluded that it 
might contain one thousand skeletons. Supposing this estimate correct, 
what must be the number of skeletons contained in the gieat pyramid of 
Grave creek? Those who are curious enough to make the calculation are 
requested to do so, and give the result. — Notes on Virginia , p. 1 3 1 . 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 71 

earth. May his successors to the title of the estate for- 
ever feel the same pious regard for this august mansion 
of the dead, and preserve the venerable monument of 
antiquity from that destruction which has already anni- 
hilated, or defaced, a large number of the lesser deposi- 
tories of the dead. 

Most of the writers on the antiquities of our country 
represent the sepulchral mounds under consideration, as 
peculiar to America. Were such the fact, they would 
be objects of great curiosity indeed ; as their belonging 
exclusively to this quarter of the globe would go to show 
that the aborigines of America were different from all 
other nations of the earth, at least in their manner of 
disposing of their dead. 

But the fact is not so. The history of these ancient 
sepulchres of the dead embraces Europe, Asia and 
Africa, as well as North and South America. Large 
groups of those mounds are met with in many places 
between St. Petersburgh and Moscow in Russia. When 
the people of that country are asked if they have any 
tradition concerning them they answer in the negative. 
They suppose that they are the graves of men slain in 
battle ; but when, or by whom constructed, they have 
no knowledge. Near the mouth of the river Don there 
is a group of five mounds which from time immemorial 
have been denominated The Five Brothers. Similar 
mounds are very numerous along the shores of the Black 
sea, and those of the sea of Azof, and throughout the 
whole country of the Crimea. They are found through- 
out ancient Greece. In the neighborhood of ancient 
Troy there are several of them nearly as large as any in 
America. The mound described by Robbins, in the 
vicinity of Wadinoon in Africa, is certainly an ancient 
sepulchral mound although he calls it a natural one. 

This is the more probable as the remains of fortifica- 
tions or town -walls, similar to those in our country, exist 
in abundance in the neighborhood of Wadinoon. On 

72 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

the hills near Cambridge in England are shown two large 
barrows as the tombs of Gog and Magog. The cairns 
of Scotland are structures of the same kind, but made 
wholly of stone. Peru and Mexico contain a vast num- 
ber of those mounds of all shapes and of the largest 
dimensions. Lastly, the famous pyramids of Egypt have 
been ascertained to be sepulchral edifices. In all probabil- 
ity they are coeval with the sepulchral monuments of other 
quarters of the globe already mentioned. They were 
designed for the last and permanent exhibition of the re- 
gal grandeur of those monarchs by whom they were 
successively erected. 

The great number and magnitude of the sepulchral 
monuments of antiquity serve to show that during the 
time of their erection, over so large a portion of the 
earth, mankind generally must have been actuated by a 
strong desire to preserve the remains of the dead from 
dissolution, and their names and renown, as far as pos- 
sible, from oblivion. The extensive catacombs of Egypt, 
Syracuse, and Palestine, are fully illustrative of the 
general wish for the preservation of the body after death, 
and posthumous fame. What must have been the labor 
and expense of excavating limestone or marble rocks to 
such vast extent and with such exquisite workmanship 
for the purpose of furnishing elegant and imperishable 
recesses for the dead. 

The ancient Egyptians held the first rank, among the 
nations of antiquity, in their care and skill for preserving 
the remains of their dead. 1 To the most splendid and 
extensive catacombs, they added the practice of embalming 

1 Upwards of twenty years ago the author saw a hand and part of the 
arm of an Egyptian mummy, in the Franklin library of Philadelphia. It 
was covered with two bandages of what is called six hundred linen. Be- 
tween the skin and the first bandage there was a layer of plaster of some 
kind of gum, and the same between the first and outer bandage. The 
thumb and fingers were separately, and very neatly, bandaged. It was, in 
size and appearance, the left hand of a small woman. This relic of anti- 
quity is no doubt several thousand years old. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 73 

their bodies ; many of which have so far escaped the 
ravages of time. These embalmed bodies, preserved 
from putrifaction by serates and bandages of linen, are 
still found, sometimes in solitary cells, and sometimes in 
large numbers, in newly discovered catacombs ; but 
for want of letters, their early history has vanished for- 

While the ancient Egyptians skillfully preserved the 
individual bodies of their dead, other nations were in the 
practice of collecting the bones of their people and de- 
positing them in sepulchral monuments of a national 

Nearly all the sepulchral mounds which have been 
thoroughly opened, in Asia and America, contain, about 
the centre of the bottom, a coffin, or vault of stone, con- 
taining but one skeleton. This, we may reasonably 
suppose, was the sarcophagus of the patriarch, or first 
monarch of the tribe or nation to which the sepulchre 
belonged. Thenceforward all his people were deposited 
in the grave of the founder of the nation. In process 
of time, the daily increasing mound became the national 
history. Its age was the age of the nation, and its mag- 
nitude gave the census of their relative numbers, and 
military force, with regard to other nations about them. 
What a sublime spectacle to the people to whom it be- 
longed, must one of those large sepulchres have been ! 
The remains of the first chief of the nation, with his 
people, and their successors, through many generations, 
reposing together in the same tomb ! 

It is a well known fact that some nations of Indians, 
ever since the settlement of America by the Europeans, 
have been in the habit of collecting the bones of their 
dead, from every quarter, for the purpose of depositing 
them, with those of their people, at their chief towns. 
This must have been the general practice during the 
time of the erection of the large ancient graves of our 
country ; for the bones found in those of them which 

74 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

have been opened, have been thrown promiscuously to- 
gether in large collections, as if emptied out of baskets 
or bags. 

Besides the large graves, smaller ones are found in 
many places, remote from the large mounds, and all 
traces of the ancient forts. Most of these are made 
wholly of stone, and for the most part contain but a 
single skeleton. Were these solitary mounds erected 
to the memory of the individual whose remains they 
cover ? Such appears to have been the fact. That a 
similar custom prevailed among the ancient Hebrews, 
we have an evidence in the burial of Absalom, the re- 
bellious son of David, who, although unworthy of a place 
in the royal sepulchre, was nevertheless honored with 
such a rude monument of stones as we often meet with 
in our country. After he was slain by Joab, the com- 
mander-in-chief of his father’s army, “ They took Absa- 
lom and cast him into a great pit in the wood, and cast a 
very great heap of stones upon him.” 

From all these facts it appears that the strong desire 
of posthumous fame induced those nations, amongst 
whom the art of writing was unknown, to preserve the 
remembrance of their chiefs, or friends, by erecting over 
their dead bodies a heap of earth, or a pile of stones, as 
well as to make the congregated dead of many genera- 
tions a national monument, and a national record. 

Nearly all the sepulchral mounds which have been 
opened in Asia and America have been found to contain 
more or less charcoal and calcined bones. From this 
fact, it appears that those ancient tombs were altars for 
sacrifice. The early histories of the Greeks and Romans 
inform us that it was customary to offer sacrifices on the 
tombs of heroes slain in battle, with the revolting fact 
that the victims offered on those sepulchral altars were 
often the prisoners taken in war. 

Islanders, surrounded by a great extent of ocean, and 
thereby precluded from emigrations, are less liable to 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 75 

change their languages* manners, and customs, than the 
inhabitants of continents. Hence those of the Society 
islands of the South sea, and those of the Sandwich 
islands of the Pacific, still continue the ancient practice 
of depositing the bones of their dead in mounds, or as 
they call them morai ; and these morai are their temples, 
on the tops of which their idols are placed for worship. 
The truth is, these mounds were the high places of the 
pagan nations, mentioned in the Old Testament, and 
among these we may safely reckon the famous tower of 

It was on the top of one of those mounds, in the island 
of Owhyhee, that Capt. Cook, wrapped up in three hun- 
dred ells of Indian cloth, and mounted on a scaffold of 
rotten railing, was worshiped as a god, under the name 
of Oranoo ; but while receiving the devotions of the 
islanders he was every moment afraid of tumbling down 
and breaking his neck. 1 • 

Having given the history of the ancient sepulchral 
mounds, as they exist in every quarter of the globe, two 
questions only, remain for discussion: At what period 
of the world were they erected, and whether by a bar- 
barous or civilized people ? 

The great antiquity of the monuments in question 
may be ascertained by many facts which cannot fail to 
strike the notice of an attentive observer of the relics 
of antiquity. In America, as far as the author knows, 
none of the large mounds are found on the first or lower 
bottoms of our rivers, but always on the second or highest 
alluvion ; and such is their situation in Asia and Europe. 
None of them are to be seen on those tracts of country 
which were the beds of lakes, or inland seas. In the 
great oriental plain of Tartary, a great part of which was 
formerly covered by the waters of the Black and Cas- 
pian seas, and those of the sea of Azof, but which have 

1 For a particular description of the antiquities of our country, the reader 
is referred to the ingenious notes of Caleb Atwater Esq., of Circleville, 
lately published in the Archaologia Americana. 

76 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

been drained off by the breaking down of the Thracian 
Bosphorus, which formed the canal of Constantinople ; 
but they are found in abundance along the higher grounds 
of the southern and western shores of those seas, and in 
the neighboring country of Crim Tartary. The gain of 
the land upon the waters of our globe has been im- 
mensely great \ but this gain has been but slowly made. 
The very sites of our ancient tombs give a very remote 
antiquity for the period of their erection. Their situa- 
tions, mainly along the large rivers and on the shores of 
lakes, announce the primeval state of nations. As the 
spoils of the water are more easily obtained than those 
of the forest, and these last more easily than the pro- 
ductions of the earth, the first employment of man 
must have been that of fishing, and his first food the 
productions of the waters. 

These mounds and forts are not found in any great 
numbers along the shores of # the main oceans. This 
circumstance goes to show that those by whom they 
were made were not in the practice of navigating the 
great seas. That their existence is of higher antiquity 
than the commencement of the period of history, is evi- 
dent from the fact that none of them contain a single 
inscription of any kind. Even the famous pyramids of 
Egypt do not contain a single letter or hieroglyphic to 
announce the time when, or the persons by whom, they 
were erected. If letters had been in use at the time of 
the building of those stupendous repositories of departed 
grandeur they would doubtless have been used to an- 
nounce the names and honor of those who erected them 
for sepulchral and imperishable monuments of their own 
power, wealth and majesty. 

Another evidence of the great age of these rude remains 
of antiquity is this ; there exists nowhere even a tradi- 
tionary account of their origin. At the earliest period 
of the Grecian history they were supposed, but only 
supposed, to be the graves of giants. After what lapse 


Western Virginia and Pennsylvania, 

of time does tradition degenerate into fable ? At wh^t 
period of time does fable itself wear out, and consign all 
antiquity to a total and acknowledged oblivion ? All 
this has happened with regard to the antiquities under 

From all these considerations, it appears that any in- 
quiry concerning the history of the antiquities of our 
country would be a fruitless research. “ Close shut 
those graves, nor tell a single tale,” concerning the num- 
erous population whose relics they enclose. 

The antiquities of our country do not present to the 
mind of the author the slightest evidences that this 
quarter of the world was ever inhabited by a civilized 
people before it was discovered by the Europeans. 
They present no traces of the art of building, sculpture 
or painting ; not a stone marked with a hammer is any- 
where to be found. It is supposed, by some, that the 
aborigines of this country were in the habit of using iron 
tools, and implements of war ; that such was the fact 
appears to me very doubtful. There can exist no speci- 
mens of iron coeval with the antiquities of this country, 
as iron, in almost any situation, is liable to rust and 
pass to its primitive state of ore. At the discovery of 
America, the Indians knew nothing of the use of iron. 
Any people who have ever been in the habit of using 
iron will be sure to leave some indelible traces of its 
use behind them ; but the aborigines of this country 
have left none. 

Barbarians, in many instances, have possessed, and do 
still possess, the art of writing ; but it is not to be pre- 
sumed that a civilized people ever were destitute of that 
art. The original inhabitants of this country possessed 
it not, or they would certainly have left some traces of 
it behind them. 

If they possessed some trinkets of copper, silver, gold, 
or even tools and military weapons of iron, they never- 
theless furnish no evidences of civilization, as all history 

78 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

goes to show that the^ornamental, or military use of 
these metals is consistent with the grossest barbarism. 
The Calmuc Tartars have their gold, and silversmiths ; 
and yet what people on earth are more barbarous than 
the Calmucs. The same may be said of the Circassians ; 
they have an abundance of gold and silver ornaments ; 
yet they are savages. Copper may have found its way 
to this country from Peru, a country in which that 
metal is abundant ; a few gold and silver coins, if such 
have been found in our country, may have come from 
Asia, or even Europe ; but they certainly were never 
manufactured here. 

If at the period of time herein alluded to, there was 
anything like civilization in the world, it was exclusively 
confined to Egypt, and the islands in the neighborhood 
of that country. The pyramids of Egypt, and the 
queen’s palace in the island of Cyprus, are built of hewn 
stone ; but piling up huge stones, in useless edifices, by 
the hands of slaves, is no great evidence of civilization. 
In fact the edifices themselves, although they manifest 
a degree of mechanical skill, and the use of iron tools, 
are evidences of the grossest barbarism on the part of 
those by whose orders they were built. It was exhaust- 
ing the lives and resources of a nation in useless monu- 
ments not of national grandeur, but solely for that of 
the individual monarch. 

It is not worth while to amuse ourselves with the 
fanciful creations of a vivid -imagination unsupported by 
facts. The evidences of science and civilization are 
not furnished by the antiquities of our country, and in 
vain, beyond the period of history, do we look for them 
in any other region of the earth. By what events could 
the monuments of arts, sciences, and civilization, have 
been utterly destroyed ? Storms, earthquakes, volca- 
noes, and war, destructive as they are, are not sufficiently 
so to efface them. The shores of our rivers and lakes 
have been inhabited by a race of barbarians, who have 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 79 

subsisted by hunting and fishing. They have left us 
their forts or town walls, and their graves, and but little 
else. If they had left behind them any monuments of 
arts and sciences, they in like manner would have de- 
scended to us ; but nothing of the kind has come to our 
hands. They were not, therefore, possessed of those 
arts and sciences which are essential to a civilized state 
of society. It is often asked, whether those people, who 
have left behind them the antiquities of our country, 
were the ancestors of the present Indians ? Unques- 
tionably they were, and reader, their cotemporaries of 
Europe and Asia were your ancestors and they were 
mine. Humiliating as this statement may seem, it must 
be true ; otherwise there must have been two creations 
of the human race, and this we have no reason to sup- 

Perhaps the moral philosopher might say with truth, 
that the intellectual faculties of man, on a general scale, 
like those of the individual, have been doomed to pass 
through a tedious infancy, nonage and youth, before 
they shall reach the zenith of manhood. However rude, 
and indicative of barbarism, the antiquities which those 
remote generations have left behind them, their relation 
to us, as ancestors, is no way dishonorable to us. It is 
only saying that theirs was the infant state of the intel- 
lectual faculties of man. What were the intellectual 
faculties of Sir Isaac Newton in his infancy, and nonage, 
in comparison to the state of their full development, 
when he not only grasped the dimensions of our globe, 
but, in the science of astronomy, whirled in triumph 
through the signs of heaven? Yet it is no way dis- 
honorable to this prince of philosophers, that he was 
once an infant and a boy. 

It may be asked, by what events has all remembrance 
of those remote generations been so far effaced, that even 
the fabulous era of the world has left them in total and 
acknowledged oblivion ? Here we are truly in the dark. 

80 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

One-third of the period of time assigned for the duration 
of the world passed away before the dreadful catastrophe 
of the flood, u When all the fountains of the great deep 
were broken up, and the windows of heaven were 
opened, and rain was upon the earth forty days, and forty 

To this it may be objected, even by the believer, 
that in all probability this flood did not extend to every 
region of the globe, but might have been confined 
to that part of it which was known to the writer 
of the sacred history. This point cannot be easily 
settled ; but admitting that such was the fact ; and ad- 
mitting for the moment, all the objections of that too 
fashionable philosophy which rejects the authenticity of 
Divine revelation altogether., what would be the result ? 
Would the limitation of the extent of the history of this 
destruction, on the one hand, or the total denial of its 
authenticity on the other hand, have any bearing on the 
physical evidences of the mighty revolutions which have 
taken place on our globe ? The natural history of those 
revolutions is exhibited, and its awful import cannot be 
mistaken. The philosopher sees all over the surface of 
the earth, and even within its bowels, the spoils of the 
ocean. All fossil coal, he says, was vegetable matter. 
If so, by what tremendous convulsions have such im- 
mense quantities of vegetable matters been buried, over 
so great a portion of the globe, and at such depths below 
its surface ? All limestone, marble and selenite, he 
says, have been formed from the shells of the numerous 
tribes of shell fish, because, like those shells, they are 
carbonates of lime ; and yet there is no description of 
stone more abundant than the carbonates of lime. If 
this be correct, what must be the age of the world, and 
what destructive revolutions must have rent and changed 
the position of its 'component parts in every quarter ! 

Yet it seems every way probable, that those destruc- 
tive convulsions which have been occasioned by floods, 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 81 

earthquakes, and subterranean fires, never took place 
over the whole extent of the globe at any time ; but 
have affected different regions in succession so that how- 
ever great the destruction of animated nature at any one 
of those tremendous revolutions, the greater amount of 
it still remained in other regions. 

After having passed in review the antiquities of our 
country, particularly the melancholy monuments of the 
ancient dead, what have we gained ? Simply this, that 
the generations of remote antiquity were everywhere 
the same, at least in their reverence for the dead, whose 
monuments constitute almost the only history which 
they have left behind them, and that for want of letters, 
and other testimonials of arts, and sciences, we are 
warranted in saying that their state of society must have 
-*been that which we denominate the barbarous ; yet their 
history, rude as it is, is entitled to respect. They were 
no doubt the antediluvian race : they were the primeval 
fathers of mankind. The immediate progenitors of our 
race, to whom the munificent creator gave dominion over 
the “fish of the sea, the fowl of the air, and every living 
thing that moveth upon the earth.” From them we 
have inherited our existence and our charter to this 
possession of the world. Even the barbarous state of 
society is entitled to respect ; for barbarism has its virtues. 

Much as the physical happiness of man has been 
augmented by civilization, how far has his moral state 
received improvement from the augmentation of his 
science and civilization. Have they made his heart the 
better ? Have they taught him the noble philanthropy 
of the good Samaritan ? Or has he only exchanged the 
ferocity of the savage, for the cunning of the sharper ? 
Are the vices of our nature diminished in force, or are 
they only varnished like a whited sepulchre and placed 
under concealment, so as to obtain their objects with 
greater effect, and on a broader scale ? Have the politi- 
cal institutions of the world become sources of freedom, 

82 Eariy Settlement and Indian TV ars of 

peace and good will to the people ? Let the boasted 
region of our forefathers, enlightened Europe, answer 
the inquiry. There legal contributions, insupportable in 
their amount, induce all the miseries of pauperism ; royal 
ambition presents its millions of subjects to the deadly 
machinery of modern warfare ; but are the valiant dead 
honored with a monument of their existence and bravery ? 
No ! that insatiable avarice which knows nothing sacred, 
makes a traffic of their bones, the groaning engine con- 
verts them to powder to furnish manure for an unfriendly 
soil. If this is civilization, pray what is barbarism ? 

A veneration for antiquity seems to be natural to man ; 
hence we consider as barbarians, those who demolish the 
relics of antiquity. We justly blame the Turks for 
burning the fine marble columns of ancient Greece into 
lime ; but do we display a juster taste, with regard to the. 
only relics with which our country is honored ? When 
those relics shall have disappeared, and nothing but their 
history shall remain, will not future generations pro- 
nounce us barbarians for having demolished them ? 
Those venerable sepulchral mounds ought to be reli- 
giously preserved, and even planted with evergreens. 
They would figure well in our grave yards, public squares, 
and public walks ; but what is likely to be their fate ? 
If in fields, for the sake of a few additional ears of corn, 
or sheaves of wheat, they are plowed down. If within 
the limits of a town, demolished to afford a site for a 
house, or garden, or to fill up some sunken spot, while 
the walls which inclosed the town or fort of the ancients, 
are made into brick. Such is man ! Such are the en- 
lightened Americans ! 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 83 


Origin of the American Indians. 

Whether the Indians of North and South America, 
and the Tartars of the north-eastern coasts of the Pacific 
ocean, have had a common origin, is an inquiry which 
has long exercised the ingenuity of the statesmen and 
historians of our country, some of whom have derived 
our aboriginal population from Asia, while others of 
them confer the honor of having given population to 
Asiatic Tartary, to America. 

Resemblance of languages, manners and customs, 
mode of life, religious ceremonies, and color, are re- 
garded as evidences of a community of origin. 

Of these tests the first, namely, that of a similarity of 
languages, is considered the most important and conclu- 
sive, and has therefore received the greatest amount of 
attention from the learned. 

Dr. Barton, a former professor of medicine in the 
University of Pennsylvania, has given a vocabulary of 
about fifty corresponding words, of about eighty different 
languages of the North, and South American Indians, 
and about thirty of those of the Asiatic Tartars, for the 
purpose of showing the identity of their origin, by the re- 
semblance of their languages. 

To the mind of the author of this work, this laborious 
research has resulted in nothing very conclusive ; as 
from the specimens given in those vocabularies, the re- 
semblance between these numerous languages, appears 
as small as can well be imagined. This want of success 
in the learned author, is not to be wondered at : as no- 

84 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

thing is more permanent than a written language, so 
nothing can be more fleeting and changeable than an 
unwritten one. 

The languages in question are all of the latter class, 
that is to say, they are all unwritten languages and, of 
course, constantly on the change, so that if they had 
all originally sprung even from the same language, in 
the lapse of some thousands of years, they would no 
doubt have been as wide of the original, and as different 
from each other, as the various languages of these wan- 
dering tribes are at present. 

What is the Hebrew language at present ? A mere 
written language, and nothing else. Its pronunciation 
has gone with the breath of those who spoke it. Had 
it not been a written language what traces of it would 
now remain ? Most likely all traces of it, by this time, 
would have been wholly obliterated. Many words of it 
might have remained among the Arabs, Copts, and Sy- 
rians, while the original would have been buried in utter 

The present languages of Europe exhibit clearly what 
immense changes take place in languages in the lapse of 
a few centuries. The English, French, Italian, Spanish 
and Portuguese languages, have all sprung from the 
downfall of the Roman empire, and all these languages 
are composed mainly of the languages of the Roman em- 
pire, and the German, that of their conquerors ; and yet 
how different are their languages from each other. A 
man of science can readily trace out their resemblance 
to each other. Not so with the illiterate, to whom they 
are all distinct languages, as much so as they would have 
been if they had no common origins. Had these lan- 
guages never been written, the community of their ori- 
ginals would, in all human probability, have been lost 
sight of long before this time. 

For proof that such would have been the case, let it 
be understood that the English language is made up of 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 85 

Latin and German. Take all the words which have 
been derived from those two languages from a page of 
English, and you will have but a few shreds from other 
languages behind ; yet when an Englishman hears the 
German spoken, his ear scarcely recognizes a single 
word which bears any resemblance to his own language ; 
so widely different are the pronunciations of these lan- 
guages although so nearly allied to each other. The 
same observations would hold good with regard to the 
Latin language, did we use the pronunciation of Cicero, 
and Virgil, in reading and speaking it. On this sub- 
ject we may go farther, and suppose all the languages 
above enumerated, to have been unwritten from their 
first formation, till this date, and now for the first time 
to be committed to writing ; out of a dozen scribes, 
scarcely any two of them would spell the same words 
with the same letters. This difference of orthography 
would still further obliterate the traces of the commu- 
nity of the originals of those kindred languages, so far 
as the mere sound is concerned in perpetuating the re- 
membrance of their common origins. 

The present German language is cleft into a great 
variety of dialects, so widely different from each other 
that the peasantry of different districts of the Ger- 
man empire do not well understand each other. 
Yet a scholar in that language readily discovers that all 
of those dialects have had a common origin, and by 
strict attention to the varied pronunciation of the diph- 
thongs and triphthongs which in that language are very 
numerous, he can understand them all. Not so were 
the language unwritten. 

The present Saxon language is common German. 
How widely different must it have been among our 
forefathers, several centuries ago, from what it is now ! 

It seems every way probable that the Gaelic of the 
highlands of Scotland, the Welsh of England, and the 

86 Early Settlement and Indian IV ars of 

Irish were originally the same language ; but for a long 
time past, they have been three distinct languages. 

The reader by this time I trust must see, that among 
wandering barbarians, constantly forming new tribes, 
and seeking new habitations, languages, so far as the 
mere sound of words is concerned, furnish, after the 
lapse of several thousand years, but a poor test of com- 
munity of origin. With reference to the test of a com- 
mon origin, furnished by similarity of languages, Mr. 
Jefferson has ventured the probability of there being 
twenty radical languages among the American Indians, 
for one amongst the Asiatic Tartars, and hence he 
gives America the honor of having given population to 
Tartary. His words are these : 

“ But imperfect as is our knowledge of the languages 
spoken in America, it suffices to discover the following 
remarkable fact ; arranging them under the radical ones 
to which they may be palpably traced, and doing the 
same by those of the red men of Asia, there will be 
found probably twenty in America for one in Asia of 
those radical languages, so called, because if they were 
ever the same, they have lost all resemblance to each 
other.” Notes on Virginia , p. 137. 

A gigantic conclusion ! A conclusion which an ac- 
curate knowledge of one hundred of the languages of 
America and Asia would scarcely have warranted. 
With all deference to the usual accuracy of this illus- 
trious philosopher, it may be said that a zeal for the 
honor of the aborigines of his native country, must have 
led him to confer upon them the priority of claim, to 
individual and national existence. 

There is one feature of language much more perma- 
nent than its sound, and that is the arrangement of its 
sentences, with regard to the nominative case, with its 
verb, and objective case. On this test, it seems to me, 
some reliance may be placed with safety, as it does not 
appear likely that any people ever made any change in 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 87 

their mode of expression : because it is the arrangement 
of the members of a sentence which fixes the regular 
succession of ideas. If the agent is first in the sentence, 
then the action and lastly the subject of the action, the 
ideas of those who speak a language so arranged, follow 
each other in the s£me order ; should the members of 
the sentence be differently disposed, a corresponding 
difference will take place in the thoughts of those who 
speak the language in question. From all this it is rea- 
sonable to infer that the arrangement of sentences, es- 
pecially among barbarians who have no written languages, 
is the most unvarying feature of all their dialects. In 
this respect at least, “ words and things.” 

In the Hebrew the verb stands almost uniformly at 
the beginning of the sentence, next the nominative, and 
then the objective case. It would be of some import- 
ance to know whether this arrangement is that of Asiatic 
languages generally, and whether our Indian languages 
have the same arrangement of sentences. 

In the German, which is probably one of the oldest 
languages of the world, the nominative case is at the 
beginning of the sentence, then the objective case, and 
last of all the verb. 

In the English the nominative is the beginning of the 
sentence, next the verb, and lastly the objective case, 
so that the cases in our language are determined by the 
position of the nouns, and not by their terminations. 

In the Latin and Greek languages, there seems to 
have been no definite arrangement of the members of a 
sentence, nor was it requisite there should, as their con- 
cord and government were determined by the termina- 
tions of their verbs and substantives. 

The test of a sameness in the arrangement of the 
members of sentences, has, as far as I know, never 
been attended to, in any attempt to discover a resem- 
blance between the Asiatic and American languages. 
A likeness in the sounds of words alone has been re- 

88 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

garded as furnishing the evidences of their affinity. But 
who shall determine the point in question ? Where shall 
we find a philologist sufficiently versed in the languages 
of Asiatic Tartary, and those of the Indians of America, 
to determine the question of their resemblance to each 
other ? As these languages contain no science, and are 
therefore not worth learning, it is not likely that such 
a' person will be found before the Indian languages shall 
have vanished from the earth. 

With the religious rites and ceremonies of the Tartars, 
and American Indians, we are too little acquainted to 
justify any conclusion, concerning the identity of their 
origin from them. The most that we know on this 
subject is, that their pawaws or priests are professed sor- 
cerers, who are supposed capable of inflicting misfortunes, 
disease, and death, by charms, and incantations. The 
angikoks of Greenland, and Esquimaux, were men of 
the same profession. Most likely the Tartar priesthood 
is of the same cast. 

The next thing to be considered is the sameness of 
color, as having relation to the question under discussion. 
Here, it is hoped, a little prolixity in stating the physical 
causes of all the varieties of human colors will be ex- 
cused. On this subject two questions present themselves. 
First, what is color, and secondly, what are the natural 
causes of the various colors of the human skin ? 

Color is a certain arrangement of particles on the 
surface of bodies, so constituted as to reflect, or absorb, 
the rays of light in such a manner as to make a specific 
impression on the organs of vision denominated color. 
That arrangement of particles on the surface of bodies 
which absorbs all the rays of light, is denominated black; 
on the contrary, that which reflects them at their angle 
of incidence, produces the white color. The various 
angles of reflection of the rays of light, constitute the 
ground work of all colors between the extremes of black 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 89 

and white. Color is therefore a mere modification of 
particles on the surface of bodies. 

There are four cardinal varieties of human colon 
First, the clear white of the hyperborean, such as that 
of the Swedes, Danes, and Poles, and others in the same 
parallels of latitude. Secondly, the swarthy color of the 
inhabitants of the south of Europe, and the northern 
parts of Africa and Asia. Thirdly, the jet black of the 
negroes, and Abyssinians of Africa, but with this differ- 
ence, that the latter have the features of Europeans, and 
long straight hair : and lastly, the red, or copper color 
of the Asiatic Tartars, and American Indians. Varying 
with the parallels of latitude from that of Sweden, to the 
torrid zone, the human skin exhibits every possible shade 
of difference between the white, and the deepest black. 

Concerning the physical cause of the various colors 
of mankind, a great variety of opinions have been enter- 
tained. I shall however take no notice of any of them, 
but give that theory on this subject, which appears to be 
founded in truth, and which now generally prevails. It 
is that which attributes all the varieties of human color 
to the influence of climate, and different modes of living. 
Every phenomena of the subject in question, evidently 
coincides with this opinion. 

The sciences of anatomy and physiology have clearly 
decided that the rete mucosum of the skin, is the basis 
of its color. This, however, requires some explanation. 
The skin consists of three membranes. The outer one 
is the epidermis, or scarf skin, the second is the rete 
mucosum, or, as the expression imports, a mucous mem- 
brane, or net work, which lies immediately under the 
scarf skin, and lastly the true skin. This latter, or true 
skin, is perfectly white in all people ; the epidermis, or 
scarf skin, is universally transparent. Through this 
transparent scarf skin, the color of the rete mucosum, 
underneath, is discovered. That the state of the rete 
mucosum, with regard to color, is varied by the influence 

90 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

of climate, and modes of life, there can be no doubt. 
The zones of the earth are scarcely better marked out 
by their parallels of latitude, than are the inhabitants of 
their respective latitudes, designated by their shades of 
color, from the white of the north, to the black of the 
tropical regions. Those latter regions alone, exhibit 
considerable variety of color. Their inhabitants are not 
all black. It may be said, however, that none of them 
are white. There must be something peculiar in the 
air, and certain portions of Africa, which gives the sooty 
color of the negro, and Abyssinian. Physiology will in 
time discover this phenomenon. 

Whatever may have been the original color of man- 
kind, a change once induced by removals from one re- 
gion to others, would be augmented through successive 
generations, until the influence of climate would have 
exerted its full effect. Even the influence of mothers 
to have their offspring of that color esteemed most 
beautiful, would have considerable effect in hastening on 
the change from the original color. The shining black, 
among the Africans, is equal in point of beauty to the 
lily and the rose among the whites. The sight of a 
white person, among those of the Africans who have not 
been in the habit of seeing Europeans, never fails to ex- 
cite the deepest horror. At first sight they ascribe the 
whiteness of the skin to some loathsome and incurable 

Evidences of the influence of climate on the human 
color, present themselves constantly to our observation. 
The descendants of the Africans in our country, are far 
from having the sooty black color of their forefathers, 
the natives of Africa. The latter are distinguished from 
the former at first sight. In America there are many 
full blooded negroes scarcely a shade nearer the black, 
than many of our mulattoes. These are denominated 
white negroes . Africa exhibits none of this description. 
These people exhibit one presumptive evidence, that 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 91 

the original color of mankind was white. The skin of 
a full blooded negro infant, for some time after birth, is 
nearly white. It is not until the skin of the child has 
been exposed to the air for some time, that the rete mu- 
cosum becomes of such a texture as to exhibit the black 

Many of our young men of a fair complexion, after 
performing several voyages down the river, and among 
the West India islands, return swarthy men, and remain 
so for life. Every mother is aware of the influence of 
the sun in tanning their children, especially during the 
prevalence of the equinoctial wind in the spring of the 
year, and therefore take every pains to prevent their 
blasting influence on the lily and the rose of their little 
progeny, during that season. 

It may be asked, why the Indian color in America 
among the white people ? Why this difference of color 
in the same region ? All circumstances alike, the red 
color of the Indian is the color which is natural to our 
country. Many of those of the white people who have 
been brought up among the Indians from their infancy, 
differ from them but little in point of color, and are to 
be distinguished from them, only by the difference of 
their features. There are many of our white people of 
a darker hue than many of the Indians. We do not so 
readily perceive this, because a white man, let his color 
be ever so dark, is still a white man, while an Indian 
with a whiter skin is still an Indian. We lose sight of 
the color of both in the national choracter of each, of 
which we never lose sight. Were any number of white 
people to adopt the Indian mode of living in its full ex- 
tent, in a few generations the difference of color between 
them and the Indian would not be great. How much 
whiter is a French Canadian boatman than an Indian ? 
Scarcely a single shade. Thus physiology has ascer- 
tained beyond a shadow of doubt, that the rete mucosum 
is the basis of the human color, and innumerable facts 

92 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

go to show that the various states of this membrane, 
which exhibit all the varieties of the human color, are 
occasioned by the influence of different climates, and 
modes of living. 

But from the varieties of this membrane, so slight in 
themselves that physiology can scarcely discover them, 
except in their effects, what mighty consequences have 
arisen ! What important conclusions have been drawn ! 

An African is black, has a woolly head, and a flat 
nose, he is therefore not entitled to the rights of human 
nature ! But he is a docile being possessed of but little 
pride of independence, and a subject of the softer pas- 
sions, who rather than risk his life in the defense of his 
liberty will “ Take the pittance and the lash. ” He is, 
therefore, a proper subject for slavery. 

The Indian has a copper colored skin, and therefore 
the rights of human nature do not belong to him ! But 
he will not work, and his high sense of independence, 
and strong desire of revenge, would place in danger the 
property and life of the oppressor who should attempt 
to force him to labor. He is, therefore, to be exter- 
minated ; or at least despoiled of his country, and driven 
to some remote region where he must perish ! Such 
has been, and such is still to a certain extent, the logic 
of nations possessed of all the science of the world ! — 
of Christian nations. How horrid the features of that 
slavery to which this logic has given birth ! The be- 
nevolent heart bleeds at the thought of the cruelties which 
have always accompanied it ; amongst the Mohammedans 
as soon as the Christian slave embraces the religion of his 
master, he is free ; but among the followers of the Mes- 
siah, the slave may indeed embrace the religion of his 
master ; but he still remains a slave ; although a Christ- 
ian brother. 

It is a curious circumstance, that while our mission- 
aries are generously traversing the most inhospitable 
regions, and endeavoring, with incessant toil, to give the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 93 

science of Europe and America, together with the 
Christian revelation, to the benighted pagans, most of 
the legislatures of our slave holding states have made it 
a highly penal offense, to teach a slave a single letter. 
While at great expense and waste of valuable lives, we 
are endeavoring to teach the natives of Africa the use of 
letters, no one durst attempt to do the same thing for 
the wretched descendants of that ill-fated people, bound 
in the fetters of slavery in America. Thus our slavery 
chains the soul as well as the body. Would a Mussul- 
man hinder his slave from learning to read the Koran. 
Surely he would not. 

We are often told by slaveholders, that they would 
willingly give freedom to their slaves, if they could do it 
with safety ; if they could get rid of them when free ; 
but are they more dangerous when free, than when in 
slavery ! But admitting the fact, that owing to their ig- 
norance, stupidity and bad habits, they are unfit for 
freedom ; we ourselves have made them so. W e debase 
them to the condition of brutes, and then use that de- 
basement as an argument for perpetuating their slavery. 

I will conclude this digression with the eloquent 
language of President Jefferson on the subject : “ Human 
liberty is the gift of God, and cannot be violated but in 
his wrath. Indeed I tremble for my country, when I 
reflect that God is just and that his justice cannot sleep 
forever : that considering numbers, nature, and natural 
means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an ex- 
change of situation is among the possible events : it may 
become probable by supernatural interference. The 
Almighty has no attribute which can take side with us 
in such a contest.” 

But to return. Why this great solicitude of the 
learned, to discover the genealogy of the American In- 
dians. This solicitude is like many other fashionable 
pursuits of the present day. It is like a voyage to the 
northern polar regions, or a journey into Africa ; in the 

94 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

former of which, nothing is seen but immense islands of 
ice, and in the latter little else than regions of arid de- 
serts ; but the voyager and traveler return home rich in 
discoveries — of red snow — the probable cause of the 
aurora borealis — or of an hidden catacomb, full of 
mummies, and the huge head of the lesser Memnon. 
besides actual discoveries, both are rich — in conjectures 
of little or no importance to the world . 1 

We might say to the Englishman, the Frenchman, 
and German, what is your origin ? He knows more of 
his own genealogy, than he does of that of the American 
Indians. The blood of fifty nations, for aught he can 
tell to the contrary, runs in his veins. He may be re- 
lated to the Assyrians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Greeks, 
Romans, Copts and many other smaller nations, whose 
very names have long since been buried in oblivion. 

Thus while you are anxiously inquiring for the origin 
of the poor savages of America, you forget your own. 
Perhaps at this moment, you know nothing of your im- 
mediate ancestry, beyond your grandfather, or at the 
farthest your great-grandfather. 

If we should infer a community of origin between 
the Tartars of Asia, and the American Indians, from a 
resemblance of color, it would be no more than saying 

1 Many suppose that some of the Indians are of Jewish origin. This may 
indeed be the case, for at an early period of the Jewish history, Shalmaneser, 
the king of Assyria, took Samaria after a siege of three years’ continuance, 
u And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel into Assyriaj and put them 
in Halak, and in Habor, by the river Gozan, and in the city of the Medes.” 
From these places it is highly probable many of the Jews found their way 
into Eastern Tartary, and from thence to America, but with the loss of their 
natural character, language and religion. Ten of the twelve tribes were 
carried off by Shalmaneser. After this event, history no longer recognizes 
those tribes as Jews; thenceforward the kingdom of Israel consisted only 
of the tribes of Juda, Benjamin, and part of the tribe of Levi. So large a 
number of prolific people, must have soon associated themselves, by traveling, 
commerce, and intermarriages, with all the surrounding nations, and of 
course their descendants would be as likely to find their way to America, as 
any other people. — II Kings, Chap. 18. — Notes on Virginia , p. 222. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 95 

that the same causes will, in similar circumstances, pro- 
duce the same effects ; the sun and air will produce the 
same effects on man in Tartary, that they do in America 
in the same latitudes. It is now too late, or soon will 
be so, to find anything like a solution of this question 
from any resemblance between the languages of these 
people. The religious worship of savages, is every- 
where pretty much the same, and therefore throws no 
light on the subject. On their traditions no reliance 
can be placed, because to a people who have no written 
science, the past is a region of fabulous uncertainty. 

It is enough for the solution of this question, that the 
navigation of the northern Atlantic, and northern Pacific, 
has at all times been practicable, even to the imperfect 
navigation of the nations inhabiting their shores, and that 
they at all times carried on a constant intercourse with 
each other, especially across the northern Pacific. 

But to which continent shall we ascribe the honor of 
having given population to the other. This is the most 
important point in this discussion, but can it ever be 
settled ? For my part I am perfectly willing to concede 
to the old world the honor of having given population 
to the new. It is much the largest continent, and by 
far the first in arts and sciences. Besides placing some 
reliance on the oldest, and not the least authentic history 
in the world, I can see no reason why the garden of 
Eden, near the head of the Persian gulf, was not a point 
from which the whole world might as conveniently be 
peopled, and in as short a time, as from any other spot 
which a geographer can point out. 

On the whole, the race of mankind constitutes an 
exclusive genus of animated beings ; man is therefore 
an unit, and as such must have had one common origin, 
cc no matter what color an Indian or an African sun 
may have burnt upon him.” He justly claims a kindred 
relation to the whole of his race. What though the 
severe cold of the arctic circles has dwindled their in- 

96 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

habitants down to a dwarfish stature. What though in 
more fortunate climates we meet with Anakim, or Pata- 
gonians, in all the essentials of his physical and moral 
character, man is the same in every region of the globe. 

May this paternal relation be everywhere recognised. 
May a just and enlightened policy, and above all may 
the holy religion of the good Samaritan, induce the strong 
to respect the claims of the weak upon his justice and 
humanity, and “To do unto others, as he would they 
should do unto him.” 


Changes in the System of Weather. 

Great changes have taken place in our system of 
weather, since the settlement of the western country, 
yet these changes have been so gradual, that it is no 
very easy task to recollect, or describe them. At the 
first settlement of the country the summers were much 
cooler than they are at present. For many years we 
scarcely ever had a single warm night during the whole 
summer. The evenings were cool, and the mornings 
frequently uncomfortably cold. The coldness of the 
nights was owing to the deep shade of the lofty forest 
trees, which everywhere covered the ground. In addi- 
tion to this, the surface of the earth was still further 
shaded by large crops of wild grass and weeds, which 
prevented it from becoming heated by the rays of the 
sun during the day. At sun down the air began to be- 
come damp and cool, and continued to increase in cold- 
ness, until warmed by the supshine of the succeeding 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 97 

day. This wild herbage afforded pasture for our cattle 
and horses, from spring till the onset of winter. To 
enable the owner to find his beasts, the leader of each 
flock of cattle, horses, and sheep, was furnished with a 
bell, suspended to the neck by a leathern or iron collar. 
Bells, therefore, constituted a considerable article of 
traffic in early times. 

One distressing circumstance resulted from the wild 
herbage of our wilderness. It produced innumerable 
swarms of gnats, mosquitoes and horse flies. These 
distressing insects gave such annoyance to man and 
beast, that they may justly be ranked among the early 
plagues of the country. During that part of the season 
in which they were prevalent, they made the cattle poor 
and lessened the amount of their milk. In plowing, 
they were very distressing to the horses. It was cus- 
tomary to build large fires of old logs, about the forts, 
the smoke of which kept the flies from the cattle, which 
soon learned to change their position, with every change^ 
of wind, so as to keep themselves constantly in the 

Our summers in early times, were mostly very dry. 
The beds of our large creeks, excepting in the deep 
holes, presented nothing but naked rocks. The mills 
were not expected to do any grinding, after the latter 
end of May, excepting for a short time after a thunder 
gust ; our most prudent housekeepers, therefore, took 
care to have their summer stock of flour ground in the 
months of March and April. If this stock was expended 
too soon, there were no resources, but those of the 
hominy block, or hand mill. It was a frequent saying 
among our farmers, that three good rains were sufficient 
to make a crop of corn, if they happened at the proper 
times. The want of rain was compensated in some de- 
gree, by heavy dews, which were then more ' common 
than of late, owing to the shaded situation of the earth, 

98 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

which prevented it from becoming either warm or dry, 
by the rays of the sun, during even the warmest weather. 
Frost and snow set in much earlier in former times, 
than of late. I have known the whole crop of corn in 
Greenbier destroyed by frost, on the night of the twenty- 
second of September. The corn in this district of 
country was mostly frost-bitten at the same time. 
Such early frosts, of equal severity, have not happened 
for some time past. Hunting snows usually commenced 
about the middle of October. November was re- 
garded as a winter month, as the winter frequently set 
in with severity during that month, and sometimes at an 
early period of it. 

For a long time after the settlement of the country 
we had an abundance of snow, in comparison to the 
amount we usually have now. It was no unusual thing 
to have snows from one to three feet in depth, and of 
long continuance. Our people often became tired of 
seeing the monotonous aspect of the country so long 
covered with a deep snow, and u longed to see the 
ground bare once more.” I well remember the labor of 
opening roads through those deep snows, which often 
fell in a single night, to the barn, spring, smoke house, 
and corn crib. The labor of getting wood, after a deep 
fall of snow, was in the highest degree disagreeable. A 
tree, when fallen, was literally buried in the snow, so 
that the driver of the horses had to plunge the whole 
length of his arms into it, to get the long chain around 
the butt end of the tree, to haul it home. The depth 
of the snows, the extreme cold and length of our winters, 
were indeed distressing to the first settlers, who were 
but poorly provided with clothing, and whose cabins 
were mostly very open, and uncomfortable. Getting 
wood, making fires, feeding the stock, and going to mill, 
were considered sufficient employment for any family, 
and truly those labors left them little time for anything 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 99 

As our roads, in early times, did not admit of the use 
of sleighs, the only sport we had in the time of a deep 
snow was that of racing about on the crust of its surface. 
This was formed by a slight thaw succeeded by a 
severe frost. On this crust we could travel over logs, 
brush, and owing to great drifts of snow in many places, 
over the highest fences. These crusts were often fatal 
to the deer. Wolves, dogs and men could pursue them 
without breaking through the crust. The deer, on the 
contrary, when pursued, owing to the smallness of their 
hoofs, always broke through it unless when it was un- 
commonly hard. The hunters never killed the deer in 
the dead of winter, as their skins and flesh were then of 
but little value. Taking advantage of them in the time 
of a crust, they held a dishonorable practice, and they 
always relieved them from the pursuit of wolves and 
dogs whenever it fell in their way to do so. Foreigners, 
however, who were not in the habit of hunting, often 
pursued and caught them on the crust for the sake of 
informing their friends in the old country by letter that 
they had killed a deer. 

An incident happened in my father’s neighborhood 
which for some time was highly satisfactory to the hunt- 
ers, as it looked like a providential punishment for tak- 
ing advantage of the deer in time of a crust, as well as a 
means of putting an end to the unlawful sport. 

A Captain Thomas Wells, a noted warrior, hunter 
and trapper, was informed by one of his neighbors who 
came to his house to borrow a bag, that a deer had 
been killed by the wolves, the night before, not far from 
his house, and that the deer had not been wholly devoured. 
They concluded, that as the wolves would visit the 
place, the succeeding night, for the purpose of finishing 
their prey, they might catch one of them in a wolf trap. 
They accordingly set a large trap in the head of a spring, 
close by the relics of the deer. The spring had melted 
the snow as it fell, and it was then covered with a thick 

100 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

coat of dry leaves; under these leaves the trap was con- 

Shortly after they had finished their work, a couple of 
new comers from Ireland, in pursuit of a deer, with dogs, 
came to the place, and seeing the bones of the deer, 
called a halt to look at them. One of them, whose feet 
happened to be very cold, stepped on the dry leaves over 
the spring, and placed one of his feet in the wolf trap, 
which instantly fastened on his foot with its merciless 
jaws. With great labor, difficulty and delay, the foot 
was extricated from the trap. The first house they 
called at, after the accident, was that of the man who 
had assisted Capt. Wells to set the trap. They com- 
plained bitterly of the occurrence, and said that they 
had wrought full half an hour before they could get the 
wicked thing off the foot. They wondered whether 
there was no law in America to punish people for setting 
such wicked things about the woods, to catch people by 
the feet. The gentleman heard their complaint, without 
letting them know that he had any hand in setting the 
trap. Fortunately the trap struck the Hibernian across 
the sole of his shoe, which being thick and frozen, pre- 
vented the mischief it would otherwise have done him ; 
if the jaws of the trap had reached his ankle, the bones 
of his leg must have been broken to pieces by them. 
The jokes that were carved out of this event, throughout 
the neighborhood, and the high glee with which the 
hunters related the tale, served to show the foreigners 
the detestation in which the practice of killing deer in 
the winter season was held, and in a great measure put 
a stop to their sport. 

But to return. The spring of the year in former times 
was pretty much like our present springs. We com- 
monly had an open spell of weather during the latter part 
of February, denominated by some pawwawing days 
and by others weather breeders . The month of March 
was commonly stormy and disagreeable throughout. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 101 

It was a common saying that we must not expect 
spring until the borrowed days, that is, the three first 
days of April were over. Sugar was often made in 
the early part of April. It sometimes happened that a 
great part of April, was but little better than March, 
with regard to storms of rain, snow and a cold chilling 
air. I once noticed forty frosts after the first day of 
April ; yet our fruit that year was not wholly destroyed. 
We never considered ourselves secure from frost, until 
the first ten days of May had past. During these days 
we never failed of having cold, stormy weather, with 
more or less frost. 

On the whole, although the same variable system of 
weather continues, our springs were formerly somewhat 
colder, and accompanied with more snow, than they are 
now, but the change, in these respects, is no way favora- 
ble to vegetation, as our latest springs are uniformly fol- 
lowed by the most fruitful seasons. It is a law of the 
vegetable world that the longer the vegetative principle 
is delayed, the more rapid when put in motion. Hence 
those northern countries which have but a short summer, 
and no spring, are amongst the most fruitful countries in 
the world. In Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, the 
transition from winter to summer occupies but a very 
few days ; yet a failure of a crop in those countries is 
but a rare occurrence : while in our latitudes, vegetation 
prematurely put in motion, and then often checked u by 
the laggering rear of winter’s frost, ” frequently fails of 
attaining its ultimate perfection. 

From this history of the system of the weather of our 
early times, it appears that our seasons have already under- 
gone great and important changes. Our summers are 
much warmer, our falls much milder and longer, and our 
winters shorter by at least one month, and accompanied 
with much less snow and cold than formerly. What 
causes have effected these changes in our system of 
weather, and what may we reasonably suppose will be 

102 ‘Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

the ultimate extent of this revolution, already so apparent, 
in our system of weather ? 

In all countries, the population of a desert by a civilized 
and agricultural people has had a great effect on its 

Italy, which is now a warm country, with very mild 
winters was, in the time of Horace and Virgil, as cold and 
as subject to deep snows as the western country was 
at its first settlement. Philosophy has attributed the 
change of the seasons in that country, to the clearing of 
its own forests, together with those of France to the 
north, and those of Germany to the east, and north, of 
Italy . 1 The same cause has produced the same effect in 
our country. Every acre of cultivated land must in- 
crease the heat of our summers, by augmenting the ex- 
tent of the surface of the ground denuded of its timber, 
so as to be acted upon, and heated by the rays of the sun. 

The future prospect of the weather throughout the 
whole extent of the western country is not very flattering. 
The thermometer in the hottest parts of our summer 
months already ranges from ninety to one hundred de- 
grees. A frightful degree of heat for a country as yet 
not half cleared of its native timber ! When we con- 
sider the great extent of the valley of the Mississippi, so 
remote from any sea to furnish its cooling breezes, with- 
out mountains to collect the vapors, augment and diversify 
the winds, and watered only by a few rivers, which in 
the summer time are diminished to a small amount of 
water, we have every data for the unpleasant conclusion 
that the climate of the western regions will ultimately 
become intensely hot and subject to distressing calms and 
droughts of long continuance. 

Already we begin to feel the effects of the increase of 

1 Vides, ut alta stet nive candidum 
Soracte 5 nec jam sustineant onus 
Sylvae laborantes : geluque, 

Flumina constiterint acuto ? — Hor. y lib . 1, Ode ix. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 103 

the heat of summer in the noxious effluvia of the stag- 
nant water of the ponds and low grounds along our rivers. 
These fruitful sources of pestilential exhalations have 
converted large tracts of our country into regions of 
sickness and death, while the excessive heat and dry- 
ness of our settlements, remote from the large water 
courses, have been visited by endemic dysenteries in their 
most mortal states. Thus the most fortunate regions of 
the earth have drawbacks from their advantages which 
serve in some degree to balance the condition of their 
inhabitants with that of the people of countries less gifted 
by nature in point of soil, climate and situation. 

The conflict for equilibrium between the rarified air 
of the south and the dense atmosphere of the north, will 
continue forever the changeable state of weather in this 
country, as there is no mountainous barrier between us 
and the northern regions of our continent. 

Beasts and Birds. 

The reader need not expect that this chapter will con- 
tain a list of all the beasts and birds which were tenants 
of the western wilderness at the time of its first settle- 
ment. I shall only briefly notice a few of those classes 
which have already totally or partially disappeared from 
the country, together with those which have emigrated 
here with our population. This enumeration, as far as 
it goes, will serve to show the natural historian a dis- 
tinction between those beasts and birds which are natu- 
rally tenants of the wilderness and refuse the society of 
man, and those which follow his footsteps from one 

104 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

region to another, and although partially wild yet subsist 
in part upon his labors. 

The buffalo and elk have entirely disappeared from 
this section of the country. Of the bear and deer but 
very few remain. The wolves, formerly so numerous, 
and so destructive to the cattle, are now seldom heard of 
in our older settlements. It may seem strange that this 
ferocious and cunning animal, so long the scourge of the 
mountainous districts of Europe, should have so suddenly 
disappeared from our infant country. The sagacity of 
the wolves bids defiance to the most consummate craft 
of the hunters, many of whom, throughout life, never 
obtained a single chance to shoot at one of them. Some- 
times, indeed, they outwitted them by pit-falls and steel 
traps ; but no great number were killed by either of these 
means ; nor had the price set upon their scalps by the 
state legislatures any great effect in diminishing their 
number and depredations. By what means then did 
their destruction happen ? On this subject I will hazard 
the opinion that a greater number of them were destroyed 
by hydrophobia than by all other means put together. 
That this disease took place amongst them at an early 
period is evident from the fact that nearly forty years 
ago, a Captain Rankin of Racoon creek, in Washington 
county, Pa., was bitten by a mad wolf. A few years 
ago, Mr. John M’Camant of this county, met with the 
same misfortune. In both cases the wolf was killed, 
and I am sorry to add both these men died, after having 
suffered all the pains and horrors accompanying that 
most frightful of all diseases, that inflicted by the bite of 
a rabid animal. 

An animal so ferocious as a wolf, and under the influ- 
ence of madness, bites everything he can reach, of 
course the companions of his own den and thicket are 
the first victims of his rage. Hence, a single wolf would 
be the means of destroying the whole number of his fel- 
lows, in his immediate neighborhood at least. In the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 105 

advanced state of the disease they lose their native wild- 
ness, leave their dens and thickets and seek the flocks 
and herds about farm houses, and in some instances have 
attempted to enter the houses themselves for the purpose 
of doing mischief. 

The buzzards, or vultures, grey and bald eagles, 
ravens, or as they were generally called corbies, were 
very numerous here in former times. It was no un- 
common thing to see from fifty to one hundred of 
them perched on the trees over a single carcase of carrion. 
All these large carnivorous birds have nearly disappeared 
from our settlements. 

The wild turkeys, which used to be so abundant as to 
supply no inconsiderable portion of provision for the first 
settlers, are now rarely seen. 

The different kinds of wood-peckers still remain in 
the country, w T ith the exception of the largest of that 
genus of birds, the wood-cock, which is now very scarce. 

The black and grey squirrels still remain in the country. 
These beautiful but destructive little animals gave great 
annoyance to the first settlers of our country, by devour- 
ing large quantities of their corn in the fields, before 
it was fit for gathering. There is something singular 
in the history of the squirrels. Sometimes in the 
course of a few years they become so numerous as to 
threaten the destruction of whole crops ; when, as if 
by common consent, they commence an emigration from 
west to east, crossing the river in countless numbers. 
At the commencement of their march they are very fat, 
and furnish an agreeable article of diet ; but towards its 
conclusion they become sickly and poor, with large 
worms attached to their skins. After this emigration 

they are scarce for some years, then multiply, emigrate, 
% and perish as before. The cause of this phenomenon 
is, I believe, unknown. It cannot be the want of food ; 
for the districts of countries which they leave, are often 

106 Early Settlement and Indian W ars of 

as fruitful, or more so, than those to which they direct 
their course. 

The terrible panther, as well as the wild cat, have 
also taken their leave of us. 

Thus, in far less time than it cost the Jews to rid 
themselves of the serpents and beasts of prey which in- 
fested the “hill country of Judea,” we have freed our- 
selves from those which belonged to our country. Our 
flocks and herds are safe from their annoyance, and our 
children are not torn to pieces by “ a she bear out of the 

In return for the beasts and birds which have left us, 
we have gained an equal number from the Atlantic side 
of the mountains, and which were unknown at the first 
settlement of the country. 

Our mornings and evenings are now enlivened with 
the matins and vespers of a great variety of singing birds, 
which have slowly followed the emigration from the 
other side of the mountain. 

The honey bees are not natives of this country ; but 
they always kept a little in advance of the white popula- 
tion. We formerly had some professed bee hunters ; 
but the amount of honey obtained from the woods was 
never considerable, owing to the want of a sufficient 
quantity of flowers to furnish it. 

Crows and black birds have of late become very 
plenty. They were not natives of the wilderness. 

Rats, which were not known here for several years 
after the settlement of the country, took possession of it, 
in its whole extent, in one winter season. Children of 
twelve years old, and under, having never heard their 
name, were much surprised at finding a new kind of 
mice, as they called them, with smooth tails. 

Opossums were late comers into the country. Fox- ' 
squirrels have but a very few years ago made their ap- 
pearance on this side of the mountains. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 107 

Thus our country has exchanged its thinly scattered 
population of savages, for a dense population of civilized 
inhabitants, and its wild beasts and large, carnivorous 
fowls, for domesticated animals and fowls, and others 
which although wild, are inoffensive in their habits, and 
live at least partially on the labors of man. This has 
been effected here perhaps in less time than such import- 
ant changes were ever effected in any other region of 
the earth. 

The cases of the two unfortunate victims of the hydro- 
phobia, here alluded to, deserve some notice. 

Capt. Rankin was bitten by the wolf in his own door. 
Hearing in the dead of night a noise among his beasts 
in the yard, he got up and opened the upper part of his 
door, which was a double one. The wolf instantly 
made a spring to get into the house. Rankin, with 
great presence of mind, caught the wolf in his arms, as 
he was passing over the lower half of the door and held 
him fast on its upper edge, and against the door post, 
until a man belonging to the household jumped out of 
bed, got a knife and cut the wolf’s throat ; but the 
wolf in the mean time bit him severely, in the wrist. 
If I recollect rightly he lived but a short time after- 

Mr. John M’Cammant, who lived but a few miles 
from this place on the road to Washington, met a simi- 
lar death, much in the same way. Hearing an uproar 
among his beasts, not far from the house, he went to 
see what was the matter. He had not gone far before 
the wolf sprang at him, and bit him severely, in the left 
breast. Being a very strong, resolute man, he caught 
the wolf by the jaws, and held them apart, calling on an 
apprentice lad to bring an axe to knock the wolf on the 
head. He came with all speed, but finding he had no 
chance of striking the wolf, without risking an injury to 
his master, he dropped the axe, ran back to the house, 
and got a butcher knife, with which he cut the wolf’s 


108 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

throat. It was between seven and eight weeks before 
the virus took effect, so as to produce the symptoms of 
the terrible disease which followed. 

From the time I first heard of his being bitten by the 
wolf, I anticipated the consequence with horror, and the 
more so, because he applied to a physician who had the 
reputation of curing the bite of a mad animal with a 
single pill. Placing confidence in this nostrum, he 
neglected all other medical aid. In this pill I had no 
confidence, having previously seen and examined one of 
them, and found it made of ingredients possessed of 
scarcely any medicinal efficacy whatever. On the 
Thursday preceding his death, he became slightly indis- 
posed. On Friday and Saturday he had the appearance 
of a person taking an intermittent fever. On Sunday 
the hydrophobia came on. It was then I first saw him. 
Having never seen the disease before, I was struck with 
consternation at his appearance. Every sense appeared 
to have acquired an hundred fold excitability. The 
slightest impression upon any of them, gave him a thrill 
of the deepest horror. Noise, the sight of colored cloth- 
ing, the sudden passage of any person between him and 
the light of the window or candle, affected him beyond 

On Sunday night his convulsive fits came on. He 
was then fastened by his hands and feet to the bed posts, 
to prevent him from doing mischief. At three o’clock on 
Monday evening he became delirious, his fits ceased, and 
at two o’clock in the morning death put a period to his 

It is impossible for language to describe this terrible 
disease. The horror of mind which he continually 
suffered, was equal to that which would be felt by the 
most timid lady, on being compelled to go alone at mid- 
night into a grave yard, with an entire certainty of seeing 
a ghost in the most frightful form which a disordered 
imagination ever ascribed to a departed spirit. He 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 109 

several times requested the physicians to bleed him to 
death. Several veins were opened ; but the blood had 
so far lodged itself in engorgements in the viscera, that 
none could be discharged from the veins. He then re- 
quested that some of his limbs might be cut off, that the 
same object might be effected that way. Finding this 
request would not be complied with, he looked up to 
his rifle, and begged of me with tears in his eyes to take 
it down and shoot him through the head, saying u I will 
look at you with delight and thankfulness, while you are 
pulling the trigger. In doing this you will do right. I 
know from your countenance that you pity me ; but you 
know not the thousandth part of what I suffer. You 
ought to put an end to my misery, and God himself will 
not blame you for doing so.” What made these re- 
quests the more distressing, was the circumstance that 
they did not proceed from any derangement of mind ; 
on the contrary, excepting during the time of his fits, 
which lasted only a few seconds at a time, he was in the 
full exercise of his understanding. His discourse until 
about three o’clock on Monday evening was quite ra- 
tional. He requested prayers to be made for him, and 
deliberately gave directions about the p^ace of his in- 
terment, and funeral sermon, all which requests were 
complied with. 

The reader, no doubt, wishes to know as much as 
possible concerning the famous pill, an improper reliance 
on which terminated in the death of Mr. M’Cammant. 
I have had an opportunity of examining two of them at 
a considerable distance of time apart. The first I saw 
was about five times as large'as one of Anderson’s pills, 
and composed of Burgundy pitch and green rue. The 
second was made of the same material, with a narrow 
strip of paper rolled up in the middle of it. The paper 
contained about a dozen ill-shapen letters, but not so 
arranged as to spell any word in any language with which 
I am acquainted. The physician who gave those pills, 

110 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

reported that he got the recipe for making them from a 
priest of Abyssinia. Such is the superstition which still 
remains attached to the practice of the healing art, and 
from which, in all likelihood, it will never be separated. 
But why then the celebrity of this pill, as a prevent- 
ive of canine madness ? Has it never had the effect 
ascribed to it ? Certainly never. 

Far the greater number of those who are said to be 
bitten by rabid animals have been bitten by animals either 
not really mad, or not in such a state of madness as to 
communicate the disease. 

An event which fell under my own observation several 
years ago will serve to explain this matter. Several 
children, one of whom was my own, were said to have 
been bitten by a mad cat, which was instantly killed. 
On inquiry I found that there was no report of mad 
animals in the neighborhood. I then gave it as my 
opinion that the apparent madness of the cat proceeded 
only from caterwauling. This did not satisfy any one 
but myself, so I had to treat the children as I should 
have, if the cat had been really mad, and thus got the 
credit of curing four cases of canine madness : a credit 
which I never deserved. 

A few years ago, a gentleman of my neighborhood 
brought me his daughter whom he said had been bitten 
by a mad cat. I asked if the cat was a male one, he 
answered in the affirmative. He said he had imprisoned 
him in a closet. I am glad of that, said I, keep him there 
a few days, and you will find him as well as ever he was ; 
and so it turned out. 

Dogs are subject to a similar madness from the same 
cause. In this state, like cats, they are apt to bite even 
their best friends. In this case the animal is reported to 
be mad and instantly killed. In such cases these pills, 
as well as other nostrums for this disease, do wonders ; 
that is where there is nothing to be done. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania \ 111 


Number and Variety of Serpents. 

Among the plagues of the Jews, at the time of their 
settlement in the land of Canaan, that of the serpents, 
which abounded in that country, was not the least. In 
like manner the early settlers of this country were much 
annoyed by serpents. Of the poisonous kinds of them 
we had but two, the rattlesnake and the copper-head, 
both of which were very numerous in every section of 
the country, but especially the rattlesnake. We had 
also different kinds of black snakes, with a number of 
lesser sorts, but these last are not poisonous. The bite 
of the rattlesnake was frequently mortal, always extremely 
painful ; that of the copper-head not much less so. 

Let the reader imagine the situation of our first settlers, 
with regard to those poisonous reptiles, when informed 
that an harvest day seldom passed in which the laborers 
did not meet with more or less of them. The reaper 
busily employed with his sickle was suddenly alarmed by 
the whiz of a rattlesnake at his feet ; he instantly retreated, 
got a club, and giving the snake a blow or two, finished 
his execution by striking the point of the sickle through 
its head and holding it up to the view of the company. 
It was then thrown aside by the root of a tree, or in a 
bunch of bushes, and then labor recommenced. This 
often happened a half dozen times in the course of a 
single day. This was not the worst. Owing to the heavy 
dews and growth of rank weeds among the small grain, 
it was requisite to let the grain lie in grips a day or more 
to dry before it was bound up. The rattlesnakes often 

112 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

hid themselves under these handfulls of grain, and hence 
it often happened that they were taken up in the arms 
of those who were employed in gathering and binding 
them. If the laborer happened to be even an old man, 
stiffened with toil and the rheumatism, he dropped all 
and sprang away with all the agility of a boy of sixteen, 
and however brave in other respects, it was some time 
before the tremor of his limbs and the palpitation of his 
heart wore off. 

Terrible as the serpents were to men, they were still 
more so to our women, to whose lot it generally fell to 
pull the flax. The flax patch was commonly near the 
grain field. While the men were reaping the grain the 
women were pulling the flax. The rattlesnakes were 
often met with among the flax. When this happened 
the women always screamed with all their might. A race 
then took place among the younger reapers, to decide 
who should have the honor of killing the snake. In the 
race each one picked up a club, and the first of them who 
reached the serpent instantly despatched him. This was 
a little piece of chivalry with which the girls were well 
pleased. Very few women had the hardihood to attack 
and kill a rattlesnake. At the sight of one of them, they 
always gave a loud shriek, as if conscious of being the 
weaker vessel ; in similar circumstances a man never does 
this, as he has no one to depend upon for protection but 
himself. I have often seen women so overcome with 
terror at the sight of a rattlesnake, as to become almost 
incapable of moving. 

Every season, for a long time, a number of our people 
were bitten by those poisonous reptiles. Some of them 
died ; those of them who escaped death, generally suf- 
fered a long and painful confinement, which left some of 
them in an infirm state of health for the rest of their 

In the fall these reptiles congregate together in cavities 
among the rocks, where it is said that they remain in a 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 113 

dormant state during the winter. Whether this is the 
fact or not I cannot tell, never having seen one of their 
dens opened. 

These dens were common all over the country, and 
many of them well known to our people, who much 
dreaded the egress of their poisonous inhabitants, in the 
spring of the year, not only on account of themselves, 
but also on account of their beasts, many of which were 
killed by the bites of the snakes. 

There was a den in the neighborhood of my father’s 
place, and I well remember a rare piece of sport of the 
children belonging to the farms about it. It was on a 
warm day in the spring of the year, when we knew that 
the snakes were out among the leaves sunning them- 
selves. We encircled the den, including several acres of 
ground, by parting the leaves so as to prevent the fire 
from spreading through the woods. On the inside of 
this ring we set fire to the dry leaves. In a short time 
we had the fun of seeing the snakes jumping and writhing 
in the blaze of the leaves. After the burning was over 
we collected a considerable pile of our burnt snakes. 

I have heard of but two attempts to demolish the dens 
of the snakes. The first was somewhere in the Alle- 
ghany mountain. My informant told me that by the 
time they had killed about ninety of them, they became 
so sickened by the stench of the serpents that they were 
obliged to quit the work, although there was still a 
great number of them in view. The next attempt to 
destroy a snake den, took place between New Lancaster 
and Columbus in the state of Ohio. The snakes had 
chosen one of the old Indian graves, composed mainly 
of stone, for their residence. They gave such annoyance 
to the settlers in its neighborhood, that they assembled 
for the purpose of demolishing it. In doing so they 
found several hundred snakes together with a vast quan- 
tity of the bones of those of them which through a long 
series of years had perished in the den. These were in- 

114 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

termingled with the bones of those human beings for 
whose sepulture the mound had been erected. 

Do these reptiles possess that power of fascination 
which has so frequently been ascribed to them ? Many 
of them as I have seen I never witnessed an instance of 
the exercise of this power. I have several times seen 
birds flying about them, approaching close to their heads, 
and uttering noises which seemed to indicate the greatest 
distress ; but on examination always found that the 
strange conduct of the bird was owing to an approach 
of the snake to the nest containing its young. 

That such cases as those above mentioned are often 
mistaken for instances of the exercise of the power of 
fascination, is quite certain ; nevertheless that this power 
exists there can be no doubt. The greater number of 
the early settlers say that they have been witnesses of 
the exercise of this power, and their testimony is worthy 
of credit. It seems from some reports worthy of belief, 
that even mankind as well as birds and beasts are subject 
to this fascinating power of serpents. 

A Mr. Walter Hill, a laborer in Maryland in early 
times, informed me that once in the spring of the year, 
himself and a fellow laborer were directed by their em- 
ployer to clean out the barn. In doing this they found 
a rattlesnake among the rubbish. Instead of killing, they 
threw it into a hqgshead, with a view to have some sport 
with him after they had finished their work. Accord- 
ingly in the evening, when the work was done, my in- 
formant stooped over the top of the hogshead to take a 
look at the snake, when instantly he said, he became 
sick at the stomach, giddy headed, and partially blind. 
His head sunk downwards towards that of the serpent, 
which was elevated some distance above its coil. The 
eyes of the snake were steadily fixed on his and looked, 
as he expressed himself, like balls of fire. His com- 
panion observing his approach to the snake, pulled him 
away. It was sometime before he came to himself. I 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 115 

have heard of an instance of the fascination of a young 
lady of New Jersey. 

This power of fascination is indeed a strange phenome- 
non. Yet, according to the usual munificence of nature, 
the poor miserable snake, which inherits the hatred of 
all animated nature, ought to have some means of pro- 
curing subsistence, as well as of defense : but he has no 
teeth or claws to aid him in catching his prey, nor feet 
to assist him in flight or pursuit. His poison, however, 
enables him to take revenge for the hatred entertained 
against him, and his power of charming procures him a 
scanty supply of provision. But what is this power of 
fascination ? Is there any physical agency in it ? I 
think it must be admitted that there is some physical 
agency employed in this matter, although we may not be 
able to ascertain what it is. If there be no such agency 
employed in fascination by serpents, it must be effected 
by a power similar to that which superstition ascribes to 
charms, amulets, spells, and incantations. A power 
wholly imaginary, unknown to the laws of nature, and 
which philosophy totally rejects as utterly impossible. 
On this subject I will hazard the opinion that the charm 
under consideration, is effected by means of an intoxicat- 
ing odor, which the serpent has the power of emitting. 

That the rattlesnakes have the power of giving out 
a very offensive vapor, I know by experience, having 
often smelt them in warm sunny days, especially after a 
shower of rain, when plowing in the field. This often 
happened when I did not see any of them ; but it always 
excited a painful apprehension that I should speedily 
meet with some of them. The odor of a serpent, is an 
odor sui generis . A person once accustomed to it can 
never mistake it for anything else. 

I have heard it said, although I cannot vouch for the 
truth of it, that a snake, when in the act of charming, 
appears, by the alternate expansion and depression of its 

116 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

sides, to be engaged in the act of blowing with all its 

I think it every way probable, that in every instance 
of fascination, the position of the snake is to the wind- 
ward of the victim of its charm. But why should this 
intoxicating odor draw its victim to the source from 
whence it issues. Here I must plead ignorance, to be 
sure ; but does anything more happen to the bird or 
beast in this case than happens to mankind in conse- 
quence of the use of those intoxicating gases, or fluids, 
furnished by the art of chemistry. 

A person affected by the exhilerating gas clings to the 
jar and sucks the pipe, after he has inhaled its whole con- 
tents and is not the madness occasioned, by inhaling this 
gas, equal to that which takes place in the bird or 
squirrel when under the influence of the charm of the 
serpent. The victims of this serpentine fascination 
scream and run, or flutter about awhile, and then resign 
themselves to their fate. In like manner the person 
who inhales the gas is instantly deprived of reason, be- 
comes frantic, and acts the madman ; but should he 
continue to inhale this gas only for a short time, death 
would be the consequence. The same observation may 
be made with regard to alcohol, the basis of ardent spirits, 
a habit of using which occasions a repetition of the in- 
toxicating draught, until, in spite of every consideration 
of honor, duty, and interest, the indulgence ends in a 
slow but inevitable suicide. 

My reader, I hope, will not complain of the length of 
this article. He perhaps has never seen one of the poi- 
sonous reptiles which so mueh annoyed his forefathers ; 
but in gratitude he ought to reflect on the appalling dan- 
gers attendant on the settlement of his native country. 
The first settler at night knew not where to set his foot 
without danger of being assailed by the fangs of a ser- 
pent. Even his cabin was not secure from the invasion 
of the snakes. In the day time, if in the woods, he 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 117 

knew not in what bunch of weeds or grass he might 
provoke a rattlesnake by the tread of his foot, or from 
behind what tree or log he might be met by the bullet 
or tomahawk of an Indian. 


Indigenous Fruits of the Country. 

After having described the western wilderness, an 
account of its native fruits cannot be improper. To the 
botanist and agriculturalist this history cannot fail of being 
acceptable. To the former it will serve to show the 
great improvement which cultivation has made upon the 
indigenous fruits of the forest. To the latter it will 
point out what plants may yet be cultivated with success, 
although hitherto neglected. For instance, should he 
inquire whether this country is calculated by nature for 
the cultivation of the vine, he has only to ask whether 
the country in its original state produced the fruit of the 
vine. Those early settlers who profited by the indica- 
tion with regard to the cultivation of the apple tree, fur- 
nished by the growth of the crab apple in the country, 
derived great advantage from their correct philosophy, 
in the high price of their fruit, while those who neglected 
this indication, and delayed planting their trees until they 
witnessed the growth of fruit on the trees of their 
neighbors, were left several years in the rear in this 

In giving the history of our native fruits I shall follow 
the order in which they ripened from spring until winter, 
our manner of gathering them, with some remarks on 

118 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

the present state of those of them which still remain in 
the country. 

The first fruit which ripened in the country was the 
wild strawberry. It grew on poor land, on which there 
was no timber. There were many such places of small 
extent, on the points of hills along the creeks. They 
were denominated bald knobs . The fruit was small, 
and much sourer than the cultivated strawberry. It was 
not abundant in any place. 

The service trees were the first in bloom in the spring. 
Their beautiful little flowers made a fine appearance 
through the woods, in the month of April. The berries 
were ripe in June. They are sweet, with a very slight 
mixture of acidity, and a very agreeable flavor. The 
service trees grew abundantly along the small water 
courses, and more thinly over the hills at a distance from 
them. A few of these trees still remain, but their fruit 
is mostly devoured by the great number of small birds 
which have accompanied the population of the country. 
Our time for gathering the service berries, as well as 
other fruits, was Sunday, and in large companies, under 
the protection of some of our warriors in arms. In 
doing this a great number of the trees were cut down, so 
that our crop of them was lessened every year. This 
fruit may be considered as lost to the country, for 
although the trees might be cultivated in gardens, the 
berries would all be devoured by the small birds, before 
they would be fully ripe. 

Blackberries grew in abundance in those places where, 
shortly before the settlement of the country, the timber 
had been blown down by hurricanes. Those places we 
called the fallen timber . When ripe, which was in 
the time of harvest, the children and young people re- 
sorted to the fallen timber in large companies, under 
a guard, for the purpose of gathering the berries, of which 
tarts were often made for the harvest table. The fallen 
timber, owing to a new growth of trees, no longer pro- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 119 

duces those berries, but enough of them are to be had 
along the fences on most of our farms. 

Wild raspberries of an agreeable flavor were found in 
many places, but not plentifully anywhere. 

Gooseberries of a small size, and very full of thorns, 
but of an agreeable taste, grew in some places in the 
woods. The amount of them was but small. What- 
ever may be the reason, this fruit does not succeed well 
when transplanted into gardens, where they flower 
abundantly, but shed the berries before they become 

Whortleberries were never abundant in this section of 
the country, but they were so in many places in the 

Wild plums were abundant in rich land. They were 
of various colors and sizes, and many of them of an excel- 
lent flavor. The wild plums of late years have, like 
our damson plums, fallen off prematurely. The beetle 
bug, or curculio, an insect unknown to the country at 
its first settlement, but now numerous everywhere, per- 
forates the green fruit, for the deposition of its egg. 
This occasions a flow of the juice of the fruit, so that it 
becomes gummy, and falls off. 

An indifferent kind of fruit, called buckberries, used 
to grow on small shrubs, on poor ridges. This fruit has 
nearly vanished from the settled parts of the country. 

Our fall fruits were winter and fall grapes, the former 
grew in the bottom lands. They were sour, of little 
value, and seldom used. The fall grapes grew on the 
high grounds, particularly in the fallen timber land. Of 
these grapes we had several varieties, and some of them 
large and of an excellent flavor. We still have the wild 
grapes ; but not in such abundance as formerly. In 
process of time they will disappear from the country. 

Black haws grew on large bushes along the moist 
bottoms of small water courses. They grew in large 
clusters, and ripened with the first frosts in the fall. 

120 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

Children were very fond of them. Red haws grew on 
the white thorn bushes. They were of various kinds. 
The sugar haws, which are small, grow in large clusters, 
and when ripe and free from worm, and semi transparent, 
were most esteemed. I have a row of about forty trees 
of the white thorn in my garden, which were raised from 
the haws. The berries when ripe are large, and make 
a fine appearance, and being almost free from worms, 
the children are very fond of eating them. 

Wild cherries were abundant in many places. To 
most people they are very agreeable fruit. They are 
now becoming scarce. 

Pawpaws were plenty along the great water courses, 
and on the rich hills. Some people are fond of eating 
them. Scarcely any beast will touch them ; even the 
omnivorous hog never eats them. It is said that rac- 
coons are fond of them. They are still plenty in many 

The crab apple was very abundant along the smaller 
water courses. The foliage of the tree which bears this 
fruit is like that of the domestic apple tree, but not so 
large. The tree itself is smaller, of a slower growth 
than the orchard tree, and the wood of a much firmer 
texture. It blossoms a little later than our orchards, 
and when in bloom makes a noble appearance, and fills 
the surrounding air with a delicious fragrance. The 
crab appears to be a tree of great longevity. Sour as 
the crab apples were, the children were fond of eating 
them, especially when in the winter season they could 
find them under the leaves, where, defended from the 
frost, they acquired a fire golden color, a fragrant smell, 
and lost much of their sourness. One or more of these 
indigenous apple trees ought to be planted in every 
orchard, in honor of their native tenancy of our forests, 
as well as for the convenience of our ladies, who are 
very fond of them for preserves, but are sometimes un- 
able to procure them. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 1 2 i 

Of hickory nuts we had a great variety ; some of the 
larger shell bark nuts, with the exception of the thick- 
ness of their shells, were little inferior to the English 
walnut. Of white walnuts, we generally had a great 
abundance. Of black walnuts, many varieties as to size, 
and amount of kernel. Hazel and chestnuts were plenty 
in many places. 

Thus a munificent providence had furnished this re- 
gion of the earth with the greater number of fruits 
which are to be found in the old world ; but owing to 
the want of cultivation, they were inferior in size and 
flavor to the same kinds of fruit in Europe. It has been 
my fate, as well as that of many others in this country, 
to use, in infancy and youth, the native fruits of the 
wilderness, and in more advanced age to enjoy the same 
kinds of fruits, in their most improved state. The salu- 
tary effects of the cultivation of these furits are, therefore, 
present to our senses, and we cannot fail to appreciate 

It may not be amiss to notice in this place the changes 
which have taken place in the growth and bearing of 
some of our fruit trees, since the settlement of the 

My father planted peach trees at an early period. 
For some time a crop of peaches once in three or four 
years was as much as we expected. After some time 
these trees became so far naturalized to the climate 
as to bear almost every year. The same observation 
applies, although in a less degree, to the apple trees 
which were first planted in the country. Their fruit 
was frequently wholly killed by the frost. This has not 
happened for many years past. The pear and heart 
cherry trees, although they blossomed abundantly, bore 
but little fruit for many years ; but in process of time 
they afforded abundant crops. Such was the effect of 
their becoming naturalized to our climate. 

122 Early Settlement and Indian TVars of 

The peach and pear trees did very well until the year 
1806, when a long succession of rainy seasons com- 
menced, during which the trees overgrew themselves, 
and the falls being warm and rainy, they continued their 
growth until the onset of winter. Their branches were 
then full of sap, and as water occupies a greater space 
when frozen than when fluid, the freezing of the water 
they contained bursted the texture of their wood, and 
rendered them unfit for the transmission of sap the next 
season. This fact leads to the conclusion that those 
soft-wooded fruit trees ought to be planted in the high- 
est situations, and poorest land, where they will have 
the slowest possible growth. The few dry seasons we 
have had latterly, have, in some measure, restored the 
peach trees. If such seasons should continue for any 
length of time, the peaches and pears will again become 

If annual plants, as well as trees, possess the faculty 
of becoming naturalized to soils and climates remote 
from those in which they are indigenous, what great ad- 
vantages may we not reasonably anticipate for the future 
prosperity of our country, from this important law of the 
vegetable world? If, by a slow progress from south to 
north, the period of the growth of a plant may be 
shortened to three-fourths, or even less than that, of the 
time of its growth in the south, the sugar cane, already 
transplanted from the islands of the West Indies to the 
shores of the Mississippi, may slowly travel up that river 
and its branches, to latitudes far north of any region 
which has heretofore witnessed its growth. The cotton 
plant and coffee tree, in all probability, will take the 
same course. 

The conclusions of philosophy, with regard to the 
future, are prophetic, when correctly drawn from the 
unerring test of experience. In the prospect here pre- 
sented of the practicability of naturalizing the plants of 
the south, to the temperate latitudes far north of their 

JVes/ern Virginia and Pennsylvania. 123 

native region, it is only saying that what has happened 
to one plant, may under similar treatment happen to 
another. For example. How widely different is the 
large squaw corn, in its size, and the period of its growth, 
from the Mandan corn. The latter ripens under the 
fortieth degree of north latitude ; and yet the squaw and 
Mandan corn are not even different species ; but only 
varieties of the same plant. The squaw corn might 
travel slowly to the north, and ultimately dwindle down 
into Mandan corn : while the Mandan corn, by being 
transplanted to the south, increases in size and lengthens 
the period of its growth. 

The cherry tree, a native of Cerasia, was once culti- 
vated as a tender exotic plant in Italy. It now grows 
in the open air as far north as St. Petersburg in Russia. 
The palma christi, the plant which furnishes the beans 
of which the castor oil is made, is a native of the tropical 
regions, yet it now flourishes, and bears fruit abundantly 
in our latitudes ! I once saw a plant of this kind in a 
garden in this town, the seed of which had come from 
the West Indies, among coffee. The plant was large, 
and vigorous ; but owing to its too great a removal, at 
once, from its native soil and climate, it bore no beans. 

These observations have been made to show that the 
independence of our country may be vastly augmented, 
by a proper attention to the laws of nature with regard 
to the vegetable world, so that we may hereafter culti- 
vate within our own country, the precious fruits even of 
the tropical regions. 

124 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 


Account of a Hermit. 

A man of the name of Thomas Hardie, who from his 
mode of living was properly entitled to the appellation 
of hermit, lived in the neighborhood of my father’s 
place. His appearance, dress, and deportment, are 
among the earliest impressions of my memory. 

He was an Englishman, by birth and education, and 
an ordained clergyman of the Church of England. He 
must have been a man of profound learning. Some of 
his books in Greek and German fell into my hands 
after his death. His marginal remarks in the Greek 
books showed clearly that he had read them with great 

His appearance was in the highest degree venerable. 

He was pretty far advanced in age ; his head was 
bald, his hair gray, and his chin decorated with a large 
well shapen beard. His dress was a long robe which 
reached to his feet, held together with a girdle about his 
loins. This he called his phylactery. His clothes were 
all fastened together with hooks and eyes. Buttons 
and buckles were abominations in his view. 

In the time of the Indian war, he went about where- 
ever he chose, without arms, believing, as he said, that 
no Indian would hurt him ; accordingly so it turned out, 
although he frequently exposed himself to danger. 

His conversation must have been of the most interest- 
ing kind. He seemed to be master of every science 
and possessed an inexhaustible fund of anecdotes. He 
frequently entertained pretty large companies, with rela- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 125 

tions of events in England and other parts. In all his 
anecdotes and historical relations, he was the only 
speaker ; for he knew everything and his hearers no- 

But, however entertaining this hermit’s conversation 
and anecdotes, they were conducted in a very singular 
way. When speaking he seldom kept his seat, but 
paced the floor from one side of the house to the other, 
sometimes with a slow, measured step, sometimes in a 
quick and irregular gait. During all this time he was 
constantly twitching his beard, and sputtering out tobacco 
spittle, in such a way that its drops were almost as 
small as those of mist. Sometimes he would walk up 
to one of his hearers so as to bring his face almost in 
contact with that of the person to whom he was speak- 
ing ; he would then speak in a low tone of voice, almost 
approaching to a whisper ; during this time his hearer was 
apt to be a little annoyed by the particles of tobacco 
spittle falling on his face and clothing. After talking a 
while in this way, he would whirl about, and talk again 
in a loud tone of voice. Sometimes the hermit would 
preach to the people in the fort. When he did this he 
wore a black robe, made like the rest of his robes, in 
the fashion of a morning gown. Sometimes he put on 
bands of the common size and shape. At other times 
he had over his robe a very fine piece of linen, about 
four feet long and about eighteen inches broad. In the 
middle of this there was a hole through which he put 
his head, so that the piece of linen hung down at equal 
lengths before and behind. This decoration gave him a 
truly venerable appearance. I think, from the great ex- 
tent of his learning, he must have been a first rate 
preacher. In addition to this, to the best of mv recol- 
lection, his voice and elocution were of the first order. 
In his public services, particularly in the marriage cere- 
mony, which it fell to his lot to perform very often for 

126 Early Settlement and Indian fVars of 

our early settlers, he followed the ritual of the Church of 

This hermit possessed one art, the like of which I 
never witnessed or heard of since. He was in the habit 
of giving a piece of white paper four or five inches square 
a single fold, and with a very small pair of scissors which 
he always carried about him, he would soon produce the 
picture of a buck, an elk, flower-pot, turkey, or anything 
else he chose. These pictures sometimes had a single, 
sometimes a double festoon border which had the ap- 
pearance of fine needle work. While doing this he was 
commonly engaged in conversation, and appeared to take 
very little notice of what he was doing. I remember I 
once asked him to show me how to make such pictures. 
He answered with apparent chagrin : “No, I cannot. 
It is a star in the head, and you don’t possess it, there- 
fore say no more about it.” 

Mr. Hardie, although he professed himself a clergy- 
man of the Church of England, was nevertheless attached 
to the Dunkard society, I think on the river Lehigh, 
but whether he came into the country with the Dunkards 
who made the establishments which gave name to Dun- 
kard creek and Dunkard bottom on Cheat river, I have 
not been informed. I have, indeed, never been able to 
obtain the history of the settlement and departure of 
those people from the country. 

Mr. Hardie brought with him into the country an 
orphan lad, whom he raised in his hermitage, and taught 
him his religious principles with such effect, that when 
grown up he suffered his beard to grow long. He 
adopted his master’s deportment and mode of conversa- 
tion. He was not, however, the disciple of his master 
in every point. After his beard had grown to a tolerable 
length he engaged in a scout against a couple of Indians 
who had taken two women and a child prisoners from 
the neighborhood. The prisoners were recovered in the 
evening of the second day of their captivity. On this 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 127 

occasion, the young Dunkard behaved with the utmost 
bravery. He fired the first gun, and was first at the 
Indian camp, to save the prisoners from the tomahawk. 
When the party returned to the fort, they unanimously 
protested that so brave a man should not wear such an 
ugly beard, and accordingly shaved it off ; but he let it 
grow again. All this, however, did not suit the pacific 
principles of his master. 

This disciple of the hermit departed from his master 
in another point. He was twice married. This, I be- 
lieve, displeased the old hermit ; for soon after the first 
marriage of his pupil, he went down among his brethren 
in the lower part of Pennsylvania, where he died. 

Although these hermits seemed wholly devoted to the 
means of securing their future interest, they neverthe- 
less did not entirely neglect the present world ; but took 
care to secure themselves two very valuable tracts of 
land ; the one on Cross creek, where their first hermit- 
age was erected, the other the place now owned by 
Dr. John Cuthbertson, on which the second hermitage 
was established. 

When a boy, I was often at the latter hermitage, for 
the purpose of receiving instructions in arithmetic from 
the old hermit ; although the old man was a good hand 
at washing and cooking, yet the apparent poverty and 
wretchedness of the cabin demonstrated in most impres- 
sive manner “that it is not good for man to be alone.” 

There was something strange in the character and 
latter end of the younger hermit. During the greater part 
of his time, especially in his latter years, he was enthu- 
siastically religious. Before eating he commonly read 
a few verses in his Bible, instead of saying grace. When 
alone, he was often engaged in soliloquies ; sometimes he 
attempted to preach, although he was a great stutterer. 
Several times he became quite deranged. On one oc- 
casion he took it into his head that he ought to be 
scourged, and actually prepared hickories, stripped him- 

128 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

self, and made a mulatto man whip him until he said he 
had enough. Throughout life, with the exception of 
his last year, he was remarkably lazy and careless about 
his worldly affairs, owing to his great devotion to read- 
ing and religious exercises. He was the last in the 
neighborhood at planting, sowing, reaping, and every- 
thing else about his farm, so that, although he had an 
excellent tract of land, he could hardly make out to live. 
About a year before his death he fell into a consumptive 
complaint. During this year his former religious im- 
pressions seemed entirely to have forsaken his mind. 
He became completely the man of the world. When- 
ever any conversation on religious subjects was offered 
him by his neighbors, who saw that his end was fast 
approaching, he always replied with some observation 
about building a barn, a fence, or something else of a 
worldly nature. During this year he did more worldly 
business than he ever had done in any ten years of his 
life before. 

I knew an instance of a similar change in the deport- 
ment of a gentleman whom I attended in a severe attack 
of the dropsy. Before his illness he was an easy, good 
natured, careless man, and a good neighbor ; but after 
his recovery he was excessively avaricious, profane in 
his language, and a tyrant to his family and neighbors. 
Both these men appeared to have undergone an entire 
change in the state of the mind, and external deport- 

The question whether the moral system of our nature 
is not as apt to suffer a deterioration, as to receive an 
improvement, in consequence of severe and long con- 
tinued fits of sickness, would be an interesting subject 
in moral philosophy, and deserves the attention of men 
of science. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 129 


Settlement of the Country. 

The settlements on this side of the mountains com- 
menced along the Monongahela, and between that river 
and the Laurel Ridge, in the year 1772. In the suc- 
ceeding year they reached the Ohio river. The greater 
number of the first settlers came from the upper parts 
of the then colonies of Maryland, and Virginia. Brad- 
dock’s trail, as it was called, was the route by which the 
greater number of them crossed the mountains. A less 
number of them came by the way of Bedford and Fort 
Ligonier, the military road from Pennsylvania to Pittsburg. 
They effected their removals on horses furnished with 
pack-saddles. This was the more easily done, as but 
few of these early adventurers into the wilderness were 
encumbered with much baggage. 

Land was the object which invited the greater number 
of these people to cross the mountain, for as the saying 
then was, ct it was to be had here for taking up that 
is, building a cabin and raising a crop of grain, however 
small, of any kind, entitled the occupant to four hundred 
acres of land, and a preemption right to one thousand 
acres more adjoining, to be secured by a land office 
warrant. This right was to take effect if there happened 
to be so much vacant land, or any part thereof, adjoining 
the tract secured by the settlement right. 

At an early period, the government of Virginia ap- 
pointed three commissioners to give certificates of settle- 
ment rights. These certificates, together with the sur- 
veyor’s plan, were sent to the land office of the state, 

130 Early Settlement and Indian TVars of 

where they laid six months, to await any caveat which 
might be offered. If none was offered the patent then 

There was, at an early period of our settlements, an 
inferior kind of land title denominated a tomahawk 
right , which was made by deadening a few trees near 
the head of a spring, and marking the bark of some one, 
or more of them with the initials of the name of the 
person who made the improvement. I remember having 
seen a number of these tomahawk rights when a 
boy. For a long time many of them bore the names of 
those who made them. I have no knowledge of the 
efficacy of the tomahawk improvement, or whether it 
conferred any right whatever, unless followed by an 
actual settlement. These rights, however, were often 
bought and sold. Those who wished to make settle- 
ments on their favorite tracts of land, bought up the 
tomahawk improvements, rather than enter into quarrels 
with those who had made them. Other improvers of 
the land, with a view to actual settlement, and who 
happened to be stout veteran fellows, took a very different 
course from that of purchasing the tomahawk rights. 
When annoyed by the claimants under those rights, they 
deliberately cut a few good hickories, and gave them 
what was called in those days a laced jacket , that is a 
sound whipping. 

Some of the early settlers took the precaution to come 
over the mountains in the spring, leaving their families 
behind to raise a crop of corn, and then return and bring 
them out in the fall. This I should think was the better 
way. Others, especially those whose families were 
small, brought them with them in the spring. My 
father took the latter course. His family was but small 
and he brought them all with him. The Indian meal 
which he brought over the mountain was expended six 
weeks too soon, so that for that length of time we had 
to live without bread. The lean venison and the breast 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 131 

of the wild turkey, we were taught to call bread. The 
flesh of the bear was denominated meat. This artifice 
did not succeed very well ; after living in this way for 
some time we became sickly, the stomach seemed to be 
always empty, and tormented with a sense of hunger. 
I remember how narrowly the children watched the 
growth of the potatoe tops, pumpkin and squash vines, 
hoping from day to day to get something to answer in 
the place of bread. How delicious was the taste of the 
young potatoes when we got them ! What a jubilee 
when we were permitted to pull the young corn for 
roasting ears. Still more so when it had acquired suffi- 
cient hardness to be made into johnny cakes by the aid 
of a tin grater. We then became healthy, vigorous and 
contented with our situation, poor as it was. 

My father with a small number of his neighbors made 
their settlements in the spring of 1773. Though they 
were in a poor and destitute situation, they nevertheless 
lived in peace ; but their tranquility was not of long con- 
tinuance. Those most atrocious murders of the peace- 
able inoffensive Indians at Captina and Yellow creek, 
brought on the war of Lord Dunmore in the spring of 
the year 1774. Our little settlement then broke up. 
The women and children were removed to Morris’ fort 
in Sandy creek glade, some distance to the east of Union- 
town. The fort consisted of an assemblage of small 
hovels, situated on the margin of a large and noxious 
marsh, the effluvia of which gave the most of the women 
and children the fever and ague. The men were com- 
pelled by necessity to return home, and risk the toma- 
hawk and scalping knife of the Indians, in raising corn 
to keep their families from starvation the succeeding 
winter. Those sufferings, dangers, and losses, were the 
tribute we had to pay to that thirst for blood which 
actuated those veteran murderers who brought the war 
upon us ! The memory of the sufferers in this war, as well 

132 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

as that of their descendants, still looks back upon them 
with regret, and abhorrence, and the page of history will 
consign their names to posterity, with the full weight of 
infamy they deserve. 

A correct and detailed view of the origin of societies, 
and their progress from one condition or point of wealth, 
science and civilization, to another, in these important 
respects a much higher grade, is always highly interest- 
ing even when received through the dusky medium of 
history, oftentimes but poorly and partially written ; but 
when this retrospect of things past and gone is drawn 
from the recollections of experience, the impressions 
which it makes on the heart are of the most vivid, deep 
and lasting kind. The following history of the state of 
society, manners and customs of our forefathers is to be 
drawn from the latter source, and it is given to the 
world, with the recollection that many of my cotem- 
poraries, still living, have, as well as myself, witnessed 
all the scenes and events herein described, and whose 
memories would speedily detect and expose any errors 
the work may contain. 

The municipal, as well as ecclesiastical, institutions 
of society, whether good or bad, in consequence of their 
long continued use, give a corresponding cast to the pub- 
lic character of the society, whose conduct they direct, 
and the more so, because in the lapse of time, the observ- 
ance of them becomes a matter of conscience. This 
observation applies, in full force, to that influence of gur 
early land laws, which allowed four hundred acres, and 
no more, to a settlement right. Many of our first 
settlers seemed to regard this amount of the surface of 
the earth, as the allotment of divine providence for one 
family, and believed that any attempt to get more would 
be sinful. Most of them, therefore, contented themselves 
with that amount ; although they might have evaded the 
law, which allowed but one settlement right to any one 
individual, by taking out the title papers in the names of 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 133 

others, to be afterwards transferred to them, as if by 
purchase. Some few, indeed, pursued this practice ; but 
it was held in detestation. 

My father, like many others, believed, that having 
secured his legal allotment, the rest of the country be- 
longed of right to those who chose to settle in it. 
There was a piece of vacant land adjoining his tract 
amounting to about two hundred acres. To this tract 
of land he had the preemption right, and accordingly 
secured it by warrant ; but his conscience would not 
permit him to retain it in his family ; he therefore gave 
it to an apprentice lad whom he had raised in his house. 
This lad sold it to an uncle of mine for a cow and calf, 
a nd a wool hat. 

Owing to the equal distribution of real property directed 
by our land laws, and the sterling integrity of our fore- 
fathers, in their observance of them, we have no dis- 
tricts of sold land , as it is called, that is large tracts 
of land in the hands of individuals, or companies, who 
neither sell nor improve them, as is the case in Lower 
Canada, and the north-western part of Pennsylvania. 
These unsettled tracts make huge blanks in the popula- 
tion of the country where they exist. 

The division lines between those whose lands ad- 
joined, were generally made in an amicable manner, 
before any survey of them was made, by the parties 
concerned. In doing this they were guided mainly by 
the tops of ridges and water courses, but particularly the 
former. Hence the greater number of farms in the 
western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia bear a striking 
resemblance to an amphitheatre. The buildings occupy 
a low situation and the tops of the surrounding hills are 
the boundaries of the tract to which the family mansion 

Our forefathers were fond of farms of this description, 
because, as they said, they are attended with this con- 
venience “ that everything comes to the house down 

134 Early Settlement and Indian lEars of 

hill.” In the hilly parts of the state of Ohio, the land 
having been laid off in an arbitrary manner, by straight 
parallel lines, without regard to hill or dale, the farms 
present a different aspect from those on the east side of 
the river opposite. There the buildings as frequently 
occupy the tops of the hills, as any other situation. 

Our people had become so accustomed to the mode 
of “ getting land for taking it up,” that for a long time 
it was generally believed that the land on the west side 
of the Ohio would ultimately be disposed of in that way. 
Hence almost the whole tract of country between the 
Ohio and Muskingum was parcelled out in tomahawk 
improvements ; but these latter improvers did not 
content themselves with a single four hundred acre tract 
apiece. Many of them owned a great number of tracts 
of the best land, and thus, in imagination, were as 
“ wealthy as a South sea dream.” Many of the land 
jobbers of this class did not content themselves with 
marking the trees, at the usual height, with the initials 
of their names, but climbed up the large beech trees, and 
cut the letters in their bark, from twenty to forty feet 
from the ground. To enable them to identify those 
trees, at a future period, they made marks on other trees 
around them as references. 

Most of the early settlers considered their land as of 
little value, from an apprehension that after a few years’ 
cultivation it would lose its fertility, at least for a long 
time. I have often heard them say that such a field 
would bear so many crops and another so many, more or 
less, than that. The ground of this belief concerning the 
short lived fertility of the land in this country, was the 
poverty of a great proportion of the land in the lower 
parts of Maryland and Virginia, which, after producing a 
few crops, became unfit for use and was thrown out into 

In their unfavorable opinion of the nature of the soil 
of our country, our forefathers were utterly mistaken. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania , 135 

The native weeds were scarcely destroyed, before the 
whi.e clover and different kinds of grass made their ap- 
pearance. These soon covered the ground, so as to 
afford pasture for the cattle, by the time the wood range 
was eaten out, as well as protect the soil from being 
washed away by drenching rains, so often injurious in 
hilly countries. 

Judging from Virgil’s 1 test of fruitful and barren soils, 
the greater part of this country must possess every re- 
quisite for fertility. The test is this : dig a hole of any 
reasonable dimensions and depth. If the earth which 
was taken out, when thrown lightly back into it, does 
not fill up the hole the soil is fruitful ; but if it more 
than fill it up the soil is barren. 

Whoever chooses to make this experiment will find the 
result indicative of the richness of our soil. Even our 
graves, notwithstanding the size of the vault, are seldom 
finished with the earth thrown out of them, and they 
soon sink below the surface of the earth. 


House Furniture and Diet. 

The settlement of a new country, in the immediate 
neighborhood of an old one, is not attended with much 
difficulty, because supplies can be readily obtained from 

1 Ante locum capies oculis, alteque jubebis 
In solido puteum demitti, omnemque repones 
Rursus humum, et pedibus summas cequabis arenas. 

Si deeruht : rarum, pecorique et vitibus almis 
Aptius uber erit. Sin in sua posse negabunt 
Ire loca, et scrobibus superabit terra repletis, 

Spissus ager : glebas cunctantes crassaque terga 
Expecta, validis terram proscinde juvencis. 

Vir. Geo ., lib. u, 1. 230. 

136 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

the latter ; but the settlement of a country very remote 
from any cultivated region, is a very different thing, be- 
cause at the outset, food, raiment, and the implements 
of husbandry are obtained only in small supplies and 
with great difficulty. The task of making new estab- 
lishments in a remote wilderness in a time of profound 
peace is sufficiently difficult ; but when, in addition to all 
the unavoidable hardships attendant on this business, 
those resulting from an extensive and furious warfare 
with savages are superadded, toil, privations and suffer- 
ings are then carried to the full extent of the capacity of 
men to endure them. 

Such was the wretched condition of our forefathers 
in making their settlements here. To all their difficul- 
ties and privations the Indian war was a weighty addition. 
This destructive warfare they were compelled to sustain 
almost single handed, because the revolutionary contest 
with England gave full employment for the military 
strength and resources on the east side of the moun- 

The following history of the poverty, labors, suffer- 
ings, manners and customs, of our forefathers, will appear 
like a collection of u tales of olden times” without any 
garnish of language to spoil the original portraits, by 
giving them shades of coloring which they did not 
possess. I shall follow the order of things as they 
occurred during the period of time embraced in these 
narratives, beginning with those rude accommodations 
with which our first adventurers into this country fur- 
nished themselves at the commencement of their estab- 
lishments. It will be a homely narrative ; yet valuable 
on the ground of its being real history. 

If my reader, when viewing through the medium 
which I here present, the sufferings of human nature in 
one of its most depressed and dangerous conditions, should 
drop an involuntary tear, let him not blame me for the 
sentiment of sympathy which he feels. On the contrary, 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 137 

if he should sometimes meet with a recital calculated to 
excite a smile or a laugh I claim no credit for his enjoy- 
ment. It is the subject matter of the history and not the 
historian which makes those widely different impressions 
on the mind of the reader. 

In this chapter it is my design to give a brief account 
of the household furniture and articles of diet which were 
used by the first inhabitants of our country. A descrip- 
tion of their cabins and half-faced camps, and their man- 
ner of building them, will be found elsewhere. 

The furniture for the table, for several years after the 
settlement of this country, consisted of a few pewter 
dishes, plates, and spoons ; but mostly of wooden bowls, 
trenchers and noggins. If these last were scarce, gourds 
and hard shelled squashes made up the deficiency. The 
iron pots, knives, and forks, were brought from the east 
side of the mountains along; with the salt and iron on 
pack horses. These articles of furniture corresponded 
very well with the articles of diet on which they were 
employed. “ Hog and hominy” were proverbial for the 
dish of which they were the component parts. Johnny 
cake and pone were at the outset of the settlements of 
the country, the only forms of bread in use for breakfast 
and dinner. At supper, milk and mush was the stand- 
ard dish. When milk was not plenty, which was often 
the case, owing to the scarcity of cattle, or the want of 
proper pasture for them, the substantial dish of hominy 
had to supply the place of them ; mush was frequently 
eaten with sweetened water, molasses, bear’s oil, or the 
gravy of fried meat. 

Every family, besides a little garden for the few vege- 
tables which they cultivated, had another small enclosure 
containing from half an acre to an acre, which they 
called a truck patch , in which they raised corn, for 
roasting ears, pumpkins, squashes, beans, and pota- 
toes. These, in the latter part of the summer and fall, 
were cooked with their pork, venison, and bear meat for 

138 Early Settlement and Indian W ars of 

dinner, and made very wholesome and well tasted dishes. 
The standard dinner dish for every log rolling, house 
raising, and harvest day was a pot pie, or what in other 
countries is called sea pie . This, besides answering 

for dinner, served for a part of the supper also. The 
remainder of it from dinner, being eaten with milk in the 
evening, after the conclusion of the labor of the day. 

In our whole display of furniture, the delft, china, and 
silver were unknown. It did not then as now require 
contributions from the four quarters of the globe to fur- 
nish the breakfast table, viz : the silver from Mexico ; 
the coffee from the West Indies ; the tea from China, 
and the delft and porcelain from Europe or Asia. Yet 
our homely fare, and unsightly cabins, and furniture, 
produced a hardy veteran race, who planted the first foot- 
steps of society and civilization, in the immense regions 
of the west. Inured to hardihood, bravery and labor 
from their early youth, they sustained with manly forti- 
tude the fatigue of the chase, the campaign and scout, 
and with strong arms “ turned the wilderness into fruit- 
ful fields” and have left to their descendants the rich 
inheritance of an immense empire blessed with peace 
and wealth. 

I well recollect the first time I ever saw a tea cup 
and saucer, and tasted coffee. My mother died when I 
was about six or seven years of age. My father then 
sent me to Maryland with a brother of my grandfather, 
Mr. Alexander Wells, to school. At Colonel Brown’s 
iu the mountains, at Stony creek glades, I for the first 
time saw tame geese, and by bantering a pet gander I 
got a severe biting by his bill, and beating by his wings. 
I wondered very much that birds so large and strong 
should be so much tamer than the wild turkeys. At this 
place, however, all was right, excepting the large birds 
which they called geese. The cabin and its furniture 
were such as I had been accustomed to see in the back- 
woods, as my country was then called. At Bedford 

JVestern Virginia and Pennsylvania . 139 

everything was changed. The tavern at which my 
uncle put up, was a stone house, and to make the change 
still more complete it was plastered in the inside, both 
as to the walls and ceiling. On going into the dining 
room I was struck with astonishment at the appearance 
of the house. I had no idea that there was any house 
in the world which was not built of logs ; but here I 
looked round the house and could see no logs, and above 
I could see no joists ; whether such a thing had been 
made by the hands of man, or had grown so of itself, I 
could not conjecture. I had not the courage to inquire 
anything about it. When supper came on, cc my con- 
fusion was worse confounded . 99 A little cup stood in a 
bigger one with some brownish looking stuff in it, which 
was neither milk, hominy, nor broth ; what to do with 
these little cups and the little spoon belonging to them, 
I could not tell ; and I was afraid to ask anything con- 
cerning the use of them. 

It was in the time of the war, and the company were 
giving accounts of catching, whipping and hanging the 
tories. The word jail frequently occurred : this word 
I had never heard before ; but I soon discovered, and 
was much terrified at its meaning, and supposed that we 
were in much danger of the fate of the tories ; for I 
thought, as we had come from the backwoods, it was 
altogether likely that we must be tories too. For fear 
of being discovered I durst not utter a single word. I 
therefore watched attentively to see what the big folks 
would do with their little cups and spoons. I imitated 
them, and found the taste of the coffee nauseous beyond 
anything I ever had tasted in my life. I continued to 
drink, as the rest of the company did, with the tears 
streaming from my eyes, but when it was to end I was 
at a loss to know, as the little cups were filled immedi- 
ately after being emptied. This circumstance distressed 
me very much, as I durst not say I had enough. Look- 
ing attentively at the grown persons, I saw one man turn 

140 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

his little cup bottom upwards and put his little spoon 
across it. I observed that after this his cup was not 
filled again ; I followed his example, and to my great 
satisfaction, the result as to my cup was the same. 

The introduction of delft ware was considered by 
many of the backwoods people as a culpable innovation. 
It was too easily broken, and the plates of that ware 
dulled their scalping and clasp knives ; tea ware was too 
small for men ; they might do for women and children. 
Tea and coffee were only slops, which in the adage of 
the day u did not stick by the ribs.” The idea was they 
were designed only for people of quality, who do not 
labor, or the sick. A genuine backwoodsman would 
have thought himself disgraced by showing a fondness 
for those slops. Indeed, many of them have, to this day, 
very little respect for them. 


Dress of the Indians and First Settlers. 

On the frontiers, and particularly amongst those who 
were much in the habit of hunting, and going on scouts 
and campaigns, the dress of the men was partly Indian, 
and partly that of civilized nations. 

The hunting shirt was universally worn. This was 
a kind of loose frock, reaching half way down the thighs, 
with large sleeves, open before, and so wide as to lap 
over a foot or more when belted. The cape was large, 
and sometimes handsomely fringed with a ravelled piece 
of cloth of a different color from that of the hunting shirt 
itself. The bosom of this dress served as a wallet to 
hold a chunk of bread, cakes, jerk, tow for wiping the 
barrel of the rifle, or any other necessary for the hunter 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 141 

or warrior. The belt, which was always tied behind, 
answered several purposes, besides that of holding the 
dress together. In cold weather the mittens, and some- 
times the bullet-bag, occupied the front part of it. To 
the right side was suspended the tomahawk and to the 
left the scalping knife in its leathern sheath. The hunt- 
ing shirt was generally made of linsey, sometimes of 
coarse linen, and a few of dressed deer skins. These 
last were very cold and uncomfortable in wet weather. 
The shirt and jacket were of the common fashion. A 
pair of drawers or breeches and leggins, were the dress 
of the thighs and legs ; a pair of moccasons answered for 
the feet much better than shoes. These were made of 
dressed deer skin. They were mostly made of a single 
piece with a gathering seam along the top of the foot, 
and another from the bottom of the heel, without gathers 
as high as the ankle joint or a little higher. Flaps were 
left on each side to reach some distance up the legs. 
These were nicely adapted to the ankles, and lower part 
of the leg by thongs of deer skin, so that no dust, gravel, 
or snow could get within the moccason. 

The moccasons in ordinary use cost but a few hours 
labor to make them. This was done by an instrument 
denominated a moccason awl, which was made of the 
backspring of an old claspknife. This awl with its bucks- 
horn handle was an appendage of every shot pouch strap, 
together with a roll of buckskin for mending the mocca- 
sons. This was the labor of almost every evening. 
They were sewed together and patched with deer skin 
thongs, or whangs, as they were commonly called. 

In cold weather the moccasons were well stuffed with 
deer’s hair, or dry leaves, so as to keep the feet comfort- 
ably warm ; but in wet weather it was usually said that 
wearing them was cc a decent way of going barefooted;” 
and such was the fact, owing to the spongy texture of 
the leather of which they were made. 

Owing to this defective covering of the feet, more 

142 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

than to any other circumstance, the greater number of 
our hunters and warriors were afflicted with the rheuma- 
tism in their limbs. Of this disease they were all appre- 
hensive in cold or wet weather, and therefore always 
slept with their feet to the fire to prevent or cure it as 
well as they could. This practice unquestionably had 
a very salutary effect, and prevented many of them from 
becoming confirmed cripples in early life. 

In the latter years of the Indian war our young men 
became more enamored of the Indian dress throughout, 
with the exception of the matchcoat. The drawers 
were laid aside and the leggins made longer, so as to 
reach the upper part of the thigh. The Indian breech 
clout was adopted. This was a piece of linen or cloth 
nearly a yard long, and eight or nine inches broad. 
This passed under the belt before and behind leaving the 
ends for flaps hanging before and behind over the belt. 
These flaps were sometimes ornamented with some 
coarse kind of embroidery work. To the same belts 
which secured the breech clout, strings which supported 
the long leggins were attached. When this belt, as was 
often the case, passed over the hunting shirt the upper 
part of the thighs and part of the hips were naked. 

The young warrior instead of being abashed by this 
nudity was proud of his Indian like dress. In some few 
instances I have seen them go into places of public 
worship in this dress. Their appearance, however, did 
not add much to the devotion of the young ladies. 

The linsey petticoat and bed gown, which were the 
universal dress of our women in early times, would make 
a strange figure in our days. A small home-made 
handkerchief, in point of elegance, would illy supply the 
place of that profusion of ruffles with which the necks 
of our ladies are now ornamented. 

They went barefooted in warm weather, and in cold, 
their feet were covered with moccasons, coarse shoes, or 
shoepacks, which would make but a sorry figure beside 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 143 

the elegant morocco slippers often embossed with bullion 
which at present ornament the feet of their daughters 
and grand-daughters. 

The coats and bedgowns of the women, as well as 
the hunting shirts of the men, were hung in full display 
on wooden pegs round the walls of their cabins, so that 
while they answered in some degree the place of paper 
hangings or tapestry, they announced to the stranger as 
well as neighbor the wealth or poverty of the family in 
the articles of clothing. This practice has not yet been 
wholly laid aside amongst the backwoods families. 

The historian would say to the ladies of the present 
time, our ancestors of your sex knew nothing of the 
ruffles, leghorns, curls, combs, rings and other jewels, 
with which their fair daughters now decorate themselves. 
Such things were not then to be had. Many of the 
younger part of them were pretty well grown up before 
they ever saw the inside of a store room, or even knew 
there was such a thing in the world, unless by hearsay, 
and indeed scarcely that. Instead of the toilet, they had 
to handle the distaff or shuttle, the sickle or weeding 
hoe, contented if they could obtain their linsey clothing 
and cover their heads with a sun bonnet made of six or 
seven hundred linen. 


The Fort and other Defenses. 

My reader will understand by this term, not only a 
place of defense, but the residence of a small number of 
families belonging to the same neighborhood. As the 
Indian mode of warfare was an indiscriminate slaughter 
of all ages, and both sexes, it was as requisite to provide 
for the safety of the women and children as for that of 
the men. 


144 Early Settlement and Indian W ars of 

The fort consisted of cabins, blockhouses, and stock- 
ades. A range of cabins commonly formed one side, at 
least, of the fort. Divisions or partitions of logs sepa- 
rated the cabins from each other. The walls on the 
outside were ten or twelve feet high, the slope of the 
roof being turned wholly inward. A very few of these 
cabins had puncheon floors, the greater part were earthen. 
The blockhouses were built at the angles of the fort. 
They projected about two feet beyond the outer walls 
of the cabins and stockades. Their upper stories were 
about eighteen inches every way larger in dimension than 
the under one, leaving an opening at the commencement 
of the second story to prevent the enemy from making 
a lodgment under their walls. In some forts, instead of 
blockhouses, the angles of the fort were furnished with 
bastions. A large folding gate made of thick slabs, 
nearest the spring, closed the fort. The stockades, 
bastions, cabins, and blockhouse walls, were furnished 
with port holes at proper heights and distances. The 
whole of the outside was made completely bullet proof. 

It may be truly said that necessity is the mother of 
invention ; for the whole of this work was made without 
the aid of a single nail or spike of iron, and for this rea- 
son, such things were not to be had. 

In some places less exposed, a single blockhouse, with 
a cabin or two, constituted the whole fort. Such places 
of refuge may appear very trifling to those who have 
been in the habit of seeing the formidable military gar- 
risons of Europe and America ; but they answered the 
purpose, as the Indians had no artillery. They seldom 
attacked, and scarcely ever took one of them. 

The families belonging to these forts were so attached 
to their own cabins on their farms, that they seldom 
moved into their fort in the spring until compelled by 
some alarm, as they called it ; that is, when it was an- 
nounced by some murder that the Indians were in the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 145 

The fort to which my father belonged was, during the 
first years of the war, three-quarters of a mile from his 
farm; but when this fort went to decay, and became 
unfit for defense, a new one was built at his own house. 
I well remember that, when a little boy, the family 
were sometimes waked up in the dead of night, by an 
express with a report that the Indians were at hand. 
The express came softly to the door, or back window, 
and by a gentle tapping waked the family. This was 
easily done, as an habitual fear made us ever watchful 
and sensible to the slightest alarm. The whole family 
were instantly in motion. My father seized his gun 
and other implements of war. My stepmother waked 
up and dressed the children as well as she could, and 
being myself the oldest of the children, I had to take my 
share of the burdens to be carried to the fort. There 
was no possibility of getting a horse in the night to aid 
us in removing to the fort. Besides the little children, 
we caught up what articles of clothing and provision we 
could get hold of in the dark, for we durst not light a 
candle or even stir the fire. All this was done with the 
utmost dispatch and the silence of death. The greatest 
care was taken not to awaken the youngest child. To 
the rest it was enough to say Indian and not a whimper 
was heard afterwards. Thus it often happened that the 
whole number of families belonging to a fort who were 
in the evening at their homes, were all in their little 
fortress before the dawn of the next morning. In the 
course of the succeeding day, their household furniture 
was brought in by parties of the men under arms. 

Some families belonging to each fort were much less 
under the influence of fear than others, and who, after 
an alarm had subsided, in spite of every remonstrance, 
would remove home, while their more prudent neigh- 
bors remained in the fort. Such families were denomi- 
nated fool hardy and gave no small amount of trouble 
by creating such frequent necessities of sending runners 

146 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

to warn them of their danger, and sometimes parties of 
our men to protect them during their removal. 


Caravans and Mode of Trade. 

The acquisition of the indispensable articles of salt, 
iron, steel and castings, presented great difficulties to the 
first settlers of the western country. They had no 
stores of any kind, no salt, iron, nor iron works; nor 
had they money to make purchases where those articles 
could be obtained. Peltry and furs were their only re- 
sources, before they had time to raise cattle and horses 
for sale in the Atlantic states. 

Every family collected what peltry and fur they 
could obtain throughout the year for the purpose of 
sending them over the mountains for barter. 

In the fall of the year, after seeding time, every family 
formed an association with some of their neighbors for 
starting the little caravan. A master driver was selected 
from among them who was to be assisted by one or 
more young men and sometimes a boy or two. The 
horses were fitted out with pack-saddles, to the hinder 
part of which was fastened a pair of hobbles made of 
hickory withes ; a bell and collar ornamented his neck. 
The bags provided for the conveyance of the salt were 
filled with feed for the horses ; on the journey a part of 
this feed was left at convenient stages on the way down, 
to support the return of the caravan ; large wallets well 
filled with bread, jerk, boiled ham and cheese furnished 
provisions for the drivers. At night after feeding, the 
horses, whether put in pasture or turned out into the 
woods, were hobbled and the bells were opened. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 147 

The barter for salt and iron was made first at Balti- 
more ; Frederick, Hagerstown, Oldtown and Fort Cum- 
berland, in succession, became the place of exchange. 
Each horse carried two bushels of alum salt weighing 
eighty-four pounds the bushel. This, to be sure, was 
not a heavy load for the horses but it was enough, con- 
sidering the scanty subsistence allowed them on the 

The common price of a bushel of alum salt, at an 
early period, was a good cow and calf ; and until weights 
were introduced, the salt was measured into the half 
bushel, by hand, as lightly as possible. No one was per- 
mitted to walk heavily over the floor while the operation 
of measuring was going on. 

The following anecdote will serve to show how 
little the native sons of the forest knew of the etiquette 
of the Atlantic cities. 

A neighbor of my father, some years after the settle- 
ment of the country, had collected a small drove of cattle 
for the Baltimore market. Amongst the hands employed 
to drive them was one who never had seen any condition 
of society but that of woodsmen. At one of their lodg- 
ing places in the mountain, the landlord and his hired 
man, in the course of the night, stole two of the bells be- 
longing to the drove and hid them in a piece of woods. 
The drove had not gone far in the morning before the 
bells were missed ; and a detachment went back to re- 
cover the stolen bells. The men were found reaping 
in the field of the landlord. They were accused of the 
theft, but they denied the charge. The torture of sweat- 
ing according to the custom of that time, that is of sus- 
pension by the arms pinioned behind their backs, brought 
a confession. The bells were procured and hung around 
the necks of the thieves. In this condition they were 
driven on foot before the detachment until they overtook 
the drove which by this time had gone nine miles. A halt 
was called and a jury selected to try the culprits. They 

148 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

were condemned to receive a certain number of lashes 
on the bare back from the hand of each drover. The 
man above alluded to was the owner of one of the bells ; 
when it came to his turn to use the hickory, “ now,” says 
he to the thief, u you infernal scoundrel, PU work your 
jacket nineteen to the dozen, only think what a rascally 
figure I should make in the streets of Baltimore without 
a bell on my horse.” The man was in earnest ; having 
seen no horses used without bells, he thought they were 
requisite in every situation. 


Subsistence by Hunting. 

This was an important part of the employment of the 
early settlers of this country. For some years the woods 
supplied them with the greater amount of their subsist- 
ence, and with regard to some families at certain times, 
the whole of it ; for it was no uncommon thing for fami- 
lies to live several months without a mouthful of bread. 
It frequently happened that there was no breakfast until 
it was obtained from the woods. Fur and peltry were 
the people’s money. They had nothing else to give in 
exchange for rifles, salt, and iron, on the other side of 
the mountains. 

The fall and early part of the winter was the season 
for hunting the deer, and the whole of the winter, includ- 
ing part of the spring, for bears and fur skinned animals. 
It was a customary saying that fur is good during every 
month in the name of which the letter R occurs. 

1 he class of hunters with whom I was best acquainted 
were those whose hunting ranges were on the western 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 149 

side of the river, and at the distance of eight or nine miles 
from it. As soon as the leaves were pretty well down 
and the weather became rainy, accompanied with light 
snows, these men, after acting the part of husbandmen, 
so far as the state of warfare permitted them to do so, 
soon began to feel that they were hunters. They be- 
came uneasy at home. Everything about them became 
disagreeable. The house was too warm. The feather 
bed too soft, and even the good wife was not thought 
for the time being a proper companion. The mind of 
the hunter was wholly occupied with the camp and chase. 
I have often seen them get up early in the morning at 
this season, walk hastily out and look anxiously to the 
woods and snuff the autumnal winds with the highest 
rapture, then return into the house and cast a quick and 
attentive look at the rifle, which was always suspended 
to a joist by a couple of buck’s horns, or little forks. 
His hunting dog, understanding the intentions of his 
master, would wag his tail and by every blandishment in 
his power express his readiness to accompany him to the 

A day was soon appointed for the march of the little 
cavalcade to the camp. Two or three horses furnished 
with pack saddles were loaded with flour, Indian meal, 
blankets and everything else, requisite for the use of the 

A hunting camp, or what was called a half-faced cabin, 
was of the following form : the back part of it was some- 
times a large log ; at the distance of eight or ten feet 
from this two stakes were set in the ground a few inches 
apart, and at the distance of eight or ten feet from these 
two more, to receive the ends of the poles for the sides 
of the camp. The whole slope of the roof, was from 
the front to the back. The covering was made of slabs, 
skins or blankets, or, if in the spring of the year, the bark 
of hickory or ash trees. The front was left entirely 
open. The fire was built directly before this opening. 

150 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The cracks between the logs were filled with moss. Dry 
leaves served for a bed. It is thus that a couple of men, 
in a few hours, will construct for themselves a temporary, 
but tolerably comfortable, defense from the inclemencies 
of the weather. The beaver, otter, muskrat and squirrel 
are scarcely their equals in dispatch in fabricating for 
themselves a covert from the tempest ! A little more 
pains would have made a hunting camp a defense against 
the Indians. A cabin ten feet square, bullet proof and 
furnished with port holes, would have enabled two or 
three hunters to hold twenty Indians at bay for any length 
of time. But this precaution I believe was never at- 
tended to ; hence the hunters were often surprised and 
killed in their camps. 

The site for the camp was selected with all the saga- 
city of the woodsmen, so as to have it sheltered by the 
surrounding hills from every wind, but more especially 
from those of the north and west. 

An uncle of mine of the name of Samuel Teter occu- 
pied the same camp for several years in succession. It 
was situated on one of the southern branches of Cross 
creek. Although I lived many years not more than 
fifteen miles from the place, it was not till within a very 
few years ago that I discovered its situation. It was 
shown me by a gentleman living in the neighborhood. 
Viewing the hills round about it, I soon perceived the 
sagacity of the hunter in the site for his camp. Not a 
wind could touch him ; and unless by the report of his 
gun or the sound of his axe, it would have been by mere 
accident if an Indian had discovered his concealment. 

Hunting was not a mere ramble in pursuit of game, in 
which there was nothing of skill and calculation ; on the 
contrary the hunter, before he set out in the morning, 
was informed by the state of the weather in what situa- 
tion he might reasonably expect to meet with his game ; 
whether on the bottoms, sides or tops of the hills. In 
stormy weather the deer always seek the most sheltered 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 151 

places, and the leeward sides of the hills. In rainy 
weather, in which there is not much wind, they keep in 
the open woods on the highest ground. 

In every situation it was requisite for the hunter to 
ascertain the course of the wind, so as to get the leeward 
of the game. This he effected by putting his finger in 
his mouth and holding it there until it became warm, 
then holding it above his head, the side which first be- 
comes cold shows which way the wind blows. 

As it was requisite, too, for the hunter to know the 
cardinal points, he had only to observe the trees to ascer- 
tain them. The bark of an aged tree is thicker and 
much rougher on the north than on the south side. The 
same thing may be said of the moss, it is much thicker 
and stronger on the north than on the south sides of the 

The whole business of the hunter consists of a succes- 
sion of intrigues. From morning till night he was on 
the alert to gain the wind of his game, and approach them 
without being discovered. If he succeeded in killing a 
deer, he skinned it and hung it up out of the reach of the 
wolves, and immediately resumed the chase till the close 
of the evening, when he bent his course towards his 
camp; when arrived there he kindled up his fire, and 
together with his fellow hunter cooked his supper. The 
supper finished, the adventures of the day furnished the 
tales for the evening. The spike buck, the two and 
three pronged buck, the doe and barren doe, figured 
through their anecdotes with great advantage. It would 
seem that after hunting awhile on the same ground, the 
hunters became acquainted with nearly all the gangs of 
deer within their range, so as to know each flock of 
them when they saw them. Often some old buck, by 
the means of his superior sagacity and watchfulness, saved 
his little gang from the hunter’s skill, by giving timely 
notice of his approach. The cunning of the hunter and 
that of the old buck were staked against each other, and 

152 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

it frequently happened that at the conclusion of the hunt- 
ing season, the old fellow was left the free, uninjured 
tenant of his forest ; but if his rival succeeded in bring- 
ing him down, the victory was followed by no small 
amount of boasting on the part of the conqueror. 

When the weather was not suitable for hunting, the 
skins and carcases of the game were brought in and 
disposed of. 

Many of the hunters rested from their labors on the 
Sabbath day, some from a motive of piety ; others said 
that whenever they hunted on Sunday they were sure 
to have bad luck all the rest of the week. 


The Wedding, and Mode of Living. 

For a long time after the first settlement of this 
country, the inhabitants in general married young. 
There was no distinction of rank, and very little of for- 
tune. On these accounts the first impression of love 
resulted in marriage ; and a family establishment cost 
but a little labor and nothing else. A description of a 
wedding from the beginning to the end, will serve to 
show the manners of our forefathers and mark the grade 
of civilization which has succeeded to their rude state of 
society in the course of a few years. 

At an early period, the practice of celebrating the 
marriage at the house of the bride began, and it should 
seem with great propriety. She also has the choice of 
the priest to perform the ceremony. 

In the first years of the settlement of this country, a 
wedding engaged the attention of a whole neighborhood ; 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 153 

and the frolic was anticipated by old and young with 
eager expectation. This is not to be wondered at, when 
it is told that a wedding was almost the only gathering 
which was not accompanied with the labor of reaping, 
log rolling, building a cabin, or planning some scout or 

In the morning of the wedding day, the groom and his 
attendants assembled at the house of his father for the 
purpose of reaching the mansion of his bride by noon, 
which was the usual time for celebrating the nuptials, 
which for certain must take place before dinner. 

Let the reader imagine an assemblage of people, with- 
out a store, tailor or mantuamaker within an hundred 
miles ; and an assemblage of horses, without a black- 
smith or saddler within an equal distance. The gentle- 
men dressed in shoepacks, moccasons, leather breeches, 
leggins, linsey hunting shirts, and all home made. The 
ladies dressed in linsey petticoats and linsey or linen bed 
gowns, coarse shoes, stockings, handkerchiefs and buck- 
skin gloves, if any. If there were any buckles, rings, 
buttons, or ruffles, they were the relics of old times ; 
family pieces from parents or grand parents. The horses 
were caparisoned with old saddles, old bridles or halters, 
and packsaddles, with a bag or blanket «thrown over 
them : a rope or string as often constituted the girth as 
a piece of leather. 

The march, in double file, was often interrupted by 
the narrowness and obstructions of our horse paths, as 
they were called, for we had no roads ; and these diffi- 
culties were often increased, sometimes by the good, and 
sometimes by the ill will of neighbors, by falling trees 
and tying grape vines across the way. Sometimes an 
ambuscade was formed by the way side, and an un- 
expected discharge of several guns took place, so as to 
cover the wedding company with smoke. Let the 
reader imagine the scene which followed this discharge ; 
the sudden spring of the horses, the shrieks of the girls, 

154 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

and the chivalric bustle of their partners to save them 
from falling. Sometimes, in spite of all that could be 
done to prevent it, some were thrown to the ground. If 
a wrist, elbow, or ankle happened to be sprained it was 
tied with a handkerchief, and little more was thought or 
said about it. 

Another ceremony commonly took place before the 
party reached the house of the bride, after the practice 
of making whiskey began, which was at an early period ; 
when the party were about a mile from the place of their 
destination, two young men would single out to run for 
the bottle ; the worse the path, the more logs, brush and 
deep hollows the better, as these obstacles afforded an 
opportunity for the greater display of intrepidity and 
horsemanship. The English fox chase, in point of 
danger to the riders and their horses, is nothing to this 
race for the bottle. The start was announced by an 
Indian yell; logs, brush, muddy hollows, hill and glen, 
were speedily passed by the rival ponies. The bottle 
was always filled for the occasion, so that there was no 
use for judges ; for the first who reached the door was 
presented with the prize, with which he returned in 
triumph to the company. On approaching them he 
announced his victory over his rival by a shrill whoop. 
At the head of the troop, he gave the bottle first to the 
groom and his attendants, and then to each pair in suc- 
cession to the rear of the line, giving each a dram ; and 
then, putting the bottle in the bosom of his hunting shirt, 
took his station in the company. 

The ceremony of the marriage preceded the dinner, 
which was a substantial backwoods feast of beef, pork, 
fowls, and sometimes venison and bear meat roasted and 
boiled, with plenty of potatoes, cabbage, and other vege- 
tables. During the dinner the greatest hilarity always 
prevailed ; although the table might be a large slab of 
timber, hewed out with a broad axe, supported by four 
sticks set in auger holes ; and the furniture, some old 

IV es tern Virginia and Pennsylvania . 155 

pewter dishes and plates ; the rest, wooden bowls and 
trenchers ; a few pewter spoons, much battered about 
the edges, were to be seen at some tables. The rest 
were made of horns. If knives were scarce, the defi- 
ciency was made up by the scalping knives which were 
carried in sheaths suspended to the belt of the hunting 

After dinner the dancing commenced, and generally 
lasted till the next morning. The figures of the dances 
were three and four handed reels, or square sets, and 
jigs. The commencement was always a square four, 
which was followed by what was called jigging it off ; 
that is, two of the four would single out for a jig, and 
were followed by the remaining couple. The jigs were 
often accompanied with what was called cutting out ; 
that is, when either of the parties became tired of the 
dance, on intimation, the place was supplied by some one 
of the company without any interruption of the dance. 
In this way a dance was often continued till the musician 
was heartily tired of his situation. Toward the latter 
part of the night, if any of the company, through weari- 
ness, attempted to conceal themselves for the purpose 
of sleeping, they were hunted up, paraded on the floor, 
and the fiddler ordered to play “ Hang on till to-morrow 

About nine or ten o’clock, a deputation of the young 
ladies stole off the bride, and put her to bed. In doing 
this, it frequently happened that they had to ascend a 
ladder instead of a pair of stairs, leading from the dining 
and ball room to the loft, the floor of which was made 
of clapboards lying loose and without nails. This ascent, 
one might think, would put the bride and her attendants 
to the blush ; but as the foot of the ladder was commonly 
behind the door, which was purposely opened for the 
occasion, and its rounds at the inner ends were well 
hung with hunting shirts, petticoats, and other articles 
of clothing, the candles being on the opposite side of the 


156 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

house, the exit of the bride was noticed but by few. 
This done, a deputation of young men in like manner 
stole off' the groom, and placed him snugly by the side 
of his bride. The dance still continued ; and if seats 
happened to be scarce, which was often the case, every 
young man, when not engaged in the dance, was obliged 
to offer his lap as a seat for one of the girls ; and the 
offer was sure to be accepted. In the midst of this hi- 
larity the bride and groom were not forgotten. Pretty 
late in the night, some one would remind the company 
that the new couple must stand in need of some refresh- 
ment ; black Betty, which was the name of the bottle, 
was called for, and sent up the ladder, but sometimes 
black Betty did not go alone ; I have many times seen as 
much bread, beef, pork and cabbage sent along with her, 
as would afford a good meal for a half a dozen hungry 
men. The young couple were compelled to eat and 
drink, more or less, of whatever was offered them. 

In the course of the festivity if any wanted to help 
himself to a dram, and the young couple to a toast, he 
would call out, cc where is black Betty, I want to kiss 
her sweet lips black Betty was soon handed to him ; 
then holding her up in his right hand he would say, 
“ Health to the groom, not forgetting myself; and here’s 
to the bride, thumping luck and big children.” This, 
so far from being taken amiss, was considered as an ex- 
pression of a very proper and friendly wish, for big 
children, especially sons, were of great importance ; as 
we were few in number, and engaged in perpetual hostility 
with the Indians, the end of which no one could foresee. 
Indeed many of them seemed to suppose that war was 
the natural state of man, and therefore did not anticipate 
any conclusion of it ; every big son was therefore con- 
sidered as a young soldier. 

But to return. It often happened that some neighbors 
or relations, not being asked to the wedding, took 
offense ; and the mode of revenge adopted by them on 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 157 

such occasions, was that of cutting off the manes, 
foretops, and tails of the horses of the wedding company. 
Another method of revenge which was adopted when 
the chastity of the bride was a little suspected, was that 
of setting up a pair of horns on poles, or trees, on the 
route of the wedding company. This was a hint to the 
groom that he might expect to be complimented with a 
pair of horns himself. 

On returning to the infare, the order of procession, 
and the race for black Betty was the same as before. 
The feasting and dancing often lasted for several days, 
at the end of which the whole company were so exhausted 
with loss of sleep, that several days’ rest were requisite 
to fit them to return to their ordinary labors. 

Should I be asked why I have presented this unpleasant 
portrait of the rude manners of our forefathers, I in my 
turn would ask my reader, why are you pleased with the 
histories of the blood and carnage of battles ? Why 
are you delighted with the fictions of poetry, the novel 
and romance ? I have related truth, and only truth, 
strange as it may seem. I have depicted a state of 
society and manners which are fast vanishing from the 
memory of man, with a view to give the youth of our 
country a knowledge of the advantages of civilization, 
and to give contentment tq the aged, by preventing them 
from saying “ that former times were better than the 


The House Warming. 

I will proceed to state the usual manner of settling a 
young couple in the world. 

A spot was selected on a piece of land of one of the 
parents, for their habitation. A day was appointed 

158 Early Settlement and Indian TVars of 

shortly after their marriage for commencing the work of 
building their cabin. The fatigue party consisted of 
choppers, whose business it was to fell the trees and cut 
them off at proper lengths. A man with a team for hauling 
them to the place, and arranging them, properly assorted, 
at the sides and ends of the building, a carpenter, if such 
he might be called, whose business it was to search the 
woods for a proper tree for making clapboards for the 
roof. The tree for this purpose must be straight grained 
and from three to four feet in diameter. The boards 
were split four feet long, with a large frow, and as wide 
as the timber would allow. They were used without 
planing or shaving. Another division was employed 
in getting puncheons for the floor of the cabin ; this was 
done by splitting trees, about eighteen inches in diameter, 
and hewing the faces of them with a broad axe. They 
were half the length of the floor they were intended to 
make. The materials for the cabin were mostly pre- 
pared on the first day and sometimes the foundation laid 
in the evening. The second day was allotted for the 

In the morning of the next day the neighbors collected 
for the raising. The first thing to be done was the elec 
tion of four corner men, whose business it was to notch 
and place the logs. The rest of the company furnished 
them with the timbers. In the meantime the boards and 
puncheons were collecting for the floor and roof, so that 
by the time the cabin was a few rounds high the sleepers 
and floor began to be laid. The door was made by saw- 
ing or cutting the logs in one side so as to make an opening 
about three feet wide. This opening was secured by 
upright pieces of timber about three inches thick through 
which holes were bored into the ends of the logs for the 
purpose of pinning them fast. A similar opening, but 
wider, was made at the end for the chimney. This was 
built of logs and made large to admit of a back and jambs 
of stone. At the square, two end logs projected a foot 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 159 

or eighteen inches beyond the wall to receive the butting 
poles, as they were called, against which the ends of the 
first row of clapboards was supported. The roof was 
formed by making the end logs shorter until a single log 
formed the comb of the roof, on these logs the clapboards 
were placed, the ranges of them lapping some distance 
over those next below them and kept in their places by 
logs, placed at proper distances upon them. 

The roof and sometimes the floor were finished on 
the same day of the raising. A third day was commonly 
spent by a few carpenters in leveling off the floor, making 
a clapboard door and a table. This last was made of a 
split slab and supported by four round legs set in auger 
holes. Some three-legged stools were made in the same 
manner. Some pins stuck in the logs at the back of the 
house supported some clapboards which served for shelves 
for the table furniture. A single fork, placed with its 
lower end in a hole in the floor and the upper end fast- 
ened to a joist, served for a bedstead, by placing a pole 
in the fork with one end through a crack between the logs 
of the wall. This front pole was crossed by a shorter 
one within the fork, with its outer end through another 
crack. From the front pole, through a crack between 
the logs of the end of the house, the boards were put on 
which formed the bottom of the bed. Sometimes other 
poles were pinned to the fork a little distance above 
these, for the purpose of supporting the front and foot of 
the bed, while the walls were the supports of its back 
and head. A few pegs around the walls for a display of 
the coats of the women, and hunting shirts of the men, 
and two small forks or buck’s horns to a joist for the rifle 
and shot pouch, completed the carpenter work. 

In the mean time masons were at work. With the 
heart pieces of the timber of which the clapboards were 
made, they made billets for chunking up the cracks be- 
tween the logs of the cabin and chimney, a large bed of 
mortar was made for daubing up those cracks; a few 
stones formed the back and jambs of the chimney. 

160 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

The cabin being finished, the ceremony of house 
warming took place, before the young couple were per- 
mitted to move into it. The house warming was a dance 
of a whole night’s continuance, made up of the relations 
of the bride and groom, and their neighbors. On the 
day following the young couple took possession of their 
new mansion. 


Labor and its Discouragements. 

The necessary labors of the farms along the frontiers, 
were performed with every danger and difficulty imagin- 
able. The whole population of the frontiers huddled 
together in their little forts, left the country with every 
appearance of a deserted region ; and such would have 
been the opinion of a traveler concerning it, if he had 
not seen, here and there, some small fields of corn or 
other grain in a growing state. 

It is easy to imagine what losses must have been sus- 
tained by our first settlers owing to this deserted state of 
their farms. It was not the full measure of their trouble, 
that they risked their lives, and often lost them, in sub- 
duing the forest, and turning it into fruitful fields ; but 
compelled to leave them in a deserted state during the 
summer season, a great part of the fruits of their labors 
was lost by this untoward circumstance. Their sheep 
and hogs were devoured by the wolves, panthers, and 
bears. Horses and cattle were often let into their fields, 
through breaches made in their fences by the falling of 
trees, and frequently almost the whole of a little crop of 
corn was destroyed by squirrels and raccoons, so that 
many families, and after an hazardous and laborious 
spring and summer, had but little left for the comfort of 
the dreary winter. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 161 

The early settlers on the frontiers of this country 
were like Arabs of the desert of Africa, in at least two 
respects ; every man was a soldier, and from early in the 
spring, till late in the fall, was almost continually in 
arms. Their work was often carried on by parties, 
each one of whom had his rifle and everything else be- 
longing to his war dress. These were deposited in 
some central place in the field. A sentinel was stationed 
on the outside of the fence, so that on the least alarm 
the whole company repaired to their arms, and were 
ready for the combat in a moment. Here, again, the 
rashness of same families proved a source of difficulty. 
Instead of joining the working parties, they went out « 
and attended their farms by themselves, and in case of 
alarm, an express was sent for them, and sometimes a 
party of men to guard them to the fort. These fami- 
lies, in some instances, could boast that they had better 
crops, and were every way better provided for the winter 
than their neighbors. In other instances their temerity 
coast them their lives. 

In military affairs, when every one concerned is left 
to his own will, matters are sure to be but badly man- 
aged. The whole frontiers of Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia presented a succession of military camps or forts. 
We had military officers, that is to say, captains and 
colonels, but they, in many respects, were only nomi- 
nally such. They could advise but not command. 
Those who chose to follow their advice did so, to 
such an extent as suited their fancy, or interest. Others 
were refractory, and thereby gave much trouble. These 
officers would lead a scout, or campaign. Those who 
thought proper to accompany them did so, those who 
did not remained at home. Public odium was the only 
punishment for their laziness or cowardice. There was 
no compulsion to the performance of military duties, 
and no pecuniary reward when they were performed. 

It is but doing justice to the first settlers of this 

162 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

country to say, that instances of disobedience of fami- 
lies and individuals to the advice of our officers, wereby no 
means numerous. The greater number cheerfully sub- 
mitted to their directions with a prompt and faithful 


The Mechanic Arts. 

In giving the history of the state of the mechanic 
arts, as they were exercised at an early period of the set- 
tlement of this country, I shall present a people driven 
by necessity to perform works of mechanical skill far 
beyond what a person enjoying all the advantages of 
civilization would expect from a population placed in 
such destitute circumstances. 

My reader will naturally ask where were their mills 
for grinding grain ? Where their tanners for making 
leather ? Where their smith shops for making and re- 
pairing their farming utensils ? Who were their carpen- 
ters, tailors, cabinet workmen, shoemakers, and weavers ? 
The answer is, those manufacturers did not exist, nor 
had they any tradesmen, who were professedly such. 
Every family were under the necessity of doing every 
thing for themselves, as well as they could. 

The hominy block and hand mills were in use in 
most of our houses. The first was made of a large block 
of wood about three feet long, with an excavation 
burned in one end, wide at the top, and narrow at the 
bottom, so that the action of the pestle on the bottom 
threw the corn up to the sides toward the top of it, from 
whence it continually fell down into the centre. In 
consequence of this movement, the whole mass of the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 163 

grain was pretty equally subjected to the strokes of the 
pestle. In the fall of the year, while the Indian corn was 
soft, the block and pestle did very well for making meal 
for johnny cake and mush, but were rather slow when 
the corn became hard. 

The sweep was sometimes used to lessen the toil of 
pounding grain into meal. This was a pole of some 
springy elastic wood, thirty feet long or more ; the butt 
end was placed under the side of a house, or a large 
stump ; this pole was supported by two forks, placed 
about one-third of its length from the butt end so as to 
elevate the small end about fifteen feet from the ground ; 
to this was attached, by a large mortise, a piece of a sap- 
ling about five or six inches in diameter and eight or ten 
feet long. The lower end of this was shaped so as to 
answer for a pestle. A pin of wood was put through it 
at a proper height, so that two persons could work at the 
sweep at once. This simple machine very much les- 
sened the labor, and expedited the work. I remember 
that when a boy I put up an excellent sweep at my 
father’s. It was made of a sugar tree sapling. It was 
kept going almost constantly from morning till night by 
our neighbors for several weeks. 

In the Greenbriar country, where they had a number 
of saltpetre caves, the first settlers made plenty of ex- 
cellent gun powder by the means of these sweeps and 

A machine, still more simple than the mortar and 
pestle, was used for making meal, while the corn was too 
soft to be beaten. It was called a grater. This was a 
half circular piece of tin, perforated with a punch from 
the concave side, and nailed by its edges to a block of 
wood. The ears of corn were rubbed on the rough 
edges of the holes, while the meal fell through them on 
the board or block, to which the grater was nailed, which, 
being in a slanting direction, discharged the meal into a 
cloth or bowl placed for its reception. This to be sure 

164 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

was a slow way of making meal ; but necessity has no 

The hand mill was better than the mortar, and grater. 
It was made of two circular stones, the lowest of which 
was called the bed stone, the upper one the runner. 
These were placed in a hoop, with a spout for discharg- 
ing the meal. A staff was let into a hole in the upper 
surface of the runner, near the outer edge, and its upper 
end through a hole in a board fastened to a joist above, 
so that two persons could be employed in turning the 
mill at the same time. The grain was put into the 
opening in the runner by hand. These mills are still in 
use in Palestine, the ancient country of the Jews. To 
a mill of this sort our Saviour alluded, when, with re 
ference to the destruction of Jerusalem, he said, “Two 
women shall be grinding at a mill, the one shall be taken 
and the other left.” This mill is much preferable to 
that used at present in upper Egypt, for making the 
dhourra bread. It is a smooth stone, placed on an in- 
clined plain upon which the grain is spread, which is 
made into meal, by rubbing another stone up and down 
upon it. 

Our first water mills were of that description denomi- 
nated tub mills. It consists of a perpendicular shaft, to 
the lower end of which an horizontal wheel of about 
four or five feet diameter is attached, the upper end 
passes through the bedstone and carries the runner after 
the manner of a trundlehead. These mills were built 
with very little expense, and many of them answered the 
purpose very well. 

Instead of bolting cloths, sifters were in general use. 
These were made of deer skins in the state of parchment, 
stretched over an hoop and perforated with a hot wire. 

Our clothing was all of domestic manufacture. We 
had no other resource for clothing, and this, indeed, was 
a poor one. The crops of flax often failed, and the 
sheep were destroyed by the wolves. Linsey, which is 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 165 

made of flax and wool, the former the chain and the 
latter the filling, was the warmest and most substantial 
cloth we could make. Almost every house contained a 
loom, and almost every woman was a weaver. 

Every family tanned their own leather. The tan vat 
was a large trough sunk to the upper edge in the ground. 
A quantity of bark was easily obtained every spring, in 
clearing and fencing the land. This, after drying, was 
brought in and in wet days was shaved and pounded on a 
block of wood, with an axe or mallet. Ashes was used 
in place of lime for taking off the hair. Bears’ oil, hog’s 
lard and tallow, answered the place of fish oil. The 
leather, to be sure, was coarse ; but it was substantially 
good. The operation of currying was performed by a 
drawing knife with its edge turned, after the manner of 
a currying knife. The blacking for the leather was made 
of soot and hog’s lard. 

Almost every family contained its own tailors and 
shoemakers. Those who could not make shoes, could 
make shoepacks. These, like moccasons, were made of 
a single piece of leather with the exception of a tongue 
piece on the top of the foot. This was about two inches 
broad and circular at the lower end. To this the main 
piece of leather was sewed, with a gathering stitch. The 
seam behind was like that of a moccason. To the shoe- 
pack a sole was sometimes added. The women did the 
tailor work. They could all cut out and make hunting 
shirts, leggins and drawers. 

The state of society which existed in our country at 
an early period of its settlement, is well calculated to call 
into action every native mechanical genius. This hap- 
pened in this country. There was, in almost every 
neighborhood, some one whose natural ingenuity enabled 
him to do many things for himself and his neighbors, far 
above what could have been reasonably expected. With 
the few tools which they brought with them into the 
country, they certainly performed wonders. Their 

166 Early Settlement and Indian EEars of 

plows, harrows with their wooden teeth, and sleds, were 
in many instances well made. Their cooper ware, which 
comprehended everything for holding milk and water, 
was generally pretty well executed. The cedar ware, by 
having alternately a white and red stave, was then 
thought beautiful. Many of their puncheon floors were 
veay neat, their joints close and the top even and smooth. 
Their looms, although heavy, did very well. Those 
who could not exercise these mechanic arts, were under 
the necessity of giving labor, or barter, to their neigh- 
bors in exchange for the use of them, so far as their ne- 
cessities required. 

An old man in my father’s neighborhood had the art 
of turning bowls, from the knots of trees, particularly 
those of the ash. In what way he did it, I do not know : 
or whether there was much mystery in his art. Be that 
as it may, the old man’s skill was in great request as well 
turned wooden bowls were amongst our first rate articles 
of household furniture. 

My brothers and myself once undertook to procure a 
fine suit of these bowls made of the best wood, the ash. 
We gathered all we could find on our father’s land and 
took them to the artist, who was to give, as the saying 
was, one-half for the other. He put the knots in a branch 
before his door. A freshet came and swept them all 
away. Not one of them was ever found. This was a 
dreadful misfortune. Our anticipation of an elegant dis- 
play of new bowls was utterly blasted in a moment, as 
the poor old man was not able to repair our loss, or any 
part of it. 

My father possessed a mechanical genius of the highest 
order, and necessity which is the mother of invention, 
occasioned the full exercise of his talents. His farming 
utensils were the best in the neighborhood. After making 
his loom, he often used it, as a weaver. All the shoes 
belonging to the family were made by himself. He al- 
ways spun his own shoe thread. Saying that no woman 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 167 

could spin shoe thread as well as he could. His cooper 
ware was made by himself. I have seen him make a 
small, neat kind of wooden ware called set work, in 
which the staves were all attached to the bottom of the 
vessel, by the means of a groove cut in them by a strong 
clasp knife, and small chisel, before a single hoop was 
put on He was sufficiently the carpenter to build the 
best kind of houses then in use, that is to say first a cabin, 
and afterwards the hewed log house, with a shingled 
roof. In his latter years he became sickly, and not being 
able to labor, he amused himself with tolerably good im- 
itations of cabinet work. 

Not possessing sufficient health for service on the 
scouts, and campaigns, his duty was that of repairing the 
rifles of his neighbors, when they needed it. In this 
business he manifested a high degree of ingenuity. A 
small depression on the surface of a stump or log and a 
wooden mallet, were his instruments for straightening 
the gun barrel when crooked. Without the aid of a bow 
string he could discover the smallest bend in a barrel. 
With a bit of steel, he could make a saw for deepening 
the furrows, when requisite. A few shots determined 
whether the gun might be trusted. 

Although he never had been more than six weeks at 
school he was nevertheless a first rate penman, and a 
good arithmetician. His penmanship was of great ser- 
vice to his neighbors in writing letters, bonds, deeds of 
conveyance, etc. 

Young as I was, I was possessed of an art which was 
of great use. It was that of weaving shot-pouch straps, 
belts and garters. I could make my loom and weave a 
belt in less than one day. Having a piece of board 
about four feet long, an inch auger, spike gimlet, and a 
drawing knife, I needed no other tools or materials for 
making my loom. It frequently happened, that my 
weaving proved serviceable to the family, as I often sold 
a belt for a day’s work, or making an hundred rails. So 

1 5 

a 68 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

that, although a boy, I could exchange my labor for that 
of a full grown person, for an equal length of time. 


Diseases and their Remedies. 

This, amongst a rude and illiterate people, consisted 
mostly of specifics. As far as I can recollect them, 
they shall be enumerated, together with the diseases for 
which they were used. 

The diseases of children were mostly ascribed to 
worms, for the expulsion of which a solution of common 
salt was given. The dose was always large. I well 
remember, having been compelled to take half a table 
spoon full, when quite small. To the best of my recol- 
lection it generally answered the purpose. Scrapings of 
pewter spoons, was another remedy for the worms. 
This dose was also large, amounting, I should think, 
from twenty to forty grains. It was commonly given 
in sugar. Sulphate of iron, or green copperas, was a 
third remedy for the worms. The dose of this was also 
larger than we should venture to give at this time. 

For burns a poultice of Indian meal was a common 
remedy. A poultice of scraped potatoes was also a 
favorite remedy with some people. Roasted turnips, 
made into a poultice, was used by others. Slippery elm 
bark was often used in the same way. I do not recol- 
lect that any internal remedy, or bleeding was ever used 
for burns. 

The croup, or what was then called the bold hives , 
was a common disease among the children, many of 
whom died of it. For the cure of this, the juice of 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 169 

roasted onions or garlic was given in large doses. Wall- 
ink was also a favorite remedy with many of the old 
ladies. For fevers, sweating was the general remedy. 
This was generally performed by means of a strong de- 
coction of Virginia snake root. The dose was always 
very large. If a purge was used, it was about half a 
pint of a strong decoction of white walnut bark. This, 
when intended for a purge, was peeled downwards ; if 
for a vomit, it was peeled upwards. Indian physic, 
or bowman root, a species of epicacuanha was frequently 
used for a vomit, and sometimes the pocoon or blood 

For the bite of a rattle, or copper snake, a great va- 
riety of specifics was used. I remember when a small 
boy to have seen a man bitten by a rattlesnake brought 
into the fort on a man’s back. One of the company 
dragged the snake after him by a forked stick fastened 
in its head. The body of the snake was cut into pieces 
of about two inches in length, split open in succession, 
and laid on the wound to draw out the poison, as they 
expressed it. When this was over, a fire was kindled 
up in the fort yard and the whole of the serpent burned 
to ashes, by way of revenge for the injury he had done. 
After this process was over, a large quantity of chestnut 
leaves was collected and boiled in a pot. The whole of 
the wounded man’s leg and part of his thigh were placed 
in a piece of chestnut bark, fresh from the tree, and the 
decoction poured on the leg so as to run down into the 
pot again ; after continuing this process for some time, 
a quantity of the boiled leaves were bound to the leg. 
This was repeated several times a day. The man got 
well ; but whether owing to the treatment bestowed on 
his wound, is not so certain. 

A number of native plants were used for the cure of 
snake bites. Among them the white plantain held a 
high rank. This was boiled in milk and the decoction 
given the patient in large quantities. A kind of fern, 

170 Early Settlement and Indian IV ars of 

which, from its resemblance to the leaves of walnut, was 
called walnut fern, was another remedy. A plant with 
fibrous roots, resembling the seneka-snake root, of a 
black color and a strong, but not disagreeable smell, was 
considered and relied on as the Indian specific for the 
cure of the sting of a snake. A decoction of this root 
was also used for the cure of colds. Another plant 
which very much resembles the one above mentioned, 
but violently poisonous, was sometimes mistaken for it 
and used in its place. I knew two young women who, 
in consequence of being bitten by rattlesnakes, used the 
poisonous plant instead of the other, and nearly lost their 
lives by the mistake. The roots were applied to their 
legs in the form of a poultice ; the violent burning and 
swelling, occasioned by the inflammation, discovered the 
mistake in time to prevent them from taking any of the 
decoction, which, had they done, it would have been in- 
stantly fatal. It was with difficulty that the part to 
which the poultice was applied was saved from mortifi- 
cation, so that the remedy was far worse than the disease. 

Cupping, sucking the wound, and making deep inci- 
sions which were filled with salt and gun powder, were 
amongst the remedies for snake bites. It does not appear 
to me, that any of the internal remedies used by the In- 
dians and the first settlers of this country, were well 
adapted for the cure of the disease occasioned by the 
bite of a snake. The poison of a snake, like that of a 
bee or wasp, must consist of an highly concentrated and 
very poisonous acid, which instantly inflames the part to 
which it is applied. That any substance whatever can 
act as a specific for the decomposition of this poison, 
seems altogether doubtful. The cure of the fever occa- 
sioned by this animal poison, must be effected with re- 
ference to those general indications which are regarded 
in the cure of other fevers of equal force. The internal 
remedies alluded to, so far as I am acquainted with them, 
are possessed of little or no medical efficacy. They are 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 171 

not emetics, cathartics, or sudorifics. What then ? They 
are harmless substances which do wonders in all those 
cases in which there is nothing to be done. 

The truth is, the bite of a rattle or copper snake in a 
fleshy or tenderous part, where the blood vessels are 
neither numerous nor large, soon healed under any kind 
of treatment. But when the fangs of the serpent, which 
are hollow and eject the poison through an orifice near 
the points, penetrate a blood vessel of any considerable 
size, a malignant and incurable fever was generally the 
immediate consequence, and the patient often expired in 
the first paroxysm. The same observations apply to the 
effects of the bite of serpents when inflicted on beasts. 
Horses were frequently killed by them, as they were com- 
monly bitten somewhere about the nose, in which the 
blood vessels are numerous and large. I once saw a 
horse die of the bite of a rattlesnake. The blood, for 
some time before he expired, exuded in great quantity 
through the pores of the skin. 

Cattle were less frequently killed, because their noses 
are of a grisly texture, and less furnished with blood 
vessels than those of a horse. Dogs were sometimes 
bitten, and being naturally physicians they commonly 
scratched a hole in some damp place and held the 
wounded part in the ground till the inflammation abated. 
Hogs, when intolerable order, were never hurt by them, 
owing to their thick subtratum of fat between the skin, 
muscular flesh and blood vessels. The hog generally 
took immediate revenge for the injury done him, by in- 
stantly tearing to pieces and devouring the serpent which 
inflicted it. 

The itch, which was a very common disease in early 
times, was commonly cured by an ointment made of 
brimstone and hog’s lard. 

Gun shot, and other wounds, were treated with slippery 
elm bark, flax seed and other such like poultices. Many 
lost their lives from wounds which would now be con- 

172 Ea r ly Settlement and Indian Wars of 

sidered trifling and easily cured. The use of the lancet 
and other means of depletion, in the treatment of wounds, 
constituted no part of their cure in this country, in early 

My mother died in early life of a wound from the 
tread of a horse, which any person in the habit of letting 
blood might have cured by two or three bleedings, with- 
out any other remedy. The wound was poulticed with 
spikenard roots and soon terminated in an extensive 

Most of the men of the early settlers of this country 
were affected with the rheumatism. For relief from this 
disease, the hunters generally slept with their feet to the 
fire. From this practice they certainly derived much 
advantage. The oil of rattlesnakes, geese, wolves, 
bears, raccoons, ground' hogs and pole-cats, was applied 
to swelled joints and bathed in before the fire. 

The pleurisy was the only disease which was supposed 
to require blood letting ; but in many cases a bleeder 
was not to be had. 

Coughs, and pulmonary consumptions, were treated 
with a great variety of syrups, the principal ingredients 
of which were commonly spikenard and elecampane. 
These syrups certainly gave but little relief. 

Charms and incantations were in use for the cure of 
many diseases. I learned, when young, the incantation 
in German, for the cure of burns, stopping blood, for 
the toothache, and the charm against bullets in battle ; 
but for the want of faith in their efficacy, I never used 
any of them. 

The erysipelas, or St. Anthony’s fire, was circum- 
scribed by the blood of a black cat. Hence there was 
scarcely a black cat to be seen, whose ears and tail had 
not been frequently cropped, for a contribution of blood. 

Whether the medical profession is productive of most 
good or harm, may still be a matter of dispute with some 
philosophers who never saw any condition of society in 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 173 

which there were no physicians, and therefore could not 
be furnished a proper test for deciding the question. 
Had an unbeliever in the healing art been amongst the 
early inhabitants of this country, he would have been in 
a proper situation to witness the consequences of the 
want of the exercise of this art. For many years in 
succession there was no person who bore even the name 
of a doctor within a considerable distance of the residence 
of my father. For the honor of the medical profession, 
I must give it as my opinion, that many of our people 
perished for want of medical skill and attention. 

The pleurisy was the only disease which was, in any 
considerable degree, understood by our people. A pain 
in the side called for the use of the lancet, if there was 
any to be had ; but owing to its sparing use, the patient 
was apt to be left with a spitting of blood, which 
sometimes ended in consumption. A great number of 
children died of the croup. Remittent and intermittent 
fevers were treated with warm drinks, for the purpose 
of sweating. The patients were denied the use of cold 
water and fresh air. Many of them died. Of those 
who escaped, not a few died afterwards of the dropsy, 
or consumption ; or were left with paralytic limbs. 
Deaths in child bed were not unfrequent. Many, no 
doubt, died of the bite of serpents, in consequence of an 
improper reliance on specifics possessed of no medical 

My father died of an hepatitis, at the age of about 
forty-six. He had labored under this disease for thirteen 
years. The fever which accompanied it was called 
“ the dumb ague,” and the swelling in the region of the 
liver, “the ague cake.” The abscess bursted and dis- 
charged a large quantity of matter which put a period to 
his life, in about thirty hours after the commencement 
of the discharge. 

Thus I, for one, may say, that, in all human proba- 
bility, I lost both my parents for want of medical aid. 

174 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 


Games and Diversions. 

These were such as might be expected among a people, 
who, owing to their circumstances as well as education, 
set a higher value on physical, than on mental endow- 
ments, and on skill in hunting and bravery in war, than 
on any polite accomplishments, or fine aris. 

Amusements are, in many instances, either imitations 
of the business of life, or, at least, of some of its particular 
objects of pursuit ; on the part of young men belonging 
to nations in a state of warfare, many amusements are 
regarded as preparations for the military character which 
they are expected to sustain in future life. Thus, the 
war dance of savages, is a pantomime of their stratagems 
and horrid deeds of cruelty in war, and the exhibition 
prepares the minds of their young men for a participation 
in the bloody tragedies which they represent. Dancing, 
among civilized people, is regarded, not only as an 
amusement suited to the youthful period of human life, 
but as a means of inducing urbanity of manners and a 
good personal deportment in public. Horse racing is 
regarded by the statesman as a preparation, in various 
ways, for the equestrian department of warfare : it is 
said that the English government never possessed a good 
cavalry until, by the encouragement given to public 
races, their breed of horses was improved. Games, in 
which there is a mixture of chance and skill, are said to 
improve the understanding in mathematical and other 

Many of the sports of the early settlers of this country, 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 175 

were imitative of the exercises and stratagems of hunting 
and war. Boys were taught the use of the bow and 
arrow at an early age : but although they acquired con- 
siderable adroitness in the use of them, so as to kill a 
bird or squirrel sometimes, yet it appears to me that in 
the hands of the white people, the bow and arrow could 
never be depended upon for warfare or hunting, unless 
made and managed in a different manner from any speci- 
mens of them which I ever saw. In ancient times the 
bow and arrow must have been deadly instruments in 
the hands of the barbarians of our country *, but I much 
doubt whether any of the present tribes of Indians could 
make much use of the flint arrow heads which must 
have been so generally used by their forefathers. 

Fire arms, wherever they can be obtained, soon put 
an end to the use of the bow and arrow ; but independ- 
ently of this circumstance, military, as well as other 
arts, sometimes grow out of date and vanish from the 
world. Many centuries have elasped since the world 
has witnessed the destructive accuracy of the Benjamites, 
in their use of the sling and stone ; nor does it appear to 
me that a diminution in the size and strength of the 
aborigines of this country has occasioned a decrease of 
accuracy and effect in their use of the bow and arrow. 
From all the ancient skeletons which have come under 
my notice, it does not appear that this section of the 
globe was ever inhabited by a larger race of human 
beings than that which possessed it at the time of its 
discovery by the Europeans. 

One important pastime of our boys was that of imitat- 
ing the noise of every bird and beast in the woods. 
This faculty was not merely a pastime, but a very 
necessary part of education, on account of its utility in 
certain circumstances. The imitations of the gobbling 
and other sounds of wild turkeys, often brought those 
keen eyed and ever watchful tenants of the forest, 
within the reach of the rifle. The bleating of the fawn 

176 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

brought its dam to her death in the same way. The 
hunter often collected a company of mopish owls to the 
trees about his camp, and amused himself with their 
hoarse screaming ; his howl would raise and obtain re- 
sponses from a pack of wolves, so as to inform him of 
their neighborhood, as well as guard him against their 

This imitative faculty was sometimes requisite as a 
measure of precaution in war. The Indians, when 
scattered about in a neighborhood, often collected 
together, by imitating turkeys by day, and wolves or owls 
by night. In similar situations our people did the same. I 
have often witnessed the consternation of a whole neighbor- 
hood, in consequence of a few screeches of owls. An 
early and correct use of this imitative faculty, was con- 
sidered as an indication that its possessor would become 
in due time a good hunter and a valiant warrior. 

Throwing the tomahawk was another boyish sport, 
in which many acquired considerable skill. The toma- 
hawk with its handle of a certain length will make a 
given number of turns in a given distance. Say in five 
steps it will strike with the edge, the handle downwards ; 
at the distance of seven and a half, it will strike with the 
jedge, the handle upwards, and so on. A little experience 
enabled the boy to measure the distance with his eye, 
when walking through the w 7 oods, and strike a tree with 
his tomahawk in any way he chose. 

The athletic sports of running, jumping, and wrest- 
ling, were the pastimes of boys, in common with the 
men. A well grown boy, at the age of twelve or thir- 
teen years, was furnished with a small rifle and shot 
pouch. He then became a fort soldier, and had his port 
hole assigned him. Hunting squirrels, turkeys and rac- 
coons soon made him expert in the use of his gun. 

Dancing was the principal amusement of our young 
people of both sexes. Their dances, to be sure, were of 
the simplest forms. Three and four handed reels and 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 177 

jigs. Contra dances, cotillions and minuets, were 
unknown. I remember to have seen, once or twice, a 
dance which was called the Irish trot, but I have 
long since forgotten its figure. 

Shooting at marks was a common diversion among the 
men, when their stock of ammunition would allow it ; 
this, however, was far from being always the case. The 
present mode of shooting offhand was not then in prac- 
tice. This mode was not considered as any trial of the 
value of a gun ; nor, indeed, as much of a test of the 
skill of a marksman. Their shooting was from a rest, 
and at as great a distance as the length and weight of the 
barrel of the gun would throw a ball on a horizontal 
level. Such was their regard to accuracy, in these 
sportive trials of their rifles, and of their own skill in the 
use of them, that they often put moss, or some other 
soft substance, on the log or stump from which they shot, 
for fear of having the bullet thrown from the mark, by 
the spring of the barrel. When the rifle was held to 
the side of a tree for a rest, it was pressed against it as 
lightly as possible, for the same reason. 

Rifles of former times, were different from those of 
modern date; few of them carried more than forty-five 
bullets to the pound. Bullets of a less size were not 
thought sufficiently heavy for hunting or war. 

Dramatic narrations, chiefly concerning Jack and the 
giant, furnished our young people with another source of 
amusement during their leisure hours. Many of these 
tales were lengthy, and embraced a considerable range 
of incident. Jack, always the hero of the story, after 
encountering many difficulties, and performing many 
great achievements, came off conqueror of the giant. 
Many of these stories were tales of knight errantry, in 
which some captive virgin was released from captivity 
and restored to her lover. These dramatic narrations 
concerning Jack and the giant bore a strong resemblance 
to the poems of Ossian, the story of the cyclops and 

178 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Ulysses, in the Odyssey of Homer, and the tale of the 
giant and Great-heart, in the Pilgrim' s Progress. They 
were so arranged, as to the different incidents of the 
narration, that they were easily committed to memory. 
They certainly have been handed down from generation 
to generation, from time immemorial. Civilization has, 
indeed, banished the use of those ancient tales of ro- 
mantic heroism ; but what then ? it has substituted in 
their place, the novel and romance. 

It is thus that in every state of society, the imagination 
of man is eternally at war with reason and truth. That 
fiction should be acceptable to an unenlightened people, 
is not to be wondered at, as the treasures of truth have 
never been unfolded to their mind ; but that a civilized 
people themselves, should in so many instances, like 
barbarians, prefer the fairy regions of fiction to the august 
treasures of truth developed in the sciences of theology, 
history, natural and moral philosophy, is truly a sarcasm 
on human nature. It is as much as to say that it is 
essential to our amusement; that, for the time being, 
we must suspend the exercise of reason, and submit to a 
voluntary deception. 

Singing was another, but not very common, amuse- 
ment among our first settlers. Their tunes were rude 
enough to be sure. Robin Hood furnished a number 
of our songs, the balance were mostly tragical. These 
last were denominated u love songs about murder;” as to 
cards, dice, back-gammon and other games of chance, 
we knew nothing about them. These are amongst the 
blessed gifts of civilization. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 179 


The Witchcraft Delusion. 

I shall not be lengthy on this subject. The belief in 
witchcraft was prevalent among the early settlers of the 
western country. To the witch was ascribed the tre- 
mendous power of inflicting strange and incurable dis- 
eases, particularly on children, of destroying cattle by 
shooting them with hair balls, and a great variety of other 
means of destruction, of inflicting spells and curses on 
guns and other things, and lastly of changing men into 
horses, and after bridling and saddling them, riding them 
in full speed over hill and dale to their frolics and other 
places of rendezvous. More ample powers of mischief 
than these cannot well be imagined. 

Wizards were men supposed to possess the same mis- 
chievous powers as the witches; but these were seldom 
exercised for bad purposes. The powers of the wizards 
were exercised almost exclusively for the purpose of 
counteracting the malevolent influences of the witches 
of the other sex. I have known several of those witch 
masters, as they were called, who made a public pro- 
fession of curing the diseases inflicted by the influence 
of witches, and I have known respectable physicians* 
who had no greater portion of business in the line of 
their profession, than many of those witch masters had 
in theirs. 

The means by which the witch was supposed to in- 
flict diseases, curses and spells, I never could learn. 
They were occult sciences, which no one was supposed 
to understand, excepting the witch herself, and no 
wonder, as no such arts ever existed in any country. 


1 80 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

The diseases of children supposed to be inflicted by witch- 
craft, were of the internal organs, dropsy of the brain, 
and the rickets. The symptoms and cure of these de- 
structive diseases were utterly unknown in former times 
in this country. Diseases which could neither be ac- 
counted for nor cured, were usually ascribed to some 
supernatural agency of a malignant kind. 

For the cure of the diseases inflicted by witchcraft, 
the picture of the supposed witch was drawn on a stump 
or piece of board and shot at with a bullet containing a 
little bit of silver. This silver bullet transferred a painful 
and sometimes a mortal spell on that part of the witch 
corresponding with the part of the portrait struck by the 
bullet. Another method of cure, was that of getting 
some of the child’s water, which was closely corked up 
in a vial and hung up in a chimney. This complimented 
the witch with a strangury which lasted as long as the 
vial remained in the chimney. The witch had but one 
way of relieving herself from any spell inflicted on her in 
any way, which was that of borrowing something, no 
matter what, of the family to which the subject of the 
exercise of her witchcraft belonged. I have known 
several poor old women much surprised at being refused 
requests which had usually been granted without hesita- 
tion, and almost heart broken when informed of the 
cause of the refusal. 

When cattle or dogs were supposed to be under the 
influence of witchcraft they were burnt in the forehead 
by a branding iron, or when dead burned wholly to ashes. 
This inflicted a spell upon the witch which could only 
be removed by borrowing, as above stated. 

Witches were often said to milk the cows of their 
neighbors. This they did by fixing a new pin in a new 
towel for each cow intended to be milked. This towel 
was hung over her own door, and by the means of certain 
incantations the milk was extracted from the fringes of 
the towel after the manner of milking a cow. This 

Western Virginia ana Pennsylvania . 181 

happened when the cows were too poor to give much 

The first German glass blowers in this country, drove 
the witches out of their furnaces by throwing living pup- 
pies into them. 

The greater or less amount of belief in witchcraft, 
necromancy and astrology, serves to show the relative 
amount of philosophical science in any country. Igno- 
rance is always associated with superstition, which, pre- 
senting an endless variety of sources of hope and fear, 
with regard to the good or bad fortunes of life, keep the 
benighted mind continually harassed with groundless, and 
delusive, but strong and often deeply distressing impres- 
sions of a false faith. For this disease of the mind there 
is no cure but that of philosophy. This science shows 
to the enlightened reason of man, that no effect what- 
ever can be produced in the physical world, without a 
corresponding cause. This science announces that the 
death bell is but a momentary morbid motion of the 
ear, and the death watch the noise of a bug in the wall, 
and that the howling of the dog, and the croaking of the 
raven are but the natural languages of the beast and fowl, 
and no way prophetic of the death of the sick. The 
comet, which used to shake pestilence and war from its 
fiery train, is now viewed with as little emotion as the 
movements of Jupiter and Saturn in their respective 

An eclipse of the sun, and an unusual freshet of the 
Tiber, shortly after the assassination of Julius Caesar, 
by Cassius and Brutus, threw the whole of the Roman 
empire into consternation. It was supposed that all the 
gods of heaven and earth were enraged and about to take 
revenge for the murder of the emperor ; but since the 
science of astronomy foretels in the calendar the time 
and extent of the eclipse, the phenomenon is not viewed 
as a miraculous and portentous, but as a common and 
natural event. 

182 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

That the pythoness and wizard of the Hebrews, the 
monthly soothsayers, astrologers and prognosticators of 
the Chaldeans, and the sybils of the Greeks and Romans, 
were merely mercenary impostors, there can be no doubt. 
To say that the pythoness and all others of her class 
were aided in their operations by the intervention of 
familiar spirits does not mend the matter, for spirits, 
whether good or bad, possess not the power of life and 
death, health and disease, with regard to man, or beast. 
Prescience is an incommunicable attribute of God, and 
therefore spirits cannot foretel future events. 

The afflictions of Job, through the intervention of 
Satan, were miraculous. The possessions mentioned in 
the New Testament, in all human probability, were ma- 
niacal diseases, and if, at their cures th<e supposed evil 
spirits spoke with an audible voice, these events were 
also miraculous, and effected for a special purpose. But 
from miracles, no general conclusions can be drawn, 
with regard to the divine government of the world. The 
conclusion is that the powers professed to be exercised 
by the occult science of necromancy and other arts of 
divination, were neither more nor less than impostures. 

Among the Hebrews, the profession of arts of divina- 
tion was thought deserving capital punishment, because 
the profession was of pagan origin, and of course incom- 
patible with the profession of theism, and a theocratic 
form of government. These jugglers perpetrated a de- 
basing superstition among the people. They were also 
swindlers, who divested their neighbors of large sums of 
money, and valuable presents, without an equivalent. 
On the ground then, of fraud alone, according to the 
genius of the criminal codes of ancient governments, this 
offense deserved capital punishment. 

But is the present time better than the past with regard 
to a superstitious belief in occult influences ? Do no 
traces of the polytheism of our fore -fathers remain 
among their Christian descendants ? This inquiry must 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 183 

be answered in the affirmative. Should an almanac 
maker venture to give out the Christian calendar without 
the column containing the signs of the zodiac, the ca- 
lendar would be condemned as being totally deficient and 
the whole impression would remain on his hands. 

But what are these signs ? They are constellations 
of the zodiac, that is clusters of stars, twelve in number, 
within, and including the tropics of Cancer and Capri- 
corn. These constellations resemble the animals after 
which they are named. But what influence do these 
clusters of stars exert on the animal and the plant. Cer- 
tainly none at all ; and yet we are taught that the northern 
constellations govern the divisions of living bodies alter- 
nately from the head to the reins, and in like manner the 
southern from the reins to the feet. The sign then 
makes a skip from the feet to Aries, who again assumes 
the government of the head, and so on. About half of 
these constellations are friendly divinities and exert a 
salutary influence on the animal and the plant. The 
others are malignant in their temper, and govern only 
for evil purposes. They blast, during their reign, the 
seed sown in the earth and render medicine and opera- 
tions of surgery unsuccessful. 

We have read of the Hebrews worshiping the host 
of heaven, whenever they relapsed into idolatry, and these 
same constellations were the hosts of heaven which they 
worshiped. We, it is true, make no offering to these 
hosts of heaven, but we give them our faith and confi- 
dence. We hope for physical benefits from those of 
them whose dominion is friendly to our interests, while 
the reign of the malignant ones is an object of dread and 
painful apprehension. Let us not boast very much of 
our science, civilization, or even Christianity while this 
column of the relics of paganism still disgraces the Christ- 
ian calendar. 

I have made these observations with a view to dis- 
credit the remnants of superstition still existing among 

184 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

us. While dreams, the howling of the dog, the croaking 
of a raven are prophetic of future events we are not good 
Christians. While we are dismayed at the signs of 
heaven we are for the time being pagans. Life has real 
evils enough to contend with, without imaginary ones. 


Law, Morality and Religion. 

In the section of the country where my father lived, 
there was, for many years after the settlement of the 
country, “ neither law nor gospel.” Our want of legal 
government was owing to the uncertainty whether we 
belonged to the state of Virginia or Pennsylvania. The 
line, which at present divides the two states, was not 
run until some time after the conclusion of the revolu- 
tionary war. Thus it happened that during a long period 
of time we knew nothing of courts, lawyers, magistrates, 
sheriffs, or constables. Every one was therefore at 
liberty cc to do whatever was right in his own eyes.” 

As this is a state of society which few of my readers 
have ever witnessed, I shall describe it minutely as I can, 
and give in detail those moral maxims which, in a great 
degree, answered the important purposes of municipal 

In the first place, let it be observed that in a sparse 
population, where all the members of the community are 
well known to each other, and especially in a time of 
war, where every man capable of bearing arms is consi- 
dered highly valuable as a defender of his country, public 
opinion has its full effect and answers the purposes of 
legal government better than it would in a dense popula- 
tion, and in time of peace. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 185 

Such was the situation of our people along the frontiers 
of our settlements. They had no civil, military or ec- 
clesiastical laws, at least none that were enforced, and 
yet “ they were a law unto themselves ” as to the lead- 
ing obligations of our nature in all the relations in which 
they stood to each other. The turpitude of vice and the 
majesty of moral virtue were then as apparent as they 
are now, and they were then regarded with the same 
sentiments of aversion or respect which they inspire at 
the present time. Industry in working and hunting, 
bravery in war, candor, honesty, hospitality, and steadi- 
ness of deportment, received their full reward of public 
confidence among our rude forefathers, as well as among 
their better instructed and more polished descendants. 
The punishments which they inflicted upon offenders, by 
the imperial court of public opinion, were well adapted 
for the reformation of the culprit, or his expulsion from 
the community. 

The punishment for idleness, lying, dishonesty, and ill 
fame generally, was that of “ hating the offender out,” 
as they expressed it. This mode of chastisement was 
like the atimea of the Greeks. It was a public expres- 
sion, in various ways, of a general sentiment of indigna- 
tion against such as trangressed the moral maxims of the 
community to which they belonged. This commonly 
resulted either in the reformation or banishment of the 
person against whom it was directed. 

At house raisings, log rollings and harvest parties, every 
one was expected to do his duty faithfully. A person 
who did not perform his share of labor on these occasions, 
was designated by the epithet of Lawrence , or some 
other title still more opprobrious ; and when it came to 
his turn to require the like aid from his neighbors, the 
idler soon felt his punishment, in their refusal to attend 
to his calls. 

Although there was no legal compulsion to the per- 
formance of military duty, yet every man of full age 

186 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

and size, was expected to do his full share of public ser- 
vice. If he did not do so he was “ hated out as a 
coward. ” Even the want of any article of war equip- 
ments, such as ammunition, a sharp flint, a priming wire, 
a scalping knife or tomahawk, was thought highly dis- 
graceful. A man who, without a reasonable cause, failed 
to go on a scout or campaign, when it came to his turn, 
met with an expression of indignation in the countenances 
of all his neighbors, and epithets of dishonor were 
fastened upon him without mercy. 

Debts, which make such an uproar in civilized life, 
were but little known among our forefathers at the early 
settlement of this country. After the depreciation of 
the continental paper they had no money of any kind ; 
everything purchased was paid for in produce or labor. 
A good cow and calf was often the price of a bushel of 
alum salt. If a contract was not punctually fulfilled, 
the credit of the delinquent was at an end. 

Any petty theft was punished with all the infamy that 
could be heaped on the offender. A man on a campaign 
stole from his comrade a cake out of the ashes, in which 
it was baking. He was immediately named the bread 
rounds . This epithet of reproach was bandied about 

in this way ; when he came in sight of a group of men, 
one of them would call “ Who comes there ? ” Another 
would answer, u The bread rounds.” If any one meant 
to be more serious about the matter, he would call out, 
“ Who stole a cake out of the ashes? ” Another replied 
by giving the name of the man in full ; to this a third 
would give confirmation exclaiming, u That is true and 
no lie. ” This kind of tongue-lashing he was doomed to 
bear, for the rest of the campaign, as well as for years 
after his return home. 

If a theft was detected in any of the frontier settle- 
ments, a summary mode of punishment was always re- 
sorted to. The first settlers, as far I knew of them, 
had a kind of innate or hereditary detestation of the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 187 

crime of theft, in any shape or degree, and their maxim 
was that cc a thief must be whipped. ” If the theft was 
of something of some value, a kind of jury of the neigh- 
borhood, after hearing the testimony, would condemn 
the culprit to Moses’s law, that is, to forty stripes save 
one. If the theft was of some small article, the offender 
was doomed to carry on his back the flag of the United 
States, which then consisted of thirteen stripes. In 
either case, some able hands were selected to execute 
the sentence, so that the stripes were sure to be well 
laid on. This punishment was followed by a sentence 
of exile. He then was informed that he must decamp 
in so many days and be seen there no more on penalty 
of having the number of his stripes doubled. 

For many years after the law was put in operation 
in the western part of Virginia, the magistrates them- 
selves, were in the habit of giving those who were 
brought before them on charges of small thefts, the 
liberty of being sent to jail, or taking a whipping. The 
latter was commonly chosen and was immediately in- 
flicted, after which the thief was ordered to clear out. 

In some instances, stripes were inflicted, not for the 
punishment of an offense, but for the purpose of extort- 
ing a confession from suspected persons. This was the 
torture of our early times, and no doubt sometimes very 
unjustly inflicted. 

If a woman was given to tattling and slandering her 
neighbors, she was furnished, by common consent, with 
a kind of patent right to say whatever she pleased, with- 
out being believed. Her tongue was then said to be 
harmless, or to be no scandal. 

With all their rudeness, these people were given to 
hospitality, and freely divided their rough fare with a 
neighbor, or stranger, and would have been offended at 
the offer of pay. In their settlements and forts, they 
lived, they worked, they fought and feasted, or suffered 
together, in cordial harmony. They were warm and 

188 Early Settlement and Indian TVars of 

constant in their friendships. On the other hand they 
were revengeful in their resentments. And the point of 
honor sometimes led to personal combats. If one man 
called another a liar, he was considered as having given 
a challenge which the person who received it must 
accept, or be deemed a coward, and the charge was 
generally answered on the spot, with a blow. If the 
injured person was decidedly unable to fight the aggressor, 
he might get a friend to do it for him. The same 
thing took place on a charge of cowardice, or any other 
dishonorable action ; a battle must follow and the per- 
son who made the charge must fight, either the person 
against whom he made the charge or any champion who 
chose to espouse his cause. Thus circumstanced, our 
people in early times were much more cautious of speak- 
ing evil of their neighbors than they are at present. 

Sometimes pitched battles occurred in which time, 
place, and seconds were appointed beforehand. I re- 
member having seen one of those pitched battles in my 
father’s fort, when a boy. One of the young men knew 
very well beforehand that he should get the worst of the 
battle, and no doubt repented the engagement to fight ; 
but there was no getting over it. The point of honor 
demanded the risk of battle. He got his whipping; 
they then shook hands and were good friends afterwards. 

The mode of single combats in those days was dan- 
gerous in the extreme ; although no weapons were used, 
fists, teeth and feet were employed at will, but above all the 
detestable practice of gouging, by which eyes were some- 
times put out, rendered this mode of fighting frightful 
indeed ; it was not, however, so destructive as the stiletto 
of an Italian, the knife of a Spaniard, the small sword of 
the Frenchman, or the pistol of the American or English 

Instances of seduction and bastardy did not frequently 
happen in our early times. I remember one instance of 
the former, in which the life of the man was put injeo- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 189 

pardy by the resentment of the family, to which the 
girl belonged. Indeed, considering the chivalrous tem- 
per of our people, this crime could not then take place 
without great personal danger from the brothers, or other 
relations of the victims of seductions, family honor being 
then estimated at an high rate. 

I do not recollect that profane language was much 
more prevalent in our early times than at present. 

Among the people with whom I was most convers- 
ant, there was no other vestige of the Christian religion 
than a faint observation of Sunday, and that merely as a 
day of rest for the aged, and a play day for the young. 
The first Christian service I ever heard was in the 
garrison church in Baltimore county in Maryland, where 
my father had sent me to school. I was then about ten 
years old. The appearance of the church, the windows 
of which were Gothic, the white surplice of the minister, 
and the responses in the service, overwhelmed me with 
surprise. Among my school fellows in that place, it 
was a matter of reproach to me that I was not baptized, 
and why ? Because, as they said, I had no name. Such 
was their notion of the efficacy of baptism. 


Cruelty to Slaves and Servants. 

If some of my readers should complain of the intro- 
duction of too great a portion of my own history, and 
that of my family, into this work, I trust I shall not be 
considered blamable for having given the narrative of 

190 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

the horrid cruelties exercised upon slaves and servants, 
which I was doomed to* witness in my early years, 
together with the lasting impressions which the view of 
these tortures made upon my infant mind. 

On the death of my mother, which happened when I 
was about eight years old, my father sent me, under the 
care of a relation, to Maryland for the purpose of being 
sent to school. 

When I arrived there, I was in a new world. I had 
left the backwoods behind me. I had exchanged its 
rough manners and poor living for the buildings, plenty 
and polish of civilized life. Everything I saw and 
heard confounded me. I learnt, after some time, that 
there were rich and poor masters, slaves and convicts, 
and I discovered that the poor servants and convicts 
were under entire subordination to their masters. I saw 
that the slaves and convicts lived in filthy hovels called 
kitchens, and that they were poor, ragged and dirty, and 
kept at hard labor ; while their masters and families lived 
in large houses, were well clothed and fed and did as 
they pleased. The reason of this difference in the con- 
dition of men and women of the same race of beings, I 
could not comprehend. Having no idea of crime, I 
thought it could be no otherwise than unjust, that some 
should have so little and others so much, and that one 
should work so hard and others perform no labor. 

My residence was in a neighborhood where slaves and 
convicts were numerous, and where tortures inflicted 
upon them had become the occurrences of almost every 
day, so that they were viewed with indifference by the 
whole population of the neighborhood, as matters of 
course. Thus it is that custom reconciles human nature, 
with all its native sympathies, to the grossest barbarities, 
and hardens the heart against the intrusion of feeling, at 
the sight of the most exquisite suffering of a fellow 

Not so with me, who never had witnessed such tor- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 191 

tures ; I had not been long in my new habitation, before 
I witnessed a scene which I shall never forget. A con- 
vict servant, accused of some trivial offense, was doomed 
to the whip, tied with his arms extended upwards to the 
limb of a tree, and a bundle of hickories were thrown 
down before him ; he was ordered to look at them and 
told that they should all be worn out on him and a great 
many more, if he did not make a confession of the crime 
alleged against him. The operation began by tucking 
up the shirt over his head, so as to leave his back and 
shoulders naked. The master then took two of the 
hickories in his hand, and by forward and backhanded 
strokes, each of which sounded like a wagon whip, and 
applied with the utmost rapidity and with his whole mus- 
cular strength, in a few seconds lacerated the shoulders 
of the poor miserable sufferer, with not less than fifty 
scourges, so that in a little time the whole of his shoulders 
had the appearance of a mass of blood, streams of which 
soon began to flow down his back and sides ; he then 
made a confession of his fault. A fault not worth nam- 
ing ; but this did not save him from further torture. He 
had put his master “ to the trouble of whipping him and 
he must have a little more.” His trowsers were then un- 
buttoned and suffered to fall down about his feet, two new 
hickories were selected from the bundle, and so applied 
that in a short time his posteriors, like his shoulders, ex- 
hibited nothing but laceration, and blood. A consulta- 
tion was then held between the master and the bystanders, 
who had been coolly looking on, in which it was hu- 
manely concluded “ that he had got enough.” A basin 
of brine and a cloth were ordered to be brought ; with 
this his stripes were washed or salted as they called it. 
During this operation the suffering wretch writhed and 
groaned as if in the agonies of death. He was then 
untied and told to go home and mistress would tell him 
what to do. 

From this scene of torture I went home, with a heavy 
1 7 

192 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

heart, and wished myself in the backwoods again ; nor 
did the frequency of witnessing such scenes lessen, in any 
degree, the horror which they first occasioned in my mind. 

It frequently happened that torture was inflicted upon 
slaves and convicts, in a more protracted manner, than 
in that above described. When the victim of cruelty 
was doomed by his master to receive the lash, several 
of his neighbors were called on, for their assistance. 
They attended at the time and place appointed. A jug 
of rum and water were provided for the occasion. After 
the trembling wretch was brought forth and tied up, the 
number of lashes which he was to receive was deter- 
mined on, and by lot, or otherwise, it was decided who 
should begin the operation ; this done, the torture com- 
menced ; at the conclusion of the first course, the 
operator, pretending great weariness, called for a drink 
of rum and water, in which he was joined by the com- 
pany. A certain time was allowed for the subject of 
their cruelty to cool , as they called it. When the 
allotted time had expired, the next hand took his turn, 
and in like manner ended with a drink, and so on until 
the appointed number of lashes were all imposed. This 
operation lasted several hours, sometimes half a day, at 
the conclusion of which the sufferer, with his hands 
swollen with the cords, was unbound and suffered to put 
on his shirt. His executioners, to whom the operation 
was rather a frolic than otherwise, returned home from 
the scene of their labor, half drunk. Another method 
of punishment, still more protracted than this, was that 
of dooming a slave to receive so many lashes, during 
several days in succession, each of those whippings, ex- 
cepting the first, was called tc tickling up the old scabs.” 

A couple of wagoners in the neighborhood, having 
caught a man, as they said, in the act of stealing some- 
thing from the wagon, stripped him and fastened him to 
the hinder part of the wagon, got out their jug of rum 
and amused themselves by making scores on his back 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 193 

for wagers. He that could make the deepest score was 
to have the first dram. Sometimes the cuts appearing 
to be equal, no decision could be had until the second or 
third trial was made. This sport was continued for 
several hours, until the poor fellow was a'most killed, 
and the wagoners both drunk. 

Female servants, both white and black, were sub- 
jected to the whip in common with the males. Having 
to pass through the yard of a neighbor, on my way to 
school, it happened that on going my usual route in a 
cold, snowy morning, when I came within view of the 
house I was much surprised at seeing a naked woman 
standing at the whipping post and her master with a hickory 
in his hand. When I got to the place, I stopped to see 
what was going on ; after the woman had received a 
certain number of lashes, a female black slave was 
ordered from the kitchen, stripped and fastened by the 
irons of the whipping post, her scars exhibited the stripes 
and corrugations of former years. Both these women 
had handkerchiefs tied around their eyes, to prevent them 
from seeing when the blow was coming. The hickory 
used by this man was a forked one, twisted together and 
tied. A hickory of this kind, owing to the inequality of 
its surface, gives the greater pain. With this he scored 
the backs of these two women alternately ; but for what 
length of time I do not know ; being shocked at the 
sight, I hurried on to school, and left the master at his 

I might here relate many other methods of torture, of 
which I have been eye witness among these people, such 
as the thumb screw, sweating, the birch, etc., but it is 
enough, the heart sickens at the recollection of such 

Some time ago, I made inquiry of a gentleman who 
had recently removed from the neighborhood in which I 
had lived in Maryland, to this country, concerning the 
present state of the families of my former acquaintance 

194 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

in Maryland ; he informed me that of the whole number 
of those families, only three or four of their descendants 
remain possessors of the estates of their forefathers ; of 
the others, their sons had become dissipated, sold their 
lands, and had either perished in consequence of intem- 
perance, or left the country, so that the places which 
once knew those families as princes of the land, now 
know them no more. Thus it is that in moral and phy- 
sical respects at least cc the sins of the fathers are visited 
upon the children, to the third and fourth generation.” 

If the very sanctuaries built by the former hierarchy 
of the slave states, in which the oppressors used the ritual 
of the Christian service, with hands reeking with the 
blood of slaves, have long since ceased to be vocal with 
the songs of Zion, have passed to other hands, or even 
fallen to decay, it is only saying that, God is just. 

The recollection of the tortures which I witnessed so 
early in life is still a source of affliction to my mind. 
Twenty-four hours never pass during which my imagina- 
tion does not present me with the afflicting view of the 
slave or servant writhing beneath the lashes of his master, 
and cringing from the brine with which he salted his 

During my stay of three years, in the region of slavery, 
my only consolation was, that the time would come in 
which the master and slave would exchange situations ; 
that the former would receive the punishment due to his 
cruelty, while the latter should find rest from his toils 
and sufferings, in the kingdom of Heaven. The master 
I regarded as Dives who, after u being clothed in purple 
and fine linen and faring sumptuously every day,” must 
soon “ lift up his eyes in hell, being in torment.” The 
slave was Lazarus, who, after closing his sufferings in 
death, was to be “ carried by the angels into Abraham’s 

From this afflicting state of society, I returned to the 
back-woods, a republican, without knowing the meaning 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 195 

of the term, that is, with an utter detestation of an arbi- 
trary power of one man over another. 

On reading this recital, the historian will naturally 
reflect that personal, real, or political slavery, has, at all 
times, been the condition of almost the whole human 
race ; that the history of man is the history of oppressors 
and the victims of oppression. Wars, bastiles, prisons, 
crosses, gibbets, tortures, scourges and fire, in the hands 
of despots, have been the instruments of spreading deso- 
lation and misery over the earth. The philosopher re- 
gards those means of destruction, and their extensive use, 
in all ages, as indices of the depravity and ferocity of 
man. From the blood-stained pages of history, he turns 
with disgust and horror, and pronounces an involuntary 
anathema on the whole of his race. But is the condition 
of the world still to remain the same ? Are the moral 
impressions of our nature, to be forever sacrificed at the 
shrine of lawless ambition ? Is man, as heretofore, to 
be born only to destroy, or be destroyed ? Does the 
good Samaritan see no rational ground of hope of better 
things for future ages ? We trust he does, and that ages 
yet to come, will witness the fulfillment of his benevo- 
lent wishes and predictions. 

The American revolution was the commencement of 
a new era in the history of the world. The issue of 
that eventful contest snatched the sceptre from the hands 
of the monarch, and placed it where it ought to be, in 
the hands of the people. 

On the sacred altar of liberty, it consecrated the rights 
of man, surrendered him the right and the power of 
governing himself, and placed in his hands the resources 
of his country, as munitions of war for his defense. The 
experiment was indeed bold and hazardous ; but success 
has hitherto more than justified the most sanguine anti- 
cipations of those who made it. The world has 
witnessed, with astonishment, the rapid growth and 
confirmation of our noble fabric of freedom. From our 

196 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

distant horizon we have reflected a strong and steady 
blaze of light on ill-fated Europe, from time immemorial 
involved in the fetters and gloom of slavery. Our 
history has excited a general and ardent spirit of inquiry 
into the nature of our civil institutions, and a strong wish, 
on the part of the people in distant countries, to partici- 
pate in our blessings. 

But will an example, so portentous of evil to the chiefs 
of despotic institutions, be viewed with indifference by 
those who now sway the sceptre with unlimited power 
over the many millions of their vassals ? Will they 
adopt no measures of defense against the influence of that 
thirst for freedom, so widely diffused and so rapidly gain- 
ing strength throughout their empires ? Will they make 
no effort to remove from the world those free govern- 
ments, whose example gives them so much annoyance ? 
The measures of defense will be adopted, the effort will 
be made ; for power is never surrendered without a 

Already nations, which from the earliest period of their 
history, have constantly crimsoned the earth with each 
other’s blood, have become a band of brothers for the 
destruction of every germ of human liberty. Every year 
witnesses an association of the monarchs of those nations, 
in unhallowed conclave, for the purpose of concerting 
measures for effecting their dark designs. Hitherto the 
execution of those measures has been, alas ! too fatally 

It would be impolitic and unwise in us to calculate on 
escaping the hostile notice of the despots of continental 
Europe ; already we hear, like distant thunder, their ex- 
pressions of indignation, and threats of vengeance. We 
ought to anticipate the gathering storm without dismay ; 
but not with indifference. In viewing the dark side of 
the prospect before us, one source of consolation of much 
magnitude, presents itself. It is confidently expected 
that the brave and potent nation with whom we have 

IVestern Virginia and Pennsylvania . 197 

a common origin will not risk the loss of that portion of 
liberty, which at the expense of so much blood and 
treasure, they have secured for themselves, by an un- 
natural association with despots for the unholy purpose 
of making war on the freedom of the few nations of the 
earth which possess any considerable portion of that in- 
valuable blessing ; on the contrary it is hoped by us, that 
they will, if necessity should require, employ the bravery 
of their people, their immense resources and the trident 
of the ocean, in defense of their own liberties and by 
consequence those of others. 

Legislators, fathers of our country ! lose no time, 
spare no expense in hastening on the requisite means of 
defense, for meeting with safety, and with victory, the 
impending storm which, sooner or later, must fall upon us. 


Western Civilization. 

The causes which le"d to the present state of civiliza- 
tion of the western country are subjects which deserve 
some consideration. 

The state of society and manners of the early settlers, 
as presented in these Notes, shows very clearly that their 
grade of civilization was, indeed, low enough. The de- 
scendants of the English cavaliers from Maryland and 
Virginia, who settled mostly along the rivers, and the 
descendants of the Irish, who settled the interior parts 
of the country, were neither of them remarkable for 
science or urbanity of manners. The former were 
mostly illiterate, rough in their manners, and addicted to 
the rude diversions of horse racing, wrestling, jumping, 

198 Early Settleynent and Indian Wars of 

shooting, dancing, etc. These diversions were often 
accompanied with personal combats, which consisted of 
blows, kicks, biting and gouging. This mode of fight- 
ing was what they called rough and tumble . Sometimes 
a previous stipulation was made to use the fists only. Yet 
these people were industrious, enterprising, generous in 
their hospitality, and brave in the defense of their country. 

These people, for the most part, formed the cordon 
along the Ohio river on the frontiers of Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and Kentucky, which defended the country 
against the attacks of the Indians, during the revolutionary 
war. They were the janizaries of the country, that is, 
they were soldiers, when they chose to be so, and when 
they chose, laid down their arms. Their military service 
was voluntary and of course received no pay. 

With the descendants of the Irish, I had but little ac- 
quaintance, although I lived near them. At an early 
period they were comprehended in the Presbyterian 
church, and were, therefore, more reserved in their de- 
portment than their frontier neighbors, and from their 
situation, being less exposed to the Indian warfare, took 
less part in that war. 

The patriot of the western region finds his love of 
country and national pride augmented to the highest 
grade when he compares the political, moral and religious 
character of his people, with that of the inhabitants of 
many large divisions of the old world. In Asia and 
Africa, generation after generation passes without any 
change in the moral and religious character, or physical 
condition of the people. 

On the Barbary coast, the traveler, if a river lies in 
his way, and happens to be high, must either swim it, 
or wait until it subsides. If the traveler is a Christian 
he must have a firman and a guard. Yet this was once 
the country of the famous Carthagenians. 

In upper Egypt the people grind meal for their dhoura 
bread by rubbing it between two flat stones. This is 
done by women. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 199 

In Palestine the grinding of grain is still performed by 
an ill constructed hand mill, as in the days of our Saviour. 
The roads to the famous city of Jerusalem are still almost 
in the rude state of nature. 

In Asiatic Turkey merchandise is still carried on by 
caravans, which are attended with a military guard, and 
the naked walls of the caravansera is their fortress and 
place of repose at night instead of a place of entertain- 
ment. The streets of Constantinople, instead of being 
paved, are, in many places, almost impassable from mud, 
filth, and the carcases of dead beasts. Yet this is the 
metropolis of a great empire. 

Throughout the whole of the extensive regions of 
Asia and Africa, man, from his cradle to his grave, sees 
no change in the aspect of anything around him ; unless 
from the desolations of war. His dress, his ordinary 
salutations of his neighbors, his diet and his mode of 
eating it, are prescribed by his religious institutions, and 
his rank in society, as well as his occupation, are deter- 
mined by his birth. Steady and unvarying as the lapse 
of time in every department of life, generation after gene- 
ration beats the dull monotonous round. The Hindoo 
would sooner die a martyr at the stake than sit on a 
chair, or eat with a knife and fork. 

The descendant of Ishmael is still u a wild man,” 
hungry, thirsty, and half naked, beneath a burning sun 
he traverses the immense and inhospitable desert of Sa- 
hara, apparently without any object, because his fore- 
fathers did so before him. Throughout life he subsists 
on camel’s milk and flesh, while his only covering from 
the inclemency of the weather, is a flimsy tent of camel’s 
hair ; his single, solitary virtue is that of hospitality to 
strangers ; in every other respect he is a thief and a robber. 

The Chinese still retain their alphabet of thirty-six 
thousand hieroglyphics . They must never exchange it 
for one of twenty letters, which would answer an infi- 
nitely better purpose. 

200 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Had we pursued the course of the greater number of 
the nations of the earth, we should have b?en at* this day, 
treading in the footsteps of our forefathers, from whose 
example in any respect we should have thought it criminal 
to depart, in the slightest degree. 

Instead of a blind or superstitious imitation of the 
manners and customs of our forefathers, we have thought 
and acted for ourselves, and we have changed ourselves 
and everything around us. The linsey and coarse linen 
of the first settlers of the country have been exchanged 
for the substantial and fine fabrics of Europe and Asia ; 
the hunting shirt for the fashionable coat of broadcloth, 
and the moccason for boots and shoes of tanned leather. 
The dresses of our ladies are equal in beauty, fineness 
and fashion, to those of the cities and countries of Europe, 
and Atlantic America. 

It is not enough that persevering industry has enabled 
us to purchase the u purple and fine linen ” from foreigners 
and to use their porcelain and glassware whether plain, 
engraved or gilt. We have nobly dared to fabricate those 
elegant, comfortable and valuable productions of art for 
ourselves. A well founded prospect of large gains from 
useful arts and honest labor, has drawn to our country 
a large number of the best artizans of other countries. 
Their mechanic arts, immensely improved by American 
genius, have hitherto realized *he hopeful prospect which 
induced their emigration to our infant country. 

The horse paths, along which our forefathers made 
their laborious journeys over the mountains, for salt and 
iron, were soon succeeded by wagon roads, and those 
again by substantial turnpikes, which, as if by magic en- 
chantment, have brought the distant region not many 
years ago denominated the backwoods, into a close and 
lucrative connection with our great Atlantic cities. The 
journey over the mountains, formerly considered so long, 
so expensive and even perilous, is now made in a very 
few days, and with accommodations not displeasing to the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 201 

epicure himself. Those giants of North America, the 
different mountains composing the great chain of the 
Alleghany, formerly so frightful in their aspect, and pre- 
senting so many difficulties in their passage, are now 
scarcely noticed by the traveler, in his journey along the 
graduated highways by which they are crossed. 

The rude sports of former times have been discon- 
tinued. Athletic trials of muscular strength and activity, 
in which there certainly is not much of merit, have given 
way to the more noble ambition for mental endowments 
and skill in useful arts. To the rude and often indecent 
songs, but roughly and unskilfully sung, have succeeded 
the psalm, the hymn, and swelling anthem. To the 
clamorous boast, the provoking banter, the biting sarcasm, 
the horrid oath and imprecation, have succeeded urbanity 
of manners and a course of conversation enlightened by 
science, and chastened by mental attention and respect. 

Above all the direful spirit of revenge, the exercise 
of which so much approximated the character of many 
of the first settlers of our country to that of the worst of 
savages, is now unknown. The Indian might pass in 
safety among those whose remembrance still bleeds at 
the recollection of the loss of their relatives, who have 
perished under the tomahawk and scalping-knife of the 

The Moravian brethren may dwell in safety on the 
sited of the villages desolated, and over the bones of their 
brethren and forefathers murdered, by the more than 
savage ferocity of the whites. Nor let it be supposed 
that the return of peace produced this salutary change 
of feeling towards the tawny sons of the forest. The 
thirst of revenge was not wholly allayed by the balm of 
peace. Several Indians fell victims to the private ven- 
geance of those who had recently lost their relations in 
the war, for some years after it had ceased. 

If the state of society and manners, from the com- 
mencement of the settlements in this country during the 

202 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

lapse of many years, owing to the sanguinary character 
of the Indian mode of warfare, and other circumstances, 
was in a state of retrogression, as was evidently the case ; 
if ignorance is more easily induced than science ; if society 
more speedily deteriorates, than improves ; if it be much 
easier for the civilized man to become wild than for the 
wild man to become civilized ; what means have arrested 
the progress of the early inhabitants of the western region 
towards barbarism ? What agents have directed their 
influence in favor of science, morals and piety ? 

The early introduction of commerce was among the 
first means of changing, in some degree, the exterior 
aspect of the population of the country, and giving a new 
current to public feeling and individual pursuit. The 
huntsman and warrior, when he had exchanged his 
hunter’s dress for that of the civilized man, soon lost 
sight of his former occupations and assumed a new cha- 
racter and a new line of life ; like the soldier, who, when 
he receives his discharge, and lays aside his regimentals, 
soon loses the feeling of a soldier, and even forgets, in 
some degree, his manual exercise. Had not commerce 
furnished the means of changing the dresses of our people 
and the furniture of their houses, had the hunting shirt, 
moccason and leggins continued to be the dress of our 
men, had the three legged stool, the noggin, the trencher 
and wooden bowl, continued to be the furniture of our 
houses, our progress towards science and civilization 
would have been much slower. 

It may seem strange that so much importance is at- 
tached to the influence of dress, in giving the moral and 
intellectual character of society. 

In all the institutions of despotic governments we dis- 
cover evident traces of the highest grade of human sa- 
gacity and foresight. It must have been the object of 
the founders of those governments to repress the genius 
of man, divest the mind of every sentiment of ambition, 
and prevent the cognizance of any rule of life excepting 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 203 

that of a blind obedience to the despot and his established 
institutions of religion and government ; hence the canon 
laws of religion, in all governments despotic in principle, 
have prescribed the costume of each class of society, 
their diet, and their manner of eating it, even their house- 
hold furniture is in like manner prescribed by law. In 
all these departments no deviation from the law or cus- 
tom is permitted, or even thought of. The whole science 
of human nature, under such governments, is that of a 
knowledge of the duties of the station of life prescribed 
by parentage and the whole duty of man that of a rigid 
performance of them ; while reason, having nothing to 
do with either the one or the other, is never cultivated. 

Even among Christians those founders of religious so- 
cieties have succeeded best who have prescribed a pro- 
fessional costume for their followers, because every time 
the disciple looks at his dress he is put in mind of his 
obligations to the society to which he belongs, and he is, 
therefore, the less liable to wander into strange pastures. 

The English government could never subdue the 
esprit du cour of the north of Scotland, until after the re- 
bellion of ’45, the prohibition of wearing the tartan plaid, 
the kilt and the bonnet, amongst Highlanders, broke 
down the spirit of the clans. 

I have seen several of the Moravian Indians, and 
wondered that they were permitted to wear the Indian 
dress ; their conduct, when among the white people, 
soon convinced me that the conversion of those whom I 
saw was far from being complete. 

There can be little doubt, but that if permission should 
be given by the supreme power of the Mussulman faith 
for a change, at the will of each individual, in dress, 
household furniture, and in eating and drinking, the 
whole Mohamedan system would be overthrown in a 
few years. With a similar permission the Hindoo super- 
stition would share the same fate. We have yet some 
small districts of country where the costume, cabins, and 
1 8 

204 Early Settlement and Indian W ars of 

in some measure the household furniture of their an- 
cestors, are still in use. The people of these districts 
are far behind their neighbors in every valuable endow- 
ment of human nature. Among them the virtues of 
chastity, temperance and industry bear no great value, 
and schools and places of worship are but little regarded. 
In general every one cc does what is right in his own 

In short, why have we so soon forgotten our fore- 
fathers, and everything belonging to our former state ? 
The reason is, everything belonging to our former state 
has vanished from our view ; we meet with nothing to 
put us in remembrance of them. The recent date of 
the settlement of our country is no longer a subject of 
reflection. Its immense improvements present to the 
imagination the results of the labors of several centuries, 
instead of the work of a few years ; and we do not 
often take the trouble to correct the false impression. 

The introduction of the mechanic arts has certainly 
contributed, not a little, to the morals and scientific im- 
provement of the country. The carpenter, the joiner 
and mason have displaced the rude, unsightly and un- 
comfortable cabin of our forefathers by comfortable and 
in many instances elegant mansions of stone, brick, hewn 
or sawed timbers. 

The ultimate objects of civilization are the moral and 
physical happiness of man. To the latter, the commo- 
dious mansion house, with its furniture, contributes 
essentially. The family mansions of the nations of the 
earth furnish the criteria of the different grades of their 
moral and mental condition. The savages universally 
live in tents, wigwams or lodges covered with earth. 
Barbarians, next to these, many indeed, have habitations 
something better, but of no value and indifferently fur- 
nished. Such are the habitations of the Russian, Tartar, 
and Turkish peasantry. 

Such is the effect of a large, elegant and well furnished 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 205 

house on the feelings and deportment of a family, that 
if you were to build one for a family of savages, by the 
occupancy of it they would lose their savage character ; 
or if they did not choose to make the exchange of that 
character, for that of civilization, they would forsake it 
for the wigwam and the woods. 

This was done by many of the early stock of back- 
woodsmen, even after they built comfortable houses for 
themselves. They no longer had the chance of “ a fall 
hunt V the woods pasture was eaten up. They wanted 
cc elbow rcom .” They therefore sold out, and fled to 
the forest of the frontier settlements, choosing rather to 
encounter the toil of turning the wilderness into fruitful 
fields, a second time, and even risk an Indian war, 
rather than endure the inconveniences of a crowded 
settlement. Kentucky first offered a resting place for 
those pioneers, then Indiana and now the Missouri and 
it cannot be long before the Pacific ocean will put a 
final stop to the westward march of those lovers of the 

Substantial buildings have the effect of giving value to 
the soil and creating an attachment to the family resi- 
dence. Those who have accustomed themselves to 
poetry, ancient or modern, need not be told how finely 
and how impressivelv the household gods, the blazing 
hearth, the plentiful board and the social fireside, figure 
in poetical imagery. And this is not “Tying up non- 
sense for a song,” they are realities of life, in its most 
polished states ; they are among its best and most rational 
enjoyment ; they associate the little family community 
in parental and filial affection and duty, in which even 
the well clothed child feels its importance, claims and 
duties. The amount of attachment to the family man- 
sion, furnishes the criterion of the relative amount of 
virtue in the members of a family. If the head of a 
family should wander from the path of parental duty 
and become addicted to vicious habits, in proportion as 

206 Early Settlement and Indian W drs of 

his virtue suffers a declension, his love of his home and 
family abates until at last, any place, however base and 
corrupting it may be, is more agreeable to him than the 
once dulce domum . If a similar declension in virtue 
happens on the part of the maternal chief of the family 
mansion, the first effect of her deviation from the path 
of maternal virtue, is that “ Her feet abideth not in 
her own house.” The same observations apply to 
children. When the young man or woman, instead of 
manifesting a strong attachment for the family mansion, 
is u given to outgoing” to places of licentious resort, 
their moral ruin may be said to be at no great distance. 

Architecture is of use, even in the important pro- 
vince of religion. Those who build no houses for 
themselves, build no temples for the service of God, and 
of course derive the less benefit from the institutions of 
religion. While our people lived in cabins, their places 
of worship were tents, as they were calied, their seats 
logs, their communion tables rough slabs of hewn timber, 
and the covering of the worshipers the leaves of the 
forest trees. Churches have succeeded to tents, with 
their rude accommodations for public worship. The 
very aspect of those sacred edifices fills the mind of the 
beholder with a religious awe, and as to the most believ- 
ing and sincere, it serves to increase the fervor of devo- 
tion. Patriotism is augmented by the sight of the 
majestic forum of justice, the substantial public highway 
and bridge, with its long succession of ponderous arches. 

Rome and Greece would, no doubt, have fallen much 
sooner had it not been for the patriotism inspired by 
their magificent public edifices ; had it not been for these, 
their histories would have been less complete and lasting 
than they have been. 

Emigration has brought to the western regions the 
wealth, science and arts of our eastern brethren and 
even of Europe. These we hope have suffered no de- 
terioration in the western country. They have contri- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 207 

buted much to the change which has been effected in 
the moral and scientific character of our country. 

The ministry of the gospel has contributed, no doubt 
immensely, to the happy change which has been effected 
in the state of our western society. At an early period 
of our settlements three Presbyterian clergymen com- 
menced their clerical labors in our infant settlements. 
The Rev. Joseph Smith, the Rev. John M’Millan, and 
the Rev. Mr. Bowers, the two latter of whom are still 
living. They were pious, patient, laborious men, who 
collected their people into regular congregations, and 
did all for them that their circumstances would allow. 
It was no disparagement to them that their first churches 
were the shady groves, and their first pulpits a kind of 
tent, constructed of a few rough slabs and covered with 
clapboards. u He who dwelleth not exclusively in 
temples made with hands,” was propitious to their de- 
votions. From the outset they prudently resolved to 
create a ministry in the country, and accordingly esta- 
blished little grammar schools at their own houses or in 
their immediate neighborhoods. The course of educa- 
tion which they gave their pupils was, indeed, not ex- 
tensive ; but the piety of those who entered into the 
ministry more than made up the deficiency. They 
formed societies most of which are now large and re- 
spectable, and in point of education their ministry has 
much improved. 

About the year 1792, an academy was established at 
Cannonsburg, in Washington county, in the western 
part of Pennsylvania, which was afterwards incorporated 
under the name Jefferson college. The means possessed 
by the society for the undertaking were indeed but 
small ; but they not only erected a tolerable edifice for 
the academy, but created a fund for the education of 
such pious young men as were desirous of entering into 
the ministry, but unable to defray the expenses of their 
education. This institution has been remarkably sue- 

208 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

cessful in its operations. It has produced a large number 
of good scholars in all the literary professions and added 
immensely to the science of the country. 

Next to this, Washington college, situated in the 
county town of the county of that name, has been the 
means of diffusing much of the light of science through 
the western country. 

Too much praise cannot be bestowed on those good 
men who opened these fruitful sources of instruction for 
our infant country, at so early a period of its settlement. 
They have immensely improved the departments of the- 
ology, law, medicine and legislation in the western regions. 

At a later period the Methodist society began their 
labors in the western parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania ; 
their progress at first was slow, but their zeal and perse- 
verance at length overcame every obstacle, so that they 
are now one of the most numerous and respectable 
societies in this country. The itinerant plan of their 
ministry is well calculated to convey the«gospel through- 
out a thinly scattered population. Accordingly, their 
ministry has kept pace with the extension of our settle- 
ments. The little cabin was scarcely built, and the 
little field fenced in, before these evangelical teachers 
made their appearance amongst them, collected them 
into societies and taught them the worship of God. Had 
it not been for the labors of these indefatigable men, our 
country, as to a great extent of its settlements, would 
have been at this day a semi-barbaric region. How 
many thousands and tens of thousands of the most 
ignorant and licentious of our population have they in- 
structed, and reclaimed from the error of their ways ? 
They have restored to society even the most worthless, 
and made them valuable and respectable as citizens, and 
useful in all the relations of life. Their numerous and 
zealous ministry bids fair to carry on the good work to 
any extent which our settlements and population may 

TV estern Virginia and Pennsylvania . 209 

With the Catholics I have but little acquaintance, but 
have every reason to believe, that in proportion to the 
extent of their flocks, they have done well. In this 
country, they have received the Episcopal visitations of 
their bishops. In Kentucky they have a cathedral, a 
college and a bishop. In Indiana they have a monastery 
of the order of St. Trap, which is also a college, and a 
bishop. Their clergy, with apostolic zeal, but in an un- 
ostentatious manner, have sought out and ministered to 
their scattered flocks throughout the country ; and as far 
as I know, with good success. 

The societies of Friends, in the western country, are 
numerous, and their establishments in good order. Al- 
though they are not much in favor of a classical educa- 
tion they are, nevertheless, in the habit of giving their 
people a substantial English education. Their habits of 
industry and attention to useful arts and improvements 
are highly honorable to themselves, and worthy of imi- 

The Baptists in the state of Kentucky took the lead 
in the ministry, and with great success. Their establish- 
ments are, as I have been informed, at present numerous 
and respectable in that state. A great and salutary revo- 
lution has taken place in this community of people. 
Their ministry was formerly quite illiterate ; but they 
have turned their attention to science and have already 
erected some very respectable literary establishments in 
different parts of America. 

The German Lutheran and Reformed churches in our 
country, as far as I know of them, are doing well. The 
number of the Lutheran congregations is said to be at 
least one hundred, that of the Reformed, it is presumed, 
is about the same amount. It is remarkable that through- 
out the whole extent of the United States the Germans, 
in proportion to their wealth, have the best churches, 
organs and grave yards. 

It is a fortunate circumstance that those of our citi- 

210 Early Settlement ana Indian Wars of 

zens who labor under the disadvantage of speaking a 
foreign language are blessed with a ministry so evangeli- 
cal as that of these very numerous and respectable com- 

The Episcopalian church, which ought to have been 
foremost in gathering in their scattered flocks, have been 
the last, and done the least of any Christian community 
in the evangelical work. Taking the western country 
in its whole extent, at least one-half of its population 
was originally of Episcopalian parentage ; but, for want 
of a ministry of their own, have associated with other 
communities. They had no alternative but that of 
changing their profession or living and dying without the 
ordinances of religion. It can be no subject of regret, 
that those ordinances were placed within their reach by 
other hands, whilst they were withheld by those by 
whom, as a matter of right and duty, they ought to have 
been given. One single chorea episcopus, or suffragan 
bishop, of a faithful spirit, who twenty years ago should 
have u ordained them elders in every place ” where they 
were needed, would have been the instrument of forming 
episcopal congregations over a great extent of country, 
and which by this time would have become large, numer- 
ous and respectable ; but the opportunity was neglected, 
and the consequent loss to this church is irreparable. So 
total a neglect of the spiritual interests of so many valu- 
able people, for so great a length of time, by a ministry 
so near at hand, is a singular and unprecedented fact in 
ecclesiastical history, the like of which never occurred 

It seems to me, that if the twentieth part of the 
Christian people of any other community, had been 
placed in Siberia, and dependent on any other ecclesi- 
astical authority, in this country, that that authority 
would have reached them many years ago with the min- 
istration of the gospel. With the earliest and most 
numerous episcopacy in America, not one of the eastern 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania, 211 

bishops has ever yet crossed the Alleghany mountains, 
although the dioceses of two of them comprehend large 
tracts of country on the western side of the mountains. 
It is hoped that the future diligence of this community 
will make up, in some degree, for the negligence of the 
past. There is still an immense void in this country 
which it is their duty to fill up. From their respect- 
ability on the ground of antiquity among the reformed 
churches, the science of their patriarchs, who have been 
the lights of the world, from their number and great 
resources, even in America, she ought to hasten to fulfill 
the just expectations of her own people, as well as those 
of other communities, in contributing her full share to 
the science, piety, and civilization of our country. 

From the whole of our ecclesiastical history, it appears 
that, with the exception of the Episcopal church, all our 
religious communities have done well for their country. 

The author begs that it may be understood that with 
the distinguishing tenets of our religious societies he has 
nothing to do, nor yet with the excellencies or defects 
of their ecclesiastical institutions. They are noticed on 
no other ground than that of their respective contribu- 
tions to the science and civilization of the country. 

The last, but not the least, of the means of our present 
civilization are our excellent forms of government and 
the administration of the laws. In vain, as means of 
general reformation, are schools, colleges, and a ministry 
of the gospel of the best order, a land of liberty is a land 
of crime, as well as of virtue. 

It is often mentioned, as a matter of reproach to Eng- 
land that, in proportion to her population, they have more 
convictions, executions and transportations than any 
other country in Europe. Should it be asked what is the 
reason of the prevalence of crime in England ? Is it 
that human nature is worse there than elsewhere? No. 
There is more liberty there than elsewhere in Europe, 
and that is the true, and only solution of the matter in 

212 Early Settlement and Indian W ars of 

question. Where a people are at liberty to learn what 
they choose, to think and act as they please, and adopt 
any profession for a living or a fortune, they are much 
more liable to fall into the commission of crime than a 
people who, from their infancy, have been accustomed 
to the dull, monotonous march of despotism, which 
chains each individual to the rank and profession of his 
forefathers ; and does not permit him to wander into the 
strange and devious paths of hazardous experiments. 

In America, should a stranger read awhile our nu- 
merous publications of a religious nature, the reports of 
missionary and Bible societies, at first blush he would 
look upon the Americans as a nation of saints ; let him 
lay these aside and read the daily newspapers, he will 
change his opinion and for the time being consider them 
as a nation abounding in crimes of the most atrocious 
dye. Both portraits are true. 

The greater the amount of freedom, the greater the 
necessity of a steady and faithful administration of justice ; 
but more especially of criminal justice, because a general 
diffusion of science, while it produces the most salutary 
effects on a general scale, produces also the worst of 
crimes, by creating the greater capacity for their com- 
mission. There is scarcely any art or science, which is 
not in some hands, and certain circumstances, made an 
instrument of the most atrocious vices. The arts of 
navigation and gunnery, so necessary for the wealth and 
defense of a nation, have often degenerated into the 
crime of piracy. The beautiful art of engraving, and 
the more useful art of writing, have been used by the 
fraudulent for counterfeiting all kinds of public and pri- 
vate documents of credit. Were it not for science and 
freedom, the important professions of theology and 
physic would not be so frequently assumed by the pseudo 
priest and the quack, without previous acquirements, 
without right, and for purposes wholly base and unwar- 

1/V es tern Virginia and Pennsylvania . 213 

The truth is, the western country is the region of ad- 
venture. If we have derived some advantage from the 
importation of science, arts and wealth, we have on the 
other hand been much annoyed and endangered, as to 
our moral and political state, by an immense importation 
of vice, associated with a high grade of science and the 
most consummate art, in the pursuit of wealth by every 
description of unlawful means. The steady administra- 
tion of justice has been our only safety from destruction 
by the pestilential influence of so great an amount of 
moral depravity, in our infant country. 

Still it may be asked whether facts warrant the belief 
that the scale is fairly turned in favor of science, piety 
and civilization ; whether in regard to these important en- 
dowments of our nature, the present time is better than 
the past, and the future likely to be better than the 
present. Whether we may safely consider our political 
institutions so matured and settled that our personal 
liberty, property and sacred honor are not only secured 
to us for the present, but likely to remain the inheritance 
of our children for generations yet to come. Society in 
its best state resembles a sleeping volcano, as to the 
amount of latent moral evil which it always contains. 
It is enough for public safety, and all that can reasonably 
be expected, that the good preponderate over the evil.. 
The moral and political means which have been so suc- 
cessfully employed for preventing a revolutionary explo- 
sion, have, as we trust, procrastinated the danger of such 
an event for a long time to come. If we have criminals 
they are speedily pursued and brought to justice. 

The places of our country which still remain in their 
native state of wilderness do not, as in many other 
countries, afford notorious lodgements for thieves. Our 
hills are not, as in the wilderness of Judea, hills of robbers. 
The ministry or the holy gospel is enlightening the minds 
of our people with the best of all sciences, that of God 
himself, His divine government and man’s future state. 

214 Early Settlement 'and Indian Wars of 

Let it not be thought hard that our forms of justice 
are so numerous, the style of their architecture so im- 
posing, and the business which occupies them so multi- 
farious ; they are the price which freedom must pay for 
its protection. Commerce, circulating through its million 
channels, will create an endless variety of litigated claims. 
Crimes of the deepest dye, springing from science and 
liberty themselves, require constantly the vigilance and 
coercions of criminal justice. Even the poorest of our 
people are solicitous for the education of their children. 
Thus the great supports of our moral and political state, 
resting on their firmest basis, public opinion and attach- 
ment to our government and laws, promise stability for 
generations yet to come. 


Indian Mode of Warfare. 

Preliminary observations on the character of the In- 
dian mode of warfare and its adoption by the white people. 

This is a subject which presents human nature in its 
most revolting features as subject to a vindictive spirit of 
revenge and a thirst for human blood leading to an indis- 
criminate slaughter of all ranks, ages and sexes, by the 
weapons of war, or by torture. 

The history of man is, for the most part, one con 
tinued detail of bloodshed, battles and devastations. 
War has been, from the earliest periods of history, the 
almost constant employment of individuals, clans, tribes 
and nations. Fame, one of the most potent objects of 
humar ambition, has at all times been the delusive but 
costly reward of military achievements. The triumph 
of conquest, the epithet of greatness, the throne and the 
sceptre, have uniformly been purchased by the conflict 
of battle, and garments rolled in blood. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 215 

If the modern European laws of warfare have softened 
in some degree the horrid features of national conflicts 
by respecting the rights of private property and extend- 
ing humanity to the sick, wounded and prisoners, we 
ought to reflect that this amelioration is the effect of 
civilization only. The natural state of war knows no 
such mixture of mercy with cruelty. In his primitive 
state man knows no object in his wars, but that of the 
extermination of his enemies, either by death or captivity. 

The wars of the Jews were exterminatory in their 
object. The destruction of a whole nation was often 
the result of a single campaign. Even the beasts them- 
selves were sometimes included in the general massacre. 
The present war between the Greeks and Turks is a 
war upon the ancient model ; a war of utter extermination. 

It is, to be sure, much to be regretted that our people 
so often followed the cruel examples of the Indians in 
the slaughter of prisoners, and sometimes women and 
children ; yet let them receive a candid hearing at the 
bar of reason and justice, before they are condemned, as 
barbarians, equally with the Indians themselves. His- 
tory scarcely presents an example of a civilized nation 
carrying on a war with barbarians without adopting the 
mode of warfare of the barbarous nation. The ferocious 
Suwarrow, when at war with the Turks, was as much of 
a savage as the Turks themselves. His slaughters were 
as indiscriminate as theirs ; but during his wars against 
the French, in Italy, he faithfully observed the laws of 
civilized warfare. 

Were the Greeks now at war with a civilized nation 
we should hear nothing of the barbarities which they 
have committed on the Turks ; but, being at war with 
barbarians, the principle of self-defense compels them to 
retaliate on the Turks, the barbarities which they com- 
mit on them. 

In the last rebellion in Ireland, that of united Irishmen, 
the government party were not much behind the rebels 

l 9 

216 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

in acts of lawless cruelty. It was not by the hands of 
the executioner, alone, they perished. Summary justice, 
as it was called, was sometimes inflicted. How many 
perished under the torturing scourge of the drummer, 
for the purpose of extorting confessions. These extra 
judicial executions were attempted to be justified on the 
ground of the necessity of the case. 

Our revolutionary war has a double aspect ; on the 
one hand we carried on a war with the English, in which 
we observed the maxims of civilized warfare with the 
utmost strictness ; but the brave, the potent, the mag- 
nanimous nation of our forefathers had associated with 
themselves, as auxiliaries, the murderous tomahawk and 
scalping knife of the Indian nations around our defense- 
less frontiers, leaving those barbarous sons of the forest 
to their own savage mode of warfare, to the full indulgence 
of all their native thirst for human blood. On them, 
then, be the blame of all the horrid features of this war 
between civilized and savage men, in which the for- 
mer were compelled, by every principle of self defense, 
to adopt the Indian mode of warfare in all its revolting 
and destructive features. 

Were those who were engaged in the war against the 
Indians less humane than those who carried on the war 
against their English allies ? No. They were not. 
Both parties carried on the war on the same principle of 
reciprocity of advantages and disadvantages. For ex- 
ample, the English and Americans take each one thousand 
prisoners. They are exchanged. Neither army is 
weakened by this arrangement. A sacrifice is indeed 
.made to humanity, in the expense of taking care of the 
sick, wounded and prisoners ; but this expense is mutual. 
No disadvantages result from all the clemency of modern 
warfare excepting an augmentation of the expenses of 
war. In this mode of warfare those of the nation, not 
in arms, are safe from death by the hands of soldiers. 
No civilized warrior dishonors his sword with the blood 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 217 

of helpless infancy, old age, or that of the fair sex. He 
aims his blows only at those whom he finds in arms 
against him. The Indian kills indiscriminately. His 
object is the total extermination of his enemies. Children 
are victims of his vengeance because, if males, they may 
hereafter become warriors, or if females, they may become 
mothers. Even the foetal state is criminal in his view. 
It is not enough that the foetus should perish with the 
murdered mother, it is torn from her pregnant womb 
and elevated on a stick or pole, as a trophy of victory 
and an object of horror, to the survivors of the slain. 

If the Indian takes prisoners, mercy has but little 
concern in the transaction ; he spares the lives of those 
who fall into his hands, for the purpose of feasting the 
feelings of ferocious vengeance of himself and his 
comrades by the torture of his captive, or to increase the 
strength of his nation by his adoption into an Indian 
family, or for the purpose of gain, by selling him for a 
higher price than his scalp would fetch, to his Christian 
allies of Canada ; for be it known that those allies were 
in the constant practice of making presents for scalps, 
and prisoners, as well as furnishing the means for carrying 
on the Indian war, which for so many years desolated 
our defenseless frontiers. No lustration can ever wash 
out this national stain. The foul Hot must remain, as 
long as the page of history shall convey the record of 
the foul transaction, to future generations. 

The author would not open wounds which have, alas ! 
already bled so long, but for the purpose of doing justice 
to the memory of his forefathers and relatives, many of 
whom perished in the defense of their country, by the 
hands of the merciless Indians. 

How is a war of extermination, and accompanied with 
such acts of atrocious cruelty, to be met by those on 
whom it is inflicted ? Must it be met by the lenient 
maxims of civilized warfare ? Must the Indian captive 
be spared his life ? What advantage would be gained 

218 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

by this course ? The young white prisoners, adopted 
into Indian families, often became complete Indians, but 
in how few instances did ever an Indian become civil- 
ized. Send a cartel for an exchange of prisoners, the 
Indians knew nothing of this measure of clemency in 
war ; the bearer of the white flag for the purpose of 
effecting the exchange, would have exerted his humanity 
at the forfeit of his life. Should my countrymen be 
still charged with barbarism in the prosecution of the 
Indian war, let him who harbors this unfavorable impres- 
sion concerning them, portray in imagination the horrid 
scenes of slaughter, which frequently met their view in 
the course of the Indian war. Let him, if he can bear 
the reflection, look at helpless infancy, virgin beauty, 
and hoary age, dishonored by the ghastly wounds of the 
tomahawk and scalping knife of the savage. Let him 
hear the shrieks of the victims of the Indian torture by 
fire, and smell the surrounding air, rendered sickening 
by the effluvia of their burning flesh and blood. Let 
him hear the yells, and view the hellish features of the 
surrounding circle of savage warriors, rioting in all the 
luxuriance of vengeance, while applying the flaming 
torches to the parched limbs of the sufferers, and then 
suppose those murdered infants, matrons, virgins and 
victims of torture, were his friends and relations, the wife, 
sister, child, or brother; what would be his feelings? 
After a short season of grief, he would say, u I will now 
think only of revenge.” 

Philosophy shudders at the destructive aspect of war 
in any shape ; Christianity, by teaching the religion of 
the good Samaritan, altogether forbids it ; but the ori- 
ginal settlers of the western regions, like the greater part 
of the world, were neither philosophers nor saints. 
They were “ men of like passions with others/’ and 
therefore adopted the Indian mode of warfare from ne- 
cessity, and a motive of revenge, with the exception of 
burning their captives alive, which they never did ; if 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 219 

the bodies of savage enemies were sometimes burned, 
it was not until after they were dead. 

Let the voice of nature, and the law of nations plead 
in favor of the veteran pioneers of the desert regions of 
the west. War has hitherto been a prominent trait in 
the moral system of human nature, and will continue 
such, until a radical change shall be effected in favor of 
science, morals and piety, on a general scale. 

In the conflicts of nations, as well as those of indi- 
viduals, no advantages are to be conceded. If mercy 
may be associated with the carnage and devastations of 
war, that mercy must be reciprocal ; but a war of utter 
extermination must be met by a war of the same charac- 
ter ; or by an overwhelming force which may put an 
end to it, without a sacrifice of the helpless and unoffend- 
ing part of hostile nations ; such a force was not at the 
command of the first inhabitants of this country. The 
sequel of the Indian war goes to show that in a war 
with savages, the choice lies between extermination and 
subjugation. Our government has wisely nd humanely 
pursued the latter course. 

The author begs to be understood, that the foregoing 
observations are not intended as a justification of the 
whole of the transactions of our people with regard to 
the Indians during the course of the war. Some in- 
stances of acts of wanton barbarity occurred on our side, 
which have received, and must continue to receive, the 
unequivocal reprobation of all the civilized world. In 
the course of this history it will appear that more deeds 
of wanton barbarity took place on our side than the 
world is now acquainted with. 

220 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 


The War of 1763. 

The treaty of peace between his British majesty and 
the kings of France, Spain and Portugal, concluded at 
Paris on the 10th of February, 1763, did not put an end 
to the Indian war against the frontier parts and back set- 
tlements of the colonies of Great Britain. The spring 
and summer of 1763, as well as those of 1764, deserve 
to be memorable in history for the great extent and de- 
structive results of a war of extermination carried on by 
the united force of all the Indian nations of the western 
country, along the shore of the northern lakes and 
throughout the whole extent of the frontier settlements 
of Pennsylvania, Virginia and North Carolina. 

The events of this war, as they relate to the frontier 
of Pennsylvania and the shores of the lakes, are matters 
of history already, and therefore shall be no farther re- 
lated here than is necessary to give a connected view of 
the military events of those disastrous seasons. The 
massacre by the Indians in the south-western part of 
Virginia, so far as they have come to the knowledge of 
the author, shall be related more in detail. 

The English historians attribute this terrible war to 
the influence of the French Jesuits over the Indians, 1 but 
whether with much truth and candor, is, to say the least 
of it, extremely doubtful. 

The peace of 1763, by which the provinces of Canada 
were ceded to Britain, was offensive to the Indians ; 
especially, as they very well knew that the English go- 
vernment, on the ground of this treaty, claimed the 

1 History of England , vol. x, p. 399. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 221 

jurisdiction of the western country generally ; and as an 
Indian sees no difference between the right of jurisdic- 
tion and that of possession, they considered themselves 
as about to be dispossessed of the whole of their country 
as rapidly as the English might find it convenient to take 
possession of it. In this opinion they were confirmed 
by the building of forts on the Susquehanna, on lands to 
which the Indians laid claim. The forts and posts of 
Pittsburg, Bedford, Ligonier, Niagara, Detroit, Presque 
Isle, St. Joseph, and Michilimackinac, were either built, 
or improved and strengthened, with additions to their 
garrisons. Thus the Indians saw themselves surrounded 
on the north and east by a strong line of forts, while 
those of Bedford, Ligonier and Pittsburg, threatened an 
extension of them into the heart of their country. Thus 
circumstanced the aborigines of the country had to choose 
between the prospect of being driven to the inhospitable 
regions of the north and west ; of negotiating with the 
British government for continuance of the possession of 
their own land, or of taking up arms for its defense. 
They chose the latter course, in which a view of the 
smallness of their numbers and the scantiness of their 
resources, ought to have taught them that, although they 
might do much mischief, they could not ultimately suc- 
ceed ; but the Indians, as well as their brethren of the 
white skin, are often driven by their impetuous passions 
to rash and destructive enterprises, which reason, were 
it permitted to give its counsels, would disapprove. The 
plan resolved on by the Indians for the prosecution of 
the war, was that of a general massacre of all the inhabit- 
ants of the English settlements in the western country, 
as well as of those on the lands on the Susquehanna, to 
which they laid claim. 

Never did military commanders of any nation display 
more skill, or their troops more steady and determined 
bravery, than did those red men of the wilderness, in 
the prosecution of their gigantic plan for the recovery 

222 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

of their country from the possession of the English. 
It was, indeed, a war of utter extermination on an extensive 
scale. A conflict which exhibited human nature in its 
native state, in which the cunning of the fox is associated 
with the cruelty of the tiger. We read the history of 
this war with feelings of the deepest horror ; but why ? 
On the part of the savages, theirs was the ancient mode 
of warfare, in which there was nothing of mercy. If 
science, associated with the benign influence of the 
Christian system, has limited the carnage of war to those 
in arms, so as to give the right of life, and hospitality to 
women, infancy, old age, the sick, wounded and prisoners, 
may not a farther extension of the influence of those 
powerful but salutary agents put an end to war alto- 
gether ? May not future generations read the history 
of our civilized warfare with equal horror and wonder, 
that, with our science and piety, we had wars at all ! ! 

The English traders among the Indians were the first 
victims in this contest. Out of one hundred and twenty 
of them, among the different nations, only two or three 
escaped being murdered. The forts of Presque Isle, St. 
Joseph and Michilimackinac were taken, with a general 
slaughter, of their garrisons. The fortresses of Bedford, 
Lrgonier, Niagara, Detroit and Pitt were with difficulty 
preserved from being taken. It was a principal object 
with the Indians to get possession of Detroit and Fort 
Pitt, either by assault or famine. The former was at- 
tempted with regard to Detroit. Fort Pitt, being at a 
considerable distance from the settlements, where alone 
supplies could be obtained, determined the savages to 
attempt its reduction by famine. 

In their first attempt on Fort Detroit, the Indians cal- 
culated on taking possession of it by stratagem. A 
large number of the Indians appeared before the place 
under pretense of holding a congress with Major Glad- 
win, the commandant. He was on his guard and re- 
fused them admittance. On the next day, about five 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 223 

hundred more of the Indians arrived in arms and demanded 
leave to go into the fort, to hold a treaty. The com- 
mandant refused to admit a greater number than forty. 
The Indians understood his design of detaining them as 
hostages for the good conduct of their comrades, on the 
outside of the fort, and therefore did not send them into 
the place. The whole number of men in the fort and 
on board two vessels of war in the river, did not exceed 
one hundred and ten or twelve ; but by the means of 
the cannons they possessed, they made shift to keep the 
Indians at a distance and convince them that they could 
not take the place. When the Indians were about to 
retire, Captain Dalyell arrived at the fort, with a consi- 
derable reinforcement for the relief of the place. He 
made a sortie against the breast works which the Indians 
had thrown up, with two hundred and forty-five men. 
This detachment was driven back with the loss of seventy 
men killed and forty-two wounded. Captain Dalyell 
was among the slain. Of one hundred men who were 
escorting a large quantity of provisions to Detroit, sixty- 
seven were massacred. 

Fort Pitt had been invested for some time, before 
Captain Ecayer had the least prospect of relief. In this 
situation he and his garrison had resolved to stand it out 
to the last extremity and even perish of famine, rather 
than fall into the hands of the savages ; notwithstanding 
the fort was a bad one > the garrison weak, and the 
country between the fort and Ligonier was in possession 
of the savages, and his messengers killed or compelled to 
return back. In this situation, Col. Bouquet was sent 
by General Amherst to the relief of the place, with a 
large quantity of provisions under a strong escort. This 
escort was attacked by a large body of Indians, in a 
narrow defile, on Turtle creek, and would have been 
entirely defeated, had it not been for a successful strata- 
gem employed by the commander for extricating them- 
selves from the savage army. After sustaining a furious 

224 Early Settlement and Indian TVars of 

contest, from one o’clock till night, and for several 
hours the next morning, a retreat was pretended, with a 
view to draw the Indians into a close engagement; Pre- 
viously to this movement, four companies of infantry and 
grenadiers were placed in ambuscade. The plan suc- 
ceeded. When the retreat commenced, the Indians 
thought themselves secure of victory, and pressing for- 
ward with great vigor, fell into the ambuscade, and were 
dispersed with great slaughter. The loss on the side of 
the English was above one hundred killed and wounded, 
that of the Indians, could not have been less. This loss 
was severely felt by the Indians, as in addition to the 
number of warriors who fell in the engagement, several 
of the most distinguished chiefs were amongst the slain. 
Fort Pitt, the reduction of which they had much at heart, 
was now placed out of their reach, by being effectually 
relieved and supplied with the munitions of war. 

The historian of the western region of our country, 
cannot help regarding Pittsburg, the present flourishing 
emporium of the northern part of that region, and its im- 
mediate neighborhood, as classic ground, on account of 
the memorable battles which have taken place for its 
possession in the infancy of our settlements. Braddock’s 
defeat, Major Grant’s defeat, its conquest by Gen. Forbes, 
the victory over the Indians above related, by Major 
Bouquet, serve to show the importance in which this 
post was held in early times, and that it was obtained 
and supported by the English government at the price of 
no small amount of blood and treasure. In the neighbor- 
hood of this place, as well as in the war-worn regions 
of the old world, the plough share of the farmer turns 
up, from beneath the surface of the earth, the broken 
and rusty implements of war, and the bones of the slain 
in battle. 

It was in the course of this war that the dreadful 
massacre at Wyoming took place, and desolated the fine 
settlements of the New England people along the Sus- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 225 

quehanna. The extensive and indiscriminate slaughter 
of both sexes and all ages by the Indians, at Wyoming 
and other places, so exasperated a large number of men, 
denominated the Paxton boys , that they rivalled the most 
ferocious of the Indians themselves, in deeds of cruelty 
which have dishonored the history of our country by 
the record of the shedding of innocent blood, without the 
slightest provocation; deeds of the most atrocious bar- 

The Canestoga Indians had lived in peace for more 
than a century, in the neighborhood of Lancaster. Their 
number did not exceed forty. Against these unoffending 
descendants of the first friends of the famous William 
Penn, the Paxton boys first directed their more than 
savage vengeance. Fifty-seven of them, in military ar- 
ray, poured into their little village and instantly murdered 
all whom they found at home, to the number of fourteen 
men, women and children. Those of them who did not 
happen to be at home at the massacre, were lodged in 
the jail of Lancaster, for safety. But alas ! This pre- 
caution was unavailing. The Paxton boys broke open 
the jail door and murdered the whole of them, in num- 
ber from fifteen to twenty. It was in vain that these 
poor defenseless people protested their innocence and 
begged for mercy on their knees. Blood was the order 
of the day, with those ferocious Paxton boys. The 
death of the. victims of their cruelties, did not satisfy 
their rage for slaughter ; they mangled the dead bodies 
of the Indians with their scalping knives and tomahawks, 
in the most shocking and brutal manner, scalping even 
the children and chopping off the hands and feet of most 
of them. The next object of those Paxton boys was 
the murder of the Christian Indians of the villages of 
Wequetank and Nain. From the execution of this in- 
fernal design they were prevented, by the humane in- 
terference of the government of Pennsylvania, which 
removed the inhabitants of both places under a strong 

226 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

guard to Philadelphia, for protection. They remained 
under guard from November, 1763, until the close of 
the war in December, 1764 ; the greater part of this time 
they occupied the barracks of the city. The Paxton 
boys twice assembled in great force, at no great distance 
from the city, with a view to assault the barrack and 
murder the Indians ; but owing to the military prepara- 
tions made for their reception, they at last reluctantly 
desisted from the enterprise. 

While we read, with feelings of the deepest horror, 
the record of the murders which have, at different pe- 
riods, been inflicted on the unoffending Christian Indians, 
of the Moravian profession, it is some consolation to re- 
flect that our government has had no participation in 
those murders ; but on the contrary, has at all times 
afforded them all the protection which circumstances 

The principal settlements in Greenbriar, were those 
of Muddy creek and the big levels, distant about fifteen 
or twenty miles from each other. Before these settlers 
were aware of the existence of the war, and supposing 
that the peace made with the French, comprehended 
their Indian allies also, about sixty Indians visited the 
settlement on Muddy creek. They made the vi§it under 
the mask of friendship. They were cordially received 
and treated with all the hospitality which it was in the 
power of these new settlers to bestow upon them ; but 
on a sudden, and without any previous intimation of 
anything like an hostile intention, the Indians murdered, 
in cold blood, all the men belonging to the settlement 
and made prisoners of the women and children. Leav- 
ing a guard with their prisoners, they then marched to 
the settlement in the Levels, before the fate of the Muddy 
creek settlement was known. Here, as at Muddy creek, 
they were treated with the most kind and attentive hos- 
pitality, at the house of Mr. Archibald Glendennin, who 
gave the Indians a sumptuous feast of three fat elks, 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 227 

which he had recently killed. Here, a scene of slaughter, 
similar to that which had recently taken place at Muddy 
creek, occurred at the conclusion of the feast. It com- 
menced with an old woman, who having a very sore leg, 
showed it to an Indian, desiring his advice how she 
might cure it. This request he answered with a blow 
of the tomahawk, which instantly killed her. In a few 
minutes all the men belonging to the place shared the 
same fate. The women and children were made pri- 
soners. In the time of the slaughter, a negro woman 
of the spring near the house where it happened, killed 
her own child for fear it should fall into the hands of 
the Indians, or hinder her from making her escape. 

Mrs. Glendennin, whose husband was among the 
slain, and herself, with her children, prisoners, boldly 
charged the Indians with perfidy and cowardice, in tak- 
ing advantage of the mask of friendship to commit 
murder. One of the Indians, exasperated at her bold- 
ness, and stung, no doubt, at the justice of her charge 
against them, brandished his tomahawk over her head, 
and dashed her husband’s scalp in her face. In defiance 
of all his threats, the heroine still reiterated the charges 
of perfidy and cowardice against the Indians. 

On the next day, after marching about ten miles, while 
passing through a thicket, the Indians forming a front 
and rear guard, Mrs. Glendennin gave her infant to a 
neighbor woman, stepped into the bushes without being 
perceived by the Indians, and made her escape. The 
cries of the child made the Indians enquire for the 
mother. She was not to be found. “ Well,” says one 
of them, “ I will soon bring the cow to her calf,” and 
taking the child by the feet, beat its brains out against a 
tree. Mrs. Glendennin returned home, in the course 
of the succeeding night, and covered the corpse of her 
husband with fence rails. Having performed this pious 
work for her murdered husband, she chose, as a place 
of safety, a cornfield where, as she related, her heroic 


228 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

resolution was succeeded by a paroxysm of grief and de- 
spondency, during which she imagined she saw a man 
with the aspect of a murderer, standing within a few 
steps of her. The reader of this narrative, instead of 
regarding this fit of despondency as a feminine weakness 
on the part of this daughter of affliction, will com- 
miserate her situation of unparalleled destitution and dis- 
tress. Alone, in the dead of night, the survivor of all 
the infant settlements of that district, while all her rela- 
tives and neighbors of both settlements were either 
prisoners or lying dead, dishonored by ghastly wounds 
of the tomahawk and scalping knife of the savages, her 
husband and her children amongst the slain. 

It was some days before a force could be collected in 
the eastern part of Bottetourt and the adjoining country, 
for the purpose of burying the dead. 

Of the events of this war, in the south-western fron- 
tier of Virginia, and in the country of Holstein, the then 
western part of North Carolina, the author has not been 
informed, further than that, on the part of the Indians, 
it was carried on with the greatest activity, and its course 
marked with many deeds of the most atrocious cruelty, 
until late in the year 1764, when a period was put to 
this sanguinary contest, by a treaty made with the Indian 
nations by Sir William Johnson at the German Flats. 

The perfidy and cruelties practiced by the Indians, 
during the war of 1763 and 1764, occasioned the re- 
volting and sanguinary character of the Indian wars 
which took place afterwards. The Indians had resolved 
on the total extermination of all the settlers of our north 
and south-western frontiers, and being no longer under 
the control of their former allies, the French, they were 
at full liberty to exercise all their native ferocity and riot 
in the indulgence of their innate thirst for blood. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 229 


Gov. Dunmore’s War. 

After the conclusion of the Indian war by the treaty 
made with the chiefs, by Sir William Johnson at the 
German Flats, in the latter part of 1764, the western 
settlements enjoyed peace until the spring of 1774. 
During this period of time, the settlements increased with 
great rapidity along the whole extent of the western 
frontier. Even the shores of the Ohio, on the Virginia 
side, had a considerable population as early as the year 

1 774- 

Devoutly might humanity wish that the record of the 
causes which led to the destructive war of 1774 might 
be blotted from the annals of our country ; but it is 
now too late to efface it, the black-lettered list must re- 
main, a dishonorable blot in our national history ; good 
however may spring out of evil. The injuries inflicted 
upon the Indians in early times by our forefathers, may 
induce their descendants to show justice and mercy to the 
diminished posterity of those children of the wilderness, 
whose ancestors perished in cold blood, under the toma- 
hawk and scalping knife of the white savages. 

In the month of April, 1774, a rumor was circulated 
that the Indians had stolen several horses from some 
land jobbers on the Ohio and Kanawha rivers. No 
evidences of the fact having been adduced leads to the 
conclusion that the report was false. This report, how- 
ever, induced a pretty general belief that the Indians 
were about to make war upon the frontier settlements ; 
but for this apprehension there does not appear to have 
been the slightest foundation. In consequence of this 

230 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

apprehension of being attacked by the Indians, the land 
jobbers ascended the river, and collected at Wheeling. 
On the 27th of April, it was reported in Wheeling that 
a canoe containing two Indians and some traders, was 
coming down the river and then not far from the place. 
On hearing this the commandant of the station, Capt. 
Cresap, proposed taking a party to go up the river and 
kill the Indians. This project was vehemently opposed 
by Col. Zane, the proprietor of the place. He stated 
to the captain that the killing of those Indians would 
inevitably bring on a war, in which much innocent blood 
would be shed, and that the act in itself would be an 
atrocious murder, and a disgrace to his name forever. 
His good counsel was lost. The party went up the 
river. On being asked, at their return, what had be- 
come of the Indians ? They coolly answered that 
“ They had fallen overboard into the river !” Their 
canoe, on being examined, was found bloody, and pierced 
with bullets. This was the first blood which was shed 
in this war, and terrible was the vengeance which followed. 

In the evening of the same day, the party hearing that 
there was an encampment of Indians at the mouth of 
the Captina, went down the river to the place, attacked 
the Indians and killed several of them. In this affair 
one of Cresap’s party was severely wounded. 

The massacre at Captina, and that which took place 
at Baker’s, about forty miles above Wheeling, a few days 
after that at Captina, were unquestionably the sole 
causes of the war of 1774. The last was perpetrated 
by thirty-two men, under the command of Daniel Great- 
house. The whole number killed at this place and on 
the river opposite to it was twelve, besides several 
wounded. This horrid massacre was effected by an hy- 
pocritical stratagem which reflects the deepest dishonor 
on the memory of those who were agents in it. 

The report of the murders committed on the Indians 
near Wheeling induced a belief that they would imme- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 231 

diately commence hostilities, and this apprehension fur- 
nished the pretext for the murder above related. The 
ostensible object for raising the party under Greathouse, 
was that of defending the family of Baker, whose house 
was opposite to a large encampment of Indians at the 
mouth of big Yellow creek. The party were concealed 
in ambuscade, while their commander went over the 
river, under the mask of friendship, to the Indian camp, 
to ascertain their number ; while there, an Indian woman 
advised him to return home speedily, saying that the In- 
dians were drinking and angry on account of the murder 
of their people down the river, and might do him some 
mischief. On his return to his party he reported that 
the Indians were too strong for an open attack. Here- 
turned to Baker’s and requested him to give any Indians 
who might come over, in the course of the day, as much 
rum as they might call for, and get as many of them 
drunk as he possibly could. The plan succeeded. 
Several Indian men, with two women, came over the 
river to Baker’s, who had previously been in the habit 
of selling rum to the Indians. The men drank freely 
and became intoxicated. In this state they were all 
killed by Greathouse, and a few of his party. I say a 
few of his party ; for it is but justice* to state that not 
more than five or six of the whole number had any par- 
ticipation in the slaughter at the house. The rest pro- 
tested against it, as an atrocious murder. From their 
number being by far the majority, they might have pre- 
vented the deed ; but alas ! they did not. A little 
Indian girl alone was saved from the slaughter, by the 
humanity of some one of the party, whose name is not 
now known. 

The Indians in the camps, hearing the firing at the 
house, sent a canoe with two men in it to inquire what 
had happened. These two Indians were both shot down, 
as soon as they landed on the beach. A second and 
larger canoe was then manned with a number of Indians 

232 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

in arms ; but in attempting to reach the shore, some 
distance below the house, were received by a well di- 
rected fire from the party, which killed the greater 
number of them and compelled the survivors to return. 
A great number of shots were exchanged across the 
river, but without damage to the white party, not one of 
whom was even wounded. The Indian men who were 
murdered were all scalped. The woman who gave the 
friendly advice to the commander of the party, when in 
the Indian camp, was amongst the slain at Baker’s house. 

The massacres of the Indians at Captina and Yellow 
creek comprehended the whole of the family of the 
famous but unfortunate Logan, who before these events, 
had been a lover of the whites and a strenuous advocate 
for peace ; but in the conflict which followed them, by 
way of revenge for the death of his people, he became a 
brave and sanguinary chief among the warriors. 

The settlers along the frontiers, knowing that the 
Indians would make war upon them for the murder of 
their people, either moved off to the interior, or took up 
their residence in forts. The apprehension of war was 
soon realized. In a short time the Indians commenced 
hostilities along the whole extent of our frontiers. 

Express was speedily sent to Williamsburg, the then 
seat of government of the colony of Virginia, communi- 
cating intelligence of the certainty of the commencement 
of an Indian war. The assembly was then in session. 
A plan for a campaign for the purpose of putting a 
speedy conclusion to the Indian hostilities was adopted 
between the Earl of Dunmore, the governor of the 
colony, and Gen. Lewis of Bottetourt county. Gen. 
Lewis was appointed to the command of the southern 
division of the forces to be employed on this occasion, 
with orders to raise a large body of volunteers and drafts, 
from the south-eastern counties of the colony, with all 
dispatch. These forces were to rendezvous at Camp 
Union in the Greenbriar country. The Earl of Dun- 

IVestern Virginia and Pennsylvania . 233 

more was to raise another army in the northern countries 
of the colony, and in the settlements west of the mount- 
ains and assemble them at Fort Pitt, and from thence 
descend the river to Point Pleasant, at the mouth of the 
Great Kanahwa, the place appointed for the junction of 
the two armies, for the purpose of invading the Indian 
country and destroying as many of their villages as 
they could reach in the course of the season. 

On the eleventh of September the forces under Gen. 
Lewis, amounting to eleven hundred men, commenced 
their march from Camp Union to Point Pleasant, a dis- 
tance of one hundred and sixty miles. The tract of 
country between these two points was at that time a 
trackless desert. Capt. Matthew Arbuckle, the pilot, 
conducted the army by the nearest and best route to 
their place of destination. The flour and ammunition 
were wholly transported on pack horses, as the route 
was impassable for wheel carriages. After a painful 
march of nineteen days the army arrived, on the first of 
October, at Point Pleasant, where an encampment was 
made. Gen. Lewis was exceedingly disappointed at 
hearing no tidings of the Earl of Dunmore, who, ac- 
cording to previous arrangements, was to form a junction 
with him at this place. He immediately dispatched 
some scouts to go by land in the direction of Fort Pitt 
to obtain intelligence of the route which the earl had 
taken, and then return with the utmost dispatch. On 
the ninth, three men, who had formerly been Indian 
traders, arrived in the camp, on express from the earl, 
to inform Lewis that he had changed his plan of opera- 
tions, and intended to march to the Indian towns by the 
way of Hockhocking and directing Gen. Lewis to com- 
mence his march immediately for the old Chillicothe 

Very early in the morning of the tenth two young 
men set out from the camp to hunt, up the river. Hav- 
ing gone about three miles they fell upon a camp of the 

234 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Indians, who were then in the act of preparing to march 
to attack the camp of Gen. Lewis. The Indians fired 
upon them and killed one of them, the other ran back to 
the camp with intelligence that the Indians, in great 
force, would immediately give battle. 

Gen. Lewis instantly ordered out a detachment of the 
Bottetourt troops under Col. Fleming and another of the 
Augusta troops, under Col. Charles Lewis, remaining 
himself with the reserve for the defense of the camp. 
The detachment marched out in two lines, and met the 
Indians in the same order about four hundred yards from 
the camp. The battle commenced a little after sunrise 
by a heavy firing from the Indians. At the onset our 
troops gave back some distance, until met by a rein- 
forcement, on the arrival of which the Indians retreated 
a little way and formed a line behind logs and trees, , 
reaching from the bank of the Ohio, to that of the Kan- 
awha. By this manoeuvre our army and camp were 
completely invested, being inclosed between the two 
rivers, with the Indian line of battle in front, so that no 
chance of retreat was left. An incessant fire was kept 
up on both sides, with but little change of position until 
sundown, when the Indians retreated, and in the night 
recrossed the Ohio, and the next day commenced their 
march to their towns on the Scioto. 

Our loss in this destructive battle was seventy-five 
killed, and one hundred and forty wounded. Among 
the killed were Col. Charles Lewis, Col. Fields, Captains 
Buford, Murrey, Ward, Wilson and M’Clenachan ; 
Lieutenants Allen, Goldsby and Dillon and several sub- 
altern officers. Col. Lewis, a distinguished and merito- 
rious officer, was mortally wounded by the first fire of 
the Indians, but walked into the camp and expired in his 
own tent. 

The number of Indians engaged in the battle of the 
Point was never ascertained, nor yet the amount of their 
loss. On the morning after the engagement, twenty- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 235 

one were found on the battle ground, twelve more were 
afterwards found in different places where they had been 
concealed. A great number of their dead were said to 
have been thrown into the river during the engagement. 
Considering that the whole number of our men engaged 
in this conflict were riflemen and from habit sharp shooters 
of the first order, it is presumable that the loss on the 
side of the Indians was at least equal to ours. 

The Indians, during the battle, were commanded by 
the Cornstalk warrior, the king of the Shawanees. This 
son of the forest, in his plans of attack and retreat, and 
in all his manoeuvres throughout the engagement, dis- 
played the skill and bravery of the most consummate 
general. During the whole of the day he was heard 
from our lines, vociferating, with the voice of Stentor, 
“ Be strong, be strong.” It is even said that he killed 
one of his men with his own hand for cowardice. The 
day after the battle, after burying the dead, entrenchments 
were thrown up round the camp, and a competent guard 
was appointed for the care and protection of the sick and 
wounded. On the day following, Gen. Lewis com- 
menced his march for the Shawanee’s towns on the Scioto. 
This march was made through a trackless desert and at- 
tended with almost insuperable difficulties and privations. 

In the mean time the Earl of Dunmore, having col- 
lected a force and provided boats at Fort Pitt, descended 
the river to Wheeling, where the army halted for a few 
days, and then proceeded down the river in about one 
hundred canoes, a few keel boats, and pirogues to the 
mouth of Hockhocking, and from thence overland until 
the army had got within eight miles of the Shawanee 
town Chillicothe, on the Scioto. Here the army halted 
and made a breast-work of fallen trees and entrench- 
ments of such extent as to include about twelve acres of 
ground, with an inclosure in the centre containing about 
one acre, surrounded by entrenchments. This was the 
citadel which contained the marquees of the earl and his 

236 Early Settlement and Indian War s of 

superior officers. Before the army had reached that 
place, the Indian chiefs had sent several messengers to 
the earl, asking peace. With this request he soon de- 
termined to comply, and therefore sent an express to 
Gen. Lewis with an order for his immediate retreat. 
This order Gen. Lewis disregarded and continued his 
march until his lordship in person visited his camp, was 
formally introduced to his officers and gave the order in 
person. The army of Gen. Lewis then commenced 
their retreat. 

It was with the greatest reluctance and chagrin that 
the troops of Gen. Lewis returned from the enter- 
prise in which they were engaged. The massacres of 
their relatives and friends at the Big Levels and Muddy 
creek, and above all, their recent loss at the battle of the 
Point, had inspired these big knives, as the Indians 
called the Virginians, with an inveterate thirst for re- 
venge, the gratification of which they supposed was 
shortly to take place, in the total destruction of the In- 
dians and their towns, along the Scioto and Sandusky 
rivers. The order of Dunmore was obeyed ; but with 
every expression of regret and disappointment. 

The earl and his officers having returned to his camp, 
a treaty with the Indians was opened the following day. 
In this treaty, every precaution was used on the part of 
our people to prevent the Indians from ending a treaty 
in the tragedy of a massacre. Only eighteen Indians, 
with their chiefs, were permitted to pass the outer gate 
of their fortified encampment, after having deposited 
their arms with the guard at the gate. 

The treaty was opened by Cornstalk, the war chief 
of the Shawanees, in a lengthy speech, in which he 
boldly charged the white people with having been the 
authors of the commencement of the war, in the massa- 
cres of the Indians at Captina and Yellow creek. This 
speech he delivered in so loud a tone of voice, that he 
was heard all over the camp. The terms of the treaty 
were soon settled and the prisoners delivered up. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 237 

Logan, the Cayuga chief, assented to the treaty ; but 
still indignant at the murder of his family, refused to 
attend with the other chiefs at the camp of Dunmore. 
According to the Indian mode in such cases, he sent his 
speech in a belt of wampum by an interpreter, to be 
read at the treaty. 

Supposing that this work may fall into the hands of 
some readers who have not seen the speech of Logan, 
the author thinks it not amiss to insert this celebrated 
morsel of Indian eloquence in this place, with the ob- 
servation that the authenticity of the speech is no longer 
a subject of doubt. The speech is as follows : 

u I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered 
Logan’s cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat \ if 
ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not. 
During the course of the last long and bloody war, 
Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. 
Such was my love for the whites that my countrymen 
pointed as they passed, and said, c Logan is the friend of 
the white men.’ I had even thought to have lived with 
you, but for the injuries of one man. Col. Cresap, the 
last spring, in cold blood, and unprovoked, murdered all 
the relations of Logan, not even sparing my women and 
children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the 
veins of any living creature. This called on me for re- 
venge. I have sought it ; I have killed many ; I have 
fully glutted my vengeance ; for my country I rejoice at 
the beams of peace. But do not harbor a thought that 
mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He 
will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there 
to mourn for Logan ? Not one.” 

Thus ended, at the treaty of Camp Charlotte in the 
month of November, 1774, the disastrous war of Dun- 
more. It began in the wanton and unprovoked murders 
of the Indians at Captina and Yellow creek, and ended 
with an awful sacrifice of life and property to the demon 
of revenge. On our part we obtained at the treaty a 

238 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

cessation of hostilities and a surrender of prisoners, and 
nothing more. 

The plan of operations adopted by the Indians in the 
war of Dunmore, shows very clearly that their chiefs 
were by no means deficient in the foresight and skill 
necessary for making the most prudent military arrange- 
ments for obtaining success and victory, in their mode 
of warfare. At an early period they obtained intelligence 
of the plan of the campaign against them, concerted 
between the Earl of Dunmore and Gen. Lewis. With 
a view, therefore, to attack the forces of these command- 
ers separately, they speedily collected their warriors, 
and by forced marches reached the Point, before the ex- 
pected arrival of the troops under Dunmore. Such was 
the privacy with which they conducted their march to 
Point Pleasant that Gen. Lewis knew nothing of the 
approach of the Indian army, until a few minutes before 
the commencement of the battle, and it is every way 
probable that if Cornstalk, the Indian commander, had 
had a little larger force at the battle of the Point, the 
whole army of Gen. Lewis would have been cut off, as 
the wary savages had left them no chance of retreat. 
Had the army of Lewis been defeated, the army of Dun- 
more, consisting of but little more than one thousand 
men, would have shared the fate of those armies, which, 
at different periods, have suffered defeats, in consequence 
of venturing too far into the Indian country, in numbers 
too small, and with munitions of war inadequate to sus- 
tain a contest with the united forces of a number of In- 
dian nations. 

It was the general belief among the officers of our 
army, at the time, that the Earl of Dunmore, while at 
Wheeling, received advice from his government of the 
probability of the approaching war between England and 
the colonies, and that afterwards, all his measures with 
regard to the Indians, had for their ultimate object an 
alliance with those ferocious warriors, for aid of the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 239 

mother country in their contest with us. This supposi- 
tion accounts for his not forming a junction with the 
army of Lewis at Point Pleasant. This deviation from 
the original plan of the campaign jeopardized the army 
of Lewis and well nigh occasioned its total destruction 
The conduct of the earl at the treaty, shows a good un- 
derstanding between him and the Indian chiefs. He 
did not suffer the army of Lewis to form a junction with 
his own, but sent them back, before the treaty was con- 
cluded, thus risking the safety of his own forces, for at 
the time of the treaty, the Indian warriors were about 
his camp, in force sufficient to have intercepted his re- 
retreat and destroyed his whole army. 


The Death of Cornstalk. 

This was one of the most atrocious murders com- 
mitted by the whites during the whole course of the war. 

In the summer of 1777, when the confederacy of the 
Indian nations, under the influence of the British govern- 
ment, was formed and began to commit hostilities along 
our frontier settlements, Cornstalk and a young chief of 
the name of Redhawk and another Indian made a visit 
to the garrison at the Point, commanded at that time by 
Captain Arbuckle. Cornstalk stated to the captain that, 
with the exception of himself and the tribe to which he 
belonged, all the nations had joined the English, and that, 
unless protected by the whites, “ They would have to 
run with the stream.” Capt. Arbuckle thought proper 
to detain the Cornstalk chief and his two companions as 
hostages for the good conduct of the tribe to which they 

240 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

belonged. They had not been long in this situation 
before a son of Cornstalk’s, concerned for the safety of 
his father, came to the opposite side of the river and 
hallooed ; his father, knowing his voice, answered him. 
He was brought over the river. The father and son 
mutually embraced each other with the greatest tender- 
ness. On the day following, two Indians who had con- 
cealed themselves in the weeds on the bank of the 
Kanawha, opposite the fort, killed a man of the name of 
Gilmore, as he was returning from hunting. As soon 
as the dead body was brought over the river there was a 
general cry among the men who were present, u Let us 
kill the Indians in the fort.” They immediately as- 
cended the bank of the riven, with Capt. Hall at their 
head, to execute their hasty resolution. On their way 
they were met by Capt. Stuart and Capt. Arbuckle, who 
endeavored to dissuade them from killing the Indian 
hostages, saying that they certainly had no concern in the 
murder of Gilmore ; but remonstrance was in vain. 
Pale as death with rage, they cocked their guns and 
threatened the captains with instant death, if they should 
attempt to hinder them from executing their purpose. 

When the murderers arrived at the house where the 
hostages were confined, Cornstalk rose up to meet them 
at the door, but instantly received seven bullets through 
his body; his son and his other two fellow hostages were 
instantly dispatched with bullets and tomahawks. Thus 
fell the Shawanee war chief. Cornstalk, who like Logan, 
his companion in arms, was conspicuous for intellectual 
talent, bravery and misfortune. 

The biography of Cornstalk, as far as it is now known, 
goes to show that he was no way deficient in those 
mental endowments which constitute human greatness. 
On the evening preceding the battle of Point Pleasant, 
he proposed going over the river to the camp of Gen. 
Lewis for the purpose of making peace. The majority 
in the council of warriors voted against the measure. 

W estern Virginia and Pennsylvania. 24 1 . 

“Well,” said Cornstalk, cc since you have resolved on 
fighting, you shall fight, although it is likely we shall 
have hard work to-morrow ; but if any man shall attempt 
to run away from the battle, I will kill him with my own 
hand,” and accordingly fulfilled his threat, with regard 
to one cowardly fellow. After the Indians had returned 
from the battle, Cornstalk called a council at the Chilli- 
cothe town, to consult what was to be done next. In 
this council he reminded the war chiefs of their folly in 
preventing him from making peace, before the fatal battle 
of Point Pleasant, and asked, “What shall we do now, 
the long-knives are coming upon us by two routes. 
Shall we turn out and fight them ?” All were silent. 
He then asked, “ Shall we kill all our squaws and children, 
and then fight until we shall be all killed ourselves ?” To 
this no reply was made. He then rose up and struck 
his tomahawk in the war post in the middle of the 
council house, saying, “Since you are not inclined to 
fight, I will go and make peace.” And accordingly did 
so. On the morning of the day of his death, a council 
was held in the fort at the point, in which he was pre- 
sent. During the sitting of the council, it is said that 
he seemed to have a presentiment of his approaching 
fate. In one of his speeches he remarked to the council : 
“ When I was young, every time I went to war, I thought 
it likely that I might return no more ; but I still lived, I 
am now in your hands, and you may kill me if you 
choose. I can die but once, and it is alike to me, 
whether I die now, or at another time.” When the 
men presented themselves before the door for the pur- 
pose of killing the Indians, Cornstalk’s son manifested 
signs of fear, on observing which, his father said : “ Don’t 
be afraid my son, the Great Spirit sent you here to die 
with me, and we must submit to his will. It is all for 
the best.” 

242 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 


Wappatomica Campaign. 

Under the command of Col. Angus M’Donald four 
hundred men were collected from the western part of 
Virginia by the order of the Earl of Dunmore, the then 
governor of Virginia. The place of rendezvous was 
Wheeling, some time in the month of June, 1774. They 
went down the river in boats and canoes to the mouth 
of Captina, from thence by the shortest route to the 
Wappatomica town, about sixteen miles below the pre- 
sent Coshocton. The pilots were Jonathan Zane, Tho- 
mas Nicholson and Tady Kelly. About six miles from 
the town the army were met by a party of Indians, to 
the number of forty or fifty, who gave a skirmish by the 
way of ambuscade in which two of our men were killed 
and eight or nine wounded. One Indian was killed and 
several wounded. It was ’supposed that several more 
of them were killed, but they were carried off. When 
the army came to the town, it was found evacuated ; the 
Indians had retreated to the opposite shore of the river, 
where they had formed an ambuscade, supposing the 
party would cross the river from the town. This was 
immediately discovered. The commanding officer then 
sent sentinels up and down the river, to give notice, in 
case the Indians should attempt to cross above or below 
the town. A private in company of Capt. Cresap, of 
the name of John Hargus, one of the sentinels below 
the town, displayed the skill of a backwoods sharpshooter ; 
seeing an Indian behind a blind across the river, raising 
up his head, at times, to look over the river, Hargus 
charged his rifle with a second ball and taking deliberate 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania * 243 

aim, passed both balls through the neck of the Indian. 
The Indians dragged off the body and buried it with the 
honors of war. It was found the next morning and 
scalped by Hargus. 

Soon after the town was taken, the Indians from the 
opposite shore sued for peace. The commander offered 
them peace on condition of their sending over their 
chiefs as hostages. Five of them came over the river 
and were put under guard as hostages. In the morning 
they were marched in front of the army over the river. 
When the party had reached the western bank of the 
Muskingum the Indians represented that they could not 
make peace without the presence of the chiefs of the 
other towns. On which one of the chiefs was released 
to bring in the others. He did not return in the ap- 
pointed time. Another chief was permitted to go on 
the same errand, who in like manner did not return. 
The party then moved up the river to the next town, 
which was about a mile above the first and on the oppo- 
site shore. Here we had a slight skirmish with the 
Indians, in which one of them was killed and one of our 
men wounded. It was then discovered that, during all 
the time spent in the negotiation, the Indians were em- 
ployed in removing their women and children, old people 
and effects, from the upper towns. The towns were 
burned and the corn cut up. The party then returned 
to the place from which they set out, bringing with them 
the three remaining chiefs who were sent to Williams- 
burg. They were released at the peace the succeeding 

The army were out of provisions before they left the 
towns and had to subsist on weeds, one ear of corn each 
day, with a very scanty supply of game. The corn was 
obtained at one of the Indian towns. 

244 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 


Gen. McIntosh’s Campaign. 

In the spring of the year 1778, government having sent 
a small force of regular troops under the command of 
Gen. McIntosh, for the defense of the western frontier, 
the general, with the regulars and militia from Fort Pitt, 
descended the Ohio about thirty miles and built Fort 
McIntosh on the site of the present Beavertown. The 
fort was made of strong stockades, furnished bastions 
and mounted with one six pounder. This station was 
well selected as a point for a small military force, always 
in readiness to pursue, or intercept, the war parties of 
Indians who frequently made incursions into the settle- 
ments on the opposite side of the river, in its imme- 
diate neighborhood. The fort was well garrisoned and 
supplied with provisions during the summer. 

Some time in the fall of the same year General 
McIntosh received an order from government to make 
a campaign against the Sandusky towns. This order he 
attempted to obey with one thousand men ; but owing 
to the delay in making necessary outfits for the expedi- 
tion, the officers, on reaching Tuscarawa, thought it 
best to halt at that place, build and garrison a fort, and 
delay the farther prosecution of the campaign until the 
next spring. Accordingly they erected Fort Laurens 
on the bank of the Tuscarawa. Some time after the 
completion of the fort, the general returned with the 
army to Fort Pitt, leaving Col. John Gibson, with a 
command of one hundred and fifty men, to protect the 
fort until spring. The Indians were soon acquainted 
with the existence of the fort, and soon convinced our 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 245 

people, by sad experience, of the bad policy of building 
and attempting to hold a fort so far in advance of our 
settlements and other forts. 

The first annoyance the garrison received from the 
Indians was some time in the month of January. In 
the night time they caught most of the horses belonging 
to the fort, and taking them off some distance into the 
woods, they took off their bells and formed an ambuscade 
by the side of a path, leading through the high grass of a 
prairie at a little distance from the fort. In the morning 
the Indians rattled the horse bells at the farther end of 
the line of the ambuscade. The plan succeeded; a 
fatigue of sixteen men went out for the horses and fell 
into the snare. Fourteen were killed on the spot, two 
were taken prisoners, one of whom was given up at the 
close of the war, the other was never afterwards heard of. 

Gen. Benjamin Biggs, then a captain in the fort, be- 
ing officer of the day, requested leave of the colonel to 
go out with the fatigue party which fell into the ambus- 
cade. “ No,” said the colonel, cc this fatigue party does 
not belong to a captain’s command. When I shall have 
occasion to employ one of that number I shall be thank- 
ful for your service, at present you must attend to your 
duty in the fort.” On what trivial circumstances do 
life and death sometimes depend ! 

In the evening of the day of the ambuscade, the 
whole Indian army, in full war dress and painted, marched 
in single file through a prairie in view of the fort, their 
number, as counted from one of the bastions, was 847. 
They then took up their encampment on an elevated 
piece of ground at a small distance from the fort, on the 
opposite side of the river. From this camp they fre- 
quently held conversations with the people of our garri- 
son. In these conversations, they seemed to deplore 
the long continuance of the war and hoped for peace ; 
but were much exasperated at the Americans for attempt- 
ing to penetrate so far into their country. This great 

246 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

body of Indians continued the investment of the fort, as 
long as they could obtain subsistence, which was about 
six weeks. 

An old Indian of the name of John Thompson, who 
was with the American army in the fort, frequently 
went out among the Indians during their stay at their 
encampment, with the mutual consent of both parties. 
A short time before the Indians left the place, they sent 
word to Col. Gibson by the old Indian, that they were 
desirous of peace, and that if he would send them a 
barrel of flour they would send in their proposals the 
next day ; but although the colonel complied with their 
request, they marched off without fulfilling their engage- 
ment. The commander, supposing the whole number 
of the Indians had gone off, gave permission to Col. 
Clark, of the Pennsylvania line, to escort the invalids, 
to the number of eleven or twelve, to Fort M’Intosh. 
The whole number of this detachment was fifteen. 
The wary Indians had left a party behind for the pur- 
pose of doing mischief. These attacked this party of 
invalids and their escort about two miles from the fort, 
and killed the whole of them with the exception of four, 
among whom was the captain, who ran back to the fort. 
On the same day a detachment went out from the fort, 
brought in the dead, and buried them with the honors of 
war, in front of the fort gate. In three or four days 
after this disaster, a relief of seven hundred men, under 
Gen. M’lntosh, arrived at the fort with a supply of 
provisions, a great part of which was lost by an unto- 
ward accident. When the relief had reached within 
about one hundred yards of the fort, the garrison gave 
them a salute of a general discharge of musketry, at the 
report of which the pack horses took fright, broke loose, 
and scattered the provisions in every direction through 
the woods, so that the greater part of it could never be 
recovered again. 

Among other transactions which took place about this 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 247 

time, was that of gathering up the remains of the fourteen 
men, who had fallen in the ambuscade during the winter, 
for interment, and which could not be done during the 
investment of the place by the Indians. They were 
found mostly devoured by the wolves. The fatigue 
party dug a pit large enough to contain the remains of 
all of them, and after depositing them in the pit, merely 
covering them with a little earth, with a view to have 
revenge on the wolves for devouring their companions, 
they covered the pit with slender sticks, rotten wood 
and bits of bark, not of sufficient strength to bear 
the weight of a wolf. On the top of this covering they 
placed a piece of meat, as bait for the wolves. The 
next morning seven of them were found in the pit. They 
were shot and the pit filled up. 

For about two weeks before the relief arrived, the 
garrison had been put on the short allowance of half a 
pound of sour flour and an equal weight of stinking meat 
for every two days. The greater part of the last week, 
they had nothing to subsist on but such roots as they 
could find in the woods and prairies and raw hides. Two 
men lost their lives by eating wild parsnip roots by mis- 
take. Four more nearly shared the same fate, but were 
saved by medical aid. 

On the evening of the arrival of the relief two day’s 
rations were issued to each man in the fort. These 
rations were intended as their allowance during their 
march to Fort McIntosh ; but many of the men, sup- 
posing them to have been back rations, eat up the whole 
of their allowance before the next morning. In conse- 
quence of this imprudence, in eating immoderately after 
such extreme starvation from the want of provisions, 
about forty of the men became faint and sick during the 
first day’s march. On the second day, however, the 
sufferers were met by a great number of their friends 
from the settlements to which they belonged, by whom 
they were amply supplied with provisions. 

248 Early Settlement and Indian TVars of 

Maj. Vernon, who succeeded Col. Gibson in the 
command of Fort Laurens, continued its possession until 
the next fall, when the garrison, after being like their 
predecessors reduced almost to starvation, evacuated the 

Thus ended the disastrous business of Fort Laurens, 
in which much fatigue and suffering were endured and 
many lives lost ; but without any beneficial result to the 


The Moravian Campaign, 

This ever memorable campaign took place in the 
month of March 1782. The weather, during the greater 
part of the month of February, had been uncommonly 
fine, so that the war parties from Sandusky visited the 
settlements and committed depredations earlier than usual. 
The family of a William Wallace, consisting of his wife 
and five or six children, were killed, and John Carpenter 
taken prisoner. These events took place in the latter 
part of February. The early period at which those fatal 
visitations of the Indians took place, led to the conclu- 
sion that the murderers were either Moravians or that 
the warriors had had their winter quarters at their towns, 
on the Muskingum In either case, the Moravians 
being in fault, the safety of the frontier settlements re- 
quired the destruction of their establishments at that 

Accordingly, between eighty and ninety men were 
hastily collected together for the fatal'enterprise. They 
rendezvoused and encamped the first night on the Mingo 
bottom, on the west side of the Ohio river. Each man 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 249 

furnished himself with his own arms, ammunition and 
provision. Many of them had horses. The second 
day’s march brought them within one mile of the middle 
Moravian town, where they encamped for the night. 
In the morning the men were divided into two equal 
parties, one of which was to cross the river about a 
mile above the town, their videttes having reported that 
there were Indians on both sides ‘of the river. The 
other party was divided into three divisions, one of which 
was to take a circuit in the woods, and reach the river, 
a little distance below the town, on the east side. An- 
other division was to fall into the middle of the town, 
and the third at its upper end. 

When the party designed to make the attack on the 
west side, had reached the river, they found no craft to 
take them over ; but something like a canoe was seen 
on the opposite bank. The river was high with some 
floating ice. A young man of the name of Sloughter 
swam the river and brought over, not a canoe, but a 
trough designed for holding sugar water. This trough 
could carry but two men at a time. In order to expe- 
dite their passage, a number of men stripped off their 
clothes, put them into the trough, together with their 
guns, and swam by its sides, holding its edges with their 
hands. When about sixteen had crossed the river, their 
two sentinels, who had been posted in advance, discovered 
an Indian whose name was Sh'abosh. One of them broke 
one of his arms, by a shot. A shot from the other sen- 
tinel killed him. These heroes then scalped and toma- 
hawked him. By this time, about sixteen men had got 
over the river, and supposing that the firing of the guns 
which killed Shabosh would lead to an instant discovery, 
they sent word to the party designed to attack the town 
on the east side of the river, to move on instantly ; 
which they did. 

In the meantime, the small party which had crossed 
the river, marched with all speed to the main town on 

250 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

the west side of the river. Here they found a large 
company of Indians gathering the corn, which they had 
left in their fields the preceding fall, when they removed 
to Sandusky. On the arrival of the men at the town, 
they professed peace and good will to the Moravians, and 
informed them that they had come to take them to Fort 
Pitt for their safety. The Indians surrendered, delivered 
up their arms and appeared highly delighted with the 
prospect of their removal, and began, with all speed, to 
prepare victuals for the white men, and for themselves, 
on their journey. A party of white men and Indians 
were immediately dispatched to Salem, a short distance 
from Gnadenhutten, where the Indians were gathering 
in their corn, to bring them into Gnadenhutten. The 
party soon arrived with the whole number of the Indians 
from Salem. 

In the meantime the Indians at Gnadenhutten were 
confined in two houses some distance apart, and placed 
under guards, and when those from Salem arrived they 
were divided, and placed in the same houses, with their 
brethren of Gnadenhutten. 

The prisoners being thus secured, a council of war 
was held to decide on their fate. The officers, unwil- 
ling to take on themselves the whole responsibility of 
the awful decision, agreed to refer the question to the 
whole number of the men. The men were accordingly 
drawn up in a line. The commandant of the party, 
Col. David Williamson, then put the question to them 
in form cc Whether the Moravian Indians should be 
taken prisoners to Pittsburg or put to death, and re- 
quested that all those who were in favor of saving their 
lives should step out of the line, and form a second 
rank.” On this sixteen, some say eighteen, stepped out 
of the rank, and formed themselves into a second 
line; but alas! This line of mercy was far too short 
for that of vengeance. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 251 

The fate of the Moravians was then decided on, and 
they were told to prepare for death. 

The prisoners, from the time they were placed in the 
guard house, foresaw their fate, and began their devotions 
of singing hymns, praying and exhorting each other 
to place a firm reliance in the mercy of the Saviour of 
men. When their fate was announced to them, these 
devoted people embraced, kissed, and bedewing each 
others faces and bosoms with their mutual tears, asked 
pardon of the brothers and sisters for any offense they 
might have given them through life. Thus, at peace 
with God, and each other, on being asked by those who 
were impatient for the slaughter, “ Whether they were 
ready to die ?” They answered, u That they had com- 
mended their souls to God, and were ready to die.” The 
particulars of this dreadful catastrophe are too horrid to 
relate. Suffice it to say, that in a few minutes these 
two slaughterhouses, as they were then called, exhibited 
in their ghastly interior the mangled, bleeding remains 
of these poor unfortunate people, of all ages and sexes, 
from the aged grey headed parents, down to the hepless 
infant at its mother’s breast, dishonored by the fatal 
wounds of the tomahawk, mallet, war club, spear and 
scalping knife. 

Thus; O! Brainard and Zeisberger ! Faithful mis- 
sionaries who devoted your whole lives to incessant toil 
and sufferings in your endeavors to make the wilderness 
of paganism “ rejoice and blossom as the rose” in faith and 
piety to God ! thus perished your faithful followers, by 
the murderous hands of the more than savage white men. 
Faithful pastors! your spirits are again associated with 
those of your flock, where the wicked cease from troub- 
ling and the weary are at rest ! ” 

The number of the slain, as reported by the men on 
their return from the campaign, was eighty-seven or 
eighty-nine ; but the Moravian account, which no 
doubt is correct, makes, the number ninety-six. Of 


252 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

these, sixty-two were grown persons, one-third of whom 
were women, the remaining thirty-four were children. 
All these, with a few exceptions, were killed in the house. 
Shabosh was killed about a mile above the town, on the 
west side of the river. His wife was killed while en- 
deavoring to conceal herself in a bunch of bushes at the 
water’s edge, on the arrival of the men at the town, on 
the east side of the river. A man at the same time was 
shot in a canoe, while attempting to make his escape 
from the east to the west side of the river. Two others 
were shot, while attempting to escape by swimming the 

A few men, who were supposed to be warriors, were 
tied and taken some distance from the slaughter houses, 
to be tomahawked. One of these had like to have made 
his escape at the expense of the life of one of the mur- 
derers. The rope by which he was led was of some 
length. The two men who were conducting him to 
death, fell into a dispute who should have the scalp. 
The Indian, while marching with a kind of dancing 
motion and singing his death song, drew a knife from a 
scabbard suspended round his neck, cut the rope, and 
aimed at stabbing one of the men ; but the jerk of the 
rope occasioned the men to look round. The Indian 
then fled towards the woods, and while running, dex- 
trously untied the rope from his wrists. He was in- 
stantly pursued by several men who fired at him, one of 
whom wounded him in the arm. After a few shots the 
firing was forbidden, for fear the men might kill each 
other as they were running in a straggling manner. A 
young man then mounted on a horse and pursued the 
Indian, who, when overtaken, struck the horse on the 
head with a club. The rider sprang from the horse, on 
which the Indian seized, threw him down and drew his 
tomahawk to kill him. At that instant, one of the party 
got near enough to shoot the Indian, which he did merely 
in time to save the life of his companion. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania, 253 

Of the whole number of the Indians at Gnadenhutten 
and Salem, only two made their escape. These were 
two lads of fourteen or fifteen years of age. One of 
them, after being knocked down and scalped, but not 
killed, had the presence of mind to lie still among the 
dead, until the dusk of the evening, when he silently 
crept out of the door and made his escape. The other 
lad slipped through a trap door into the cellar of one of 
the slaughter houses, from which he made his escape 
through a small cellar window. These two lads were 
fortunate in getting together in the woods the same night. 
Another lad, somewhat larger, in attempting to pass 
through the same window, it is supposed stuck fast and 
was burnt ajive. 

The Indians of the upper town were apprised of their 
danger in due time to make their escape, two of them 
having found the mangled body of Shabosh. Providen- 
tially they all made their escape, although they might 
have been easily overtaken by the party if they had un- 
dertaken their pursuit. A division of the men were 
ordered to go to Shonbrun ; but finding the place deserted, 
they took what plunder they could find, and returned to 
their companions without looking farther after the Indians. 
After the work of death was finished and the plunder 
secured, all the buildings in the town were set on fire 
and the slaughter houses among the rest. The dead 
bodies were thus consumed to ashes. A rapid retreat 
to the settlements finished the campaign. 

Such were the principal events of this horrid affair. 
A massacre of innocent, unoffending people, dishonorable 
not only to our country, but human nature itself. 

Before making any remarks on the causes which led 
to these disgraceful events under consideration, it may be 
proper to notice the manner in which the enterprise was 
conducted, as furnishing evidence that the murder of 
the Moravians was intended, and that no resistance from 
them was anticipated. In a military point of view the 

254 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Moravian campaign was conducted in the very worst 
manner imaginable. It was undertaken at so early a 
period that a deep fall of snow, a thing very common in 
the early part of March in former times, would have de- 
feated the enterprise. When the army came to the 
river, instead of constructing a sufficient number of rafts 
to transport the requisite number over the river at once, 
they commenced crossing in a sugar trough, which could 
carry only two men at a time, thus jeopardizing the 
safety of those who first went over. The two sentinels 
who shot Shabosh, according to military law ought to 
have been executed on the spot for having fired without 
orders, thereby giving premature notice of the approach 
of our men. The truth is, nearly the whole number 
of the army ought to have been transported over the 
river, for after all their forces employed, and precautions 
used in getting possession of the town on the east side 
of the river, there were but one man and one squaw 
found in it, all the others being on the other side. This 
circumstance they ought to have known beforehand, and 
acted accordingly. The Indians on the west side of the 
river amounted to about eighty, and among them above 
thirty men, besides a number of young lads, all possessed 
of guns and well accustomed to the use of them ; yet 
this la ge number was attacked by about sixteen men. 
If they had really anticipated resistance they deserved 
to lose their lives for their rashness. It is presumable, 
however, that having full confidence in the pacific prin- 
ciples of the Moravians, they did not expect resistance ; 
but calculated on blood and plunder without having a 
shot fired at them. If this was really the case, the author 
leaves it to justice to find, if it can, a name for the 

One can hardly help reflecting with regret that these 
Moravians, did not for the moment, lay aside their pacific 
principles and do themselves justice. With a mere show 
of defense, or at most a few shots, they might have cap- 

W estern Virginia and Pennsylvania . 255 

tured and disarmed these few men, and held them as 
hostages for the safety of their people and property, until 
they could have removed them out of their way. This 
they might have done on the easiest terms, as the re- 
mainder of the army could not have crossed the river, 
without their permission, as there was but one canoe at 
the place, and the river too high to be forded. But alas ! 
These truly Christian people suffered themselves to be 
betrayed by hypocritical professions of friendship, until 
u they were led as sheep to the slaughter. ” Over this 
horrid deed, humanity must shed tears of commiseration, 
as long as the record of it shall remain. 

Let not the reader suppose that I have presented him 
with a mere imaginary possibility of defense on the part 
of the Moravians. This defense would have been an 
easy task. Our people did not go on that campaign 
with a view of fighting. There may have been some 
brave men among them ; but they were far from being 
all such. For my part, I cannot suppose for a moment 
that any white man who can harbor a thought of using 
his arms for the killing of women and children, in any 
case, can be a brave man. No ! he is a murderer. 

The history of the Moravian settlements on the Musk- 
ingum and the peculiar circumstances of their inhabitants 
during the revolutionary contest between Great Britain 
and America deserve a place here. 

In the year 1772, the Moravian villages were com- 
menced by emigrations from Friedenhutten on the Big 
Beaver and from Wyalusingand Sheshequon on the Sus- 
quehanna. In a short time they rose to considerable 
extent and prosperity, containing upwards of four hun- 
dred people. During the summer of Dunmore’s war, 
they were much annoyed by war parties of the Indians, 
and disturbed by perpetual rumors of the ill intentions of 
the white people of the frontier settlements towards 
them ; yet their labors, schools and religious exercise, 
went on without interruption. 

2?6 Early Settlement and Indian EEars of 

In the revolutionary war, which began in 1775, the 
situation of the Moravian settlements was truly deplora- 
ble. The English had associated with their own means 
of warfare against the Americans the “ scalping knife 
and tomahawk” of the merciless Indians. These allies 
of England committed the most horrid depredations 
along the whole extent of our defenseless frontier. From 
early in the spring until late in the fall, the early settlers 
of the western parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania had to 
submit to the severest hardships and privations. Cooped 
up in little stockade forts, they worked their little fields 
in parties under arms, guarded by sentinels, and were 
doomed from day to-day to witness, or hear reports, of 
the murders or captivity of their people, the burning of 
their houses and the plunder of their property. 

The war with the English fleets and armies, on the 
other side of the mountains, was of such a character as 
to engage the whole attention and resources of our go- 
vernment, so that, poor as the first settlers of this county 
were, they had to bear almost the whole burden of the 
war during the revolutionary contest. They chose their 
own officers, furnished their own means and conducted 
the war in their own way. Thus circumstanced, u they 
became a law unto themselves,” and on certain occa- 
sions perpetrated acts which government was compelled 
to disapprove. This lawless temper of our people was 
never fully dissipated until the conclusion of the whiskey 
rebellion in 1794. 

The Moravian villages were situated between the 
settlements of the whites and the town of the warriors, 
about sixty miles from the former, and not much farther 
from the latter. On this account they were denomi- 
nated “ the half way houses of the warriors.” Thus 
placed between two rival powers engaged in furious war- 
fare, the preservation of their neutrality was no easy 
task, perhaps impossible. If it requires the same phy- 
sical force to preserve a neutral station among belligerent 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 257 

nations, that it does to prosecute a war, as is unques- 
tionably the case, this pacific people had no chance for 
the perservation of theirs. The very goodness of their 
hearts, their aversion to the shedding of human blood, 
brought them into difficulties with both parties. When 
they sent' their runners to Fort Pitt to inform us of the 
approach of the war parties, or received, fed, secreted 
and sent home prisoners who had made their escape from 
the savages, they made breaches of their neutrality as to 
the belligerent Indians. Their furnishing the warriors 
with a resting place and provisions was contrary to their 
neutral engagements to us; but their local situation 
rendered those accommodations to the warriors una- 
voidable on their part ; as the warriors possessed both 
the will and the means to compel them to give them 
whatever they wanted from them. 

The peaceable Indians first fell under suspicion with 
the Indian warriors and the English commandant at 
Detroit, to whom it was reported that their teachers 
were in close confederacy with the American congress, 
for preventing not only their own people, but also the 
Delawares and some other nations, from associating their 
arms with those of the British, for carrying on the war 
against the American colonies. The frequent failures 
of the war expeditions of the Indians was attributed to 
the Moravians, who often sent runners to Fort Pitt to 
give notice of their approach. This charge against them 
was certainly not without foundation. In the spring of 
the year 1781 the war chief of the Delawares fully ap- 
prised the missionaries and their followers of their danger 
both from the whites and Indians, and requested them 
to remove to a place of safety from both. This request 
was not complied with. The almost prophetic predic- 
tions of this chief were literally fulfilled. 

In the fall of the year 1781, the settlements of the 
Moravians were broken up by upwards of three hundred 
warriors, the missionaries taken prisoners, after being 

258 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

robbed of almost everything. The Indians were left to 
shift for themselves in the barren plains of Sandusky, 
where most of their horses and cattle perished from 
famine, during the winter. The missionaries were taken 
prisoners to Detroit ; but after an examination by the 
governor permitted to return to their beloved people 
again. In the latter part of February, a party of about 
one hundred and fifty of the Moravian Indians returned 
to their deserted villages on the Muskingum, to procure 
corn to keep their families and cattle from starving. 
These, to the amount of ninety-six, fell into the hands 
of Williamson and his party and were murdered. 

The causes which led to the murder of the Moravians 
are now to be detailed. 

The pressure of the Indian war along the whole of 
the western frontier, for several years preceding the event 
under consideration, had been dreadfully severe. From 
early in the spring, until the commencement of winter, 
from day to day, murders were committed in every di- 
rection by the Indians. The people lived in forts which 
were in the highest degree uncomfortable. The men 
were harrassed continually with the duties of going on 
scouts and campaigns. There was scarcely a family of 
the first settlers who did not, at some time or other, 
lose more or less of their number by the merciless 
Indians. Their cattle were killed, their cabins burned, 
and their horses carried off. These losses were severely 
felt by a people so poor as we were, at that time. Thus 
circumstanced our people were exasperated to madness 
by the extent and severity of the war. The unavailing 
endeavors of the American congress to prevent the 
Indians from taking up the hatchet against either side in 
the revolutionary contest contributed much to increase 
the general indignation against them, at the same time 
these pacific endeavors of our government divided the 
Indians amongst themselves, on the question of war or 
peace with the whites. The Moravians, part of the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 259 

Delawares, and some others, faithfully endeavored to 
preserve peace ; but in vain. The Indian maxim was 
cc He that is not for us, is against us. ” Hence the 
Moravian missionaries and their followers were several 
times on the point of being murdered by the warriors. 
This would have been done had it not been for the pru- 
dent conduct of some of the war chiefs. 

On the other hand, the local situation of the Moravian 
villages excited the jealousy of the white people. If 
they took no direct agency in the war yet they were, as 
they were then called, u half way houses ” between us 
and the warriors, at which the latter could stop, rest, 
refresh themselves and traffic off their plunder. Whether 
these aids thus given to our enemies were contrary to the 
laws of neutrality between belligerents is a question which 
I willingly leave to the decision of civilians. On the 
part of the Moravians they were unavoidable. If they 
did not give or sell provisions to the warriors, they would 
take them by force. The fault was in their situation, 
not in themselves. 

The longer the war continued, the more our people 
complained of the situation of these Moravian villages. 
It was said that it was owing to their being so near us 
that the warriors commenced their depredation so early 
in the spring, and continued them until so late in the fall. 

In the latter end of the year 1781 the militia of the 
frontier came to a determination to break up the Mora- 
vian villages on the Muskingum. For this purpose a 
detachment of our men went out under the command 
of Col. David Williamson, 1 for the purpose of inducing 
the Indians with their teachers to move farther off, or 
bring them prisoners to Fort Pitt. When they arrived 
at the villages they found but few Indians, the greater 

1 The Rev. John Heckewelder, the historian of the Moravians, states 
that this campaign in the fall of 1781 was commanded by Capt. Biggs. 
This was not the case, it was commanded by Col. David Williamson, the 
same who commanded the fatal campaign the succeeding spring. 

260 Early Settlement and Indian W ars of 

number of them having removed to Sandusky. These 
few were well treated, taken to Fort Pitt and delivered 
to the commandant of that station, who after a short 
detention, sent them home again. This procedure 
gave great offense to the people of the country, who 
thought that the Indians ought to have been killed. Col. 
Williamson who, before this little campaign, had been a 
very popular man, on account of his activity and bravery 
in war, now became the subject of severe animadversions 
on account of his lenity to the Moravian Indians. In 
justice to the memory of Col. Williamson I have to say 
that, although at that time very young, I was personally 
acquainted with him, and from my recollection of his 
conversation, I saw with confidence that he was a brave 
man, but not cruel. He would meet an enemy in battle, 
and fight like a soldier ; but not murder a prisoner. Had 
he possessed the authority of a superior officer in a reg- 
ular army, I do not believe that a single Moravian Indian 
would have lost his life ; but he possessed no such 
authority. He was only a militia officer, who could 
advise, but not command. His only fault was that of 
too easy a compliance with popular opinion and popular 
prejudice. On this account his memory has been loaded 
with unmerited reproach. 

Several reports unfavorable to the Moravians had been 
in circulation for some time before the campaign against 
them. One was that the night after they were liberated 
at Fort Pitt, they crossed the river and killed or made 
prisoners of a family of the name of Monteur. A family 
on Buffalo creek had been mostly killed in the summer 
or fall of 1781, and it was said by one of them who, 
after being made prisoner, made his escape, that the 
leader of the party of Indians who did the mischief was 
a Moravian. These, with other reports of similar im- 
port, served as a pretext for their destruction, although 
no doubt they were utterly false. 

Should it be asked, what sort of people composed the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 261 

band of murderers of these unfortunate people, I an- 
swer. They were not miscreants or vagabonds, many of 
them were men of the first standing in the country. 
Many of them were men who had recently lost relations 
by the hand of the savages, several of the latter class 
found articles which had been plundered from their own 
houses, or those of their relations, in the houses of the 
Moravians. One man, it is said, found the clothes of 
his wife and children who had been murdered by the 
Indians but a few days before. They were still bloody ; 
yet there was no unequivocal evidence that these people 
had any direct agency in the war. Whatever of our 
property was found with them, had been left by the war- 
riors in exchange for the provisions which they took 
from them. When attacked by our people, although 
they might have defended themselves, they did not. 
They never fired a single shot. They were prisoners 
and had been promised protection. Every dictate of 
justice and humanity required that their lives should be 
spared. The complaint of their villages being u half 
way houses for the warriors ” was at an end, as they had 
been removed to Sandusky the fall before. It was there- 
fore an atrocious and unqualified murder. But by whom 
committed ? By a majority of the campaign ? For the 
honor of my country I hope I may safely answer this 
question in the negative. It was one of those convul- 
sions of the moral state of society in which the voice of 
the justice and humanity of a majority is silenced by the 
clamor and violence of a lawless minority. Very few of 
our men imbrued their hands in the blood of the Mora- 
vians. Even those who had not voted for saving their 
lives, retired from the scene of slaughter with horror and 
disgust. Why then did they not give their votes in their 
favor ? The fear of public indignation restrained them 
from doing so. They thought well ; but had not hero- 
ism enough to express their opinion. Those who did 
so, deserve honorable mention for their intrepidity. So 

262 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

far as it may hereafter be in my power, this honor shall 
be done them. While the names of the murderers shall 
not stain the pages of history, from my pen at least. 


The Indian Summer. 

As connected with the history of the Indian wars of 
the western country it may not be amiss to give an ex- 
planation of the term Indian summer . This expres- 
sion, like many others, has continued in general use 
notwithstanding its original import has been forgotten. 
A backwoodsman seldom hears this expression without 
feeling a chill of horror, because it brings to his mind 
the painful recollection of its original application. Such 
is the force of the faculty of association in human nature. 

The reader must here be reminded that, during the 
long continued Indian wars sustained by the first settlers 
of the western country, they enjoyed no peace excepting 
in the winter season, when, owing to the severity of the 
weather, the Indians were unable to make their excur- 
sions into the settlements. The onset of winter was 
therefore hailed as a jubilee by the early inhabitants of 
the country who throughout the spring, and the early 
part of the fall, had been cooped up in their little uncom- 
fortable forts, and subjected to all the distresses of the 
Indian war. At the approach of winter, therefore, all 
the farmers, excepting the owner of the fort, removed to 
their cabins on their farms, with the joyful feelings of a 
tenant of a prison on recovering his release from confine- 
ment. All was bustle and hilarity, in preparing for 
winter, by gathering in the corn, digging potatoes, fat- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 263 

tening hogs, and repairing the cabins. To our fore- 
fathers, the gloomy months of winter were more pleasant 
than the zephyrs of spring and the flowers of May. 

It however sometimes happened that after the apparent 
onset of winter, the weather became warm, the smoky 
time commenced and lasted for a considerable number 
of days. This was the Indian summer, because it af- 
forded the Indians another opportunity of visiting the 
settlements with their destructive warfare. The melting 
of the snow saddened every countenance and the gene- 
ral warmth of the sun chilled every heart with horror. 
The apprehension of another visit from the Indians, and 
of being driven back to the detested fort, was painful in 
the highest degree and the distressing apprehension was 
frequently realized. 

Toward the latter part of February we commonly had 
a fine spell of open warm weather, during which the 
snow melted away. This was denominated the Pawwaw- 
ing days , from the supposition that the Indians were then 
holding their war councils, for planning off their spring 
campaigns into the settlements. Sad experience taught 
us that in this conjecture, we were not often mistaken. 

Sometimes it happened that the Indians ventured to 
make their excursions too late in the fall, or too early 
in the spring for their own convenience. 

A man of the name of John Carpenter was taken 
early in the month of March, in the neighborhood of 
this place. There had been several warm days, but 
the night preceding his capture there was a heavy fall of 
snow. His two horses, which they took with him, 
nearly perished in swimming the Ohio. The Indians, 
as well as himself, suffered severely with the cold before 
they reached the Moravian towns on the Muskingum. 
In the morning after the first day’s journey beyond the 
Moravian towns, the Indians sent out Carpenter to bring 
in the horses which had been turned out in the evening, 
after being hobbled. The horses had made a circuit 

2 3 

264 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

and fallen into the trail by which they came the preced- 
ing day, and were making their way homeward. When 
he overtook the horses and had taken off their fetters, 
as he said, he had to make a most awful decision. He 
had a chance and barely a chance, to make his escape, 
with a certainty of death should he attempt it without 
success; on the other hand the horrible prospect of 
being tortured to death by fire presented itself as he was the 
first prisoner taken that spring, of course the general cus- 
tom of the Indians, of burning the first prisoner every 
spring, doomed him to the flames. After spending a few 
minutes in making his decision he resolved on attempt- 
ing an escape, and effected it by way of Forts Laurens, 
M’Intosh, and Pittsburg. If I recollect rightly, he brought 
both his horses home with him. 

This happened in the year 1782. The capture of 
Mr. Carpenter and the murder of two families about the 
same time, that is to say, in the two or three first days 
of March, contributed materially to the Moravian cam- 
paign, and the murder of that unfortunate people. 


Crawford’s Campaign. 

This, in one point of view at least, is to be considered 
as a second Moravian campaign, as one of its objects was 
that of finishing the work of murder and plunder with 
the Christian Indians at their new establishment on the 
Sandusky. The next object was that of destroying the 
Wyandot towns on the same river. It was the resolu- 
tion of all those concerned in this expedition not to 
spare the life of any Indians that might fall into their 
hands, whether friends or foes. It will be seen in the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 265 

sequel that the result of this campaign was widely dif- 
ferent from that of the Moravian campaign the preced- 
ing March. 

It would' seem that the long continuance of the In- 
dian war had debased a considerable portion of our popu- 
lation to the savage state of our nature. Having lost 
so many relatives by the Indians, and witnessed their 
horrid murders and other depredations on so extensive a 
scale, they became subjects of that indiscriminating thirst 
for revenge which is such a prominent feature in the 
savage character, and having had a taste of blood and 
plunder, without risk or loss on their part, they resolved 
to go on, and kill every Indian they could find, whether 
friend or foe. 

Preparations for this campaign commenced soon after 
the return of the Moravian campaign in the month of 
March, and as it was intended to make what was called 
at that time a dash , that is an enterprise conducted 
with secrecy and dispatch, the men were all mounted 
on the best horses they could procure. They furnished 
themselves with all their outfits, except some ammuni- 
tion which was furnished by the lieutenant colonel of 
Washington county. 

On the 25th of May, 1782,480 men mustered at the 
old Mingo towns, on the western side of the Ohio river. 
They were all volunteers from the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the Ohio, with the exception of one company 
from Ten Mile in Washington county. Here an elec- 
tion was held for the office of commander-in-chief for 
the expedition. The candidates were Col. Williamson 
and Col. Crawford. The latter was the successful 
candidate. When notified of his appointment, it is said 
that he accepted it with apparent reluctance. 

The army marched along Williamson's trail , as it 
was then called, until they arrived at the upper Moravian 
town, in the fields belonging to which there was still 
plenty of corn on the stalks with which their horses 

266 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

were plentifully fed, during the night of their encamp- 
ment there. 

Shortly after the army halted at this place, two Indians 
were discovered by three men, who had walked some 
distance out of the camp. Three shots were fired at one 
of them, but without hurting him. As soon as the news 
of the discovery of Indians had reached the camp, more 
than one-half of the men rushed out, without command, 
and in the most tumultuous manner, to see what happened. 
From that time, Col. Crawford felt a presentiment of 
the defeat which followed. 

The truth is, that notwithstanding the secrecy and 
dispatch of the enterprise, the Indians were beforehand 
with our people. They saw the rendezvous on the 
Mingo bottom, knew their number and destination. 
They visited every encampment immediately on their 
leaving it, and saw from their writing on the trees and 
scraps of paper that u No quarter was to be given to any 
Indian, whether man, woman or child.” Nothing ma- 
terial happened during their march until the sixth of 
June, when their guides conducted them to the site of 
the Moravian villages, on one of the upper branches of 
the Sandusky river ; but here, instead of meeting with 
Indians and plunder, they met with nothing but vestiges 
of desolation. The place was covered with high grass 
and the remains of a few huts alone announced that the 
place had been the residence of the people whom they 
intended to destroy ; but who had moved off to Scioto 
some time before. 

In this dilemma what was to be done ? The officers 
held a council in which it was determined to march one 
day longer in the direction of upper Sandusky, and if 
they should not reach the town in the course of the day, 
to make a retreat with all speed. 

The march was commenced the next morning, through 
the plains of Sandusky and continued until about two 
o’clock, when the advance guard was attacked and driven 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 267 

in by the Indians, who were discovered in large numbers, 
in the high grass, with which the place was covered. 
The Indian army was at that moment about entering a 
piece of woods, almost entirely surrounded by plains ; 
but in this they were disappointed by a rapid movement 
of our men. The battle then commenced by a heavy 
fire from both sides. From a partial possession of the 
woods which they had gained at the onset of the battle, 
the Indians were soon dislodged. They then attempted 
to gain a small skirt of wood on our right flank, but were 
prevented from doing so by the vigilance and bravery of 
Maj. Leet, who commanded the right wing of the army 
at that time. The firing was incessant and heavy until 
dark, when it ceased. Both armies lay on their arms 
during the night. Both adopted the policy of kindling 
large fires along the line of battle, and then retiring some 
distance in the rear of them, to prevent being surprised 
by a night attack. During the conflict of the afternoon 
three of our men were killed and several wounded. 

In the morning our army occupied the battle ground 
of the preceding day. The Indians made no attack 
during the day, until late in the evening, but were seen 
in large bodies traversing the plains in various directions. 
Some of them appeared to be employed in carrying off 
their dead and wounded. 

In the morning of this day a council of the officers 
was held, in which a retreat was resolved on as the only 
means of saving their army, the Indians appearing to 
increase in number every hour. During the sitting of 
this council, Col. Williamson proposed taking one hund- 
red and fifty volunteers, and marching directly to upper 
Sandusky. This proposition the commander-in-chief 
prudently rejected, saying : 44 I have no doubt but that 
you would reach the town, but you would find nothing 
there but empty wigwams, and having taken off so many 
of our best men, you would leave the rest to be destroyed 
by the host of Indians with which we are now surrounded, 

268 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

and on your return they would attack and destroy you. 
They care nothing about defending their towns. They 
are worth nothing. Their squaws, children and pro- 
perty, have been removed from them long since. Our 
lives and baggage are what they want, and if they can 
get us divided they will soon have them. We must 
stay together and do the best we can. ” 

During this day, preparations were made for a retreat 
by burying the dead, burning fires over their graves to 
prevent discovery, and preparing means for carrying off 
the wounded. The retreat was to commence in the 
course of the night. The Indians, however, became 
apprised of the intended retreat, and about sundown at- 
tacked the army with great force and fury, in every 
direction, excepting that of Sandusky. 

When the line of march was formed by the command- 
er-in-chief and the retreat commenced, our guides pru- 
dently took the direction of, Sandusky, which afforded 
the only opening in the Indian lines, and the only chance 
of concealment. After marching about a mile in this 
direction, the army wheeled about to the left, and by a 
circuitous route gained the trail by which they came, 
before day. They continued their march the whole of 
the next day, with a trifling annoyance from the Indians, 
who fired a few distant shots at the rear guard, which 
slightly wounded two or three men. At night they 
built fires, took their suppers, secured the horses and re- 
signed themselves to repose, without placing a single 
sentinel or vidette for safety. In this careless situation, 
they might have been surprised and cut off by the Indians 
who, however, gave them no disturbance during the 
night, nor afterwards during the whole of their retreat. 
The number of those composing the main body in the 
retreat was supposed to be about three hundred. 

Most unfortunately, when a retreat was resolved on, 
a difference of opinion prevailed concerning the best 
mode of effecting it. The greater number thought best 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 269 

to keep in a body and retreat as fast as possible, while a 
considerable number thought it safest to break off in 
small parties, and make their way home in different di- 
rections, avoiding the route by which they came. Ac- 
cordingly many attempted to do so, calculating that the 
whole body of the Indians would follow the main army. 
In this they were entirely mistaken. The Indians paid 
but little attention to the main body of the army, but 
pursued the small parties with such activity, that but 
very few of those who composed them made their escape. 

The only successful party who were detached from 
the main army was that of about forty men under the 
command of a Captain Williamson, who, pretty late in 
the night of the retreat, broke through the Indian lines 
under a severe fire, and with some loss, and overtook 
the main army on the morning of the second day of the 

For several days after the retreat of our army, the 
Indians were spread over the whole country, from San- 
dusky to the Muskingum, in pursuit of the straggling 
parties, most of whom were killed on the spot. They 
even pursued them almost to the banks of the Ohio. 
A man of the name of Mills was killed two miles to the 
eastward of the site of St. Clairsville, in the direction of 
Wheeling from that place. The number killed in this 
way, must have been very great, the precise amount, 
however, was never fairly ascertained. 

At the commencement of the retreat Col. Crawford 
placed himself at the head of the army and continued 
there until they had gone about a quarter of a mile, 
when, missing his son John Crawford, his son-in-law 
Major Harrison, and his nephews Major Rose and 
William Crawford, he halted and called for them as the 
line passed, but without finding them. After the army 
had passed him, he was unable to overtake it, owing to 
the weariness of his horse. Falling in company with 
Doctor Knight and two others, they traveled all the 

270 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

night, first north, and then to the east, to avoid the pur- 
suit of the Indians. They directed their course during 
the night by the north star. On the next day they fell 
in with Captain John Biggs and Lieutenant Ashley, the 
latter of whom was severely wounded. There were two 
others in company with Biggs and Ashley. They en- 
camped together the succeeding night. On the next 
day, while on their march, they were attacked by a party 
of Indians who made Colonel Crawford and Doctor 
Knight prisoners. The other four made their escape, 
but Captain Biggs and Lieutenant Ashley were killed 
the next day. 

Colonel Crawford and Dr. Knight were immediately 
taken to an Indian encampment at a short distance 
from the place where they were captured. Here they 
found nine fellow prisoners and seventeen Indians. On 
the next day they were marched to the old Wyandot 
town,. and on the next morning were paraded to set off, 
as they were told, to go to the new town. But alas ! a 
very different destination awaited these captives. Nine 
of the prisoners were marched off some distance before 
the colonel and the doctor, who were conducted by Pipe 
and Wingemond, two Delaware chiefs. Four of the 
prisoners were tomahawked and scalped on the way, at 
different places. 

Preparations had been made for the execution of 
Colonel Crawford, by setting a post about fifteen feet 
high, in the ground, and making a large fire of hickory 
poles about six yards from it. About half a mile from 
the place of execution, the remaining five of the nine 
prisoners, were tomahawked and scalped by a number of 
squaws and boys. When arrived at the fire, the colonel 
was stripped and ordered to sit down. He was then se- 
verely beaten with sticks and afterwards tied to the post 
by a rope of such length as to allow him to walk two or 
three times round it, and then back again. This done, 
they began the torture by discharging a great number of 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 271 

loads of powder upon him, from head to foot, after which 
they began to apply the burning ends of the hickory 
poles, the squaws, in the meantime, throwing coals and hot 
ashes on his body, so that in a little time he had nothing 
but coals to walk on. In the midst of his sufferings 
he begged of the noted Simon Girty to take pity on him 
and shoot him. Girty tauntingly answered: “ You see 
I have no gun, I cannot shoot,” and laughed heartily at 
the scene. After suffering about three hours he became 
faint and fell down on his face ; an Indian then scalped 
him, and an old squaw threw a quantity of burning coals 
on the place from which the scalp was taken. After 
this he rose and walked round the post a little, but did 
not live much longer. After he expired his body was 
thrown into the fire and consumed to ashes. Colonel 
Crawford’s son and son-in-law were executed at the 
Shawnees’ town. 

Dr. Knight was doomed to be burned at a town about 
forty miles distant from Sandusky, and committed to the 
care of a young Indian to be taken there. The first 
day they traveled about twenty-five miles, and encamped 
for the night. In the morning the gnats being very trou- 
blesome, the doctor requested the Indian to untie him, 
that he might help him to make a fire to keep them off. 
With this request, the Indian complied. While the 
Indian was on his knees and elbows, blowing the fire, 
the doctor caught up a piece of a tent pt>le which had 
been burned in two, about eighteen inches long, with 
which he struck the Indian on the head with all his 
might, so as to knock him forward into the fre. The 
stick however broke, so that the Indian, although se- 
verely hurt, was not killed, but immediately sprang up ; 
on this the doctor caught up the Indian’s gun to shoot 
him, but drew back the cock with so much violence that 
he broke the main spring. The Indian ran off with an 
hideous yelling. Dr. Knight then made the best of his 
way home, which he reached in twenty-one days, almost 

272 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

famished to death. The gun being of no use, after 
carrying it a day or two, he left it behind. On his journey 
he subsisted on roots, a few young birds, and berries. 

A Mr. Slover, who had been a prisoner among the In- 
dians and was one of the pilots of the army, was also taken 
prisoner, to one of the Shawanee towns on the Scioto. 
After being there a few days, and as he thought, in favor 
of the Indians, a council of the chiefs was held in which 
it was resolved that Slover should be burned. The fires 
were kindled and he was blackened and tied to a stake, 
in an uncovered end of the council house. Just as they 
were about commencing the torture, there came on 
suddenly, a heavy thunder gust with a great fall of rain 
which put out the fires. After the rain was over the 
Indians concluded that it was then too late to commence 
and finish the torture that day, and therefore postponed 
it till the next day. Slover was then loosed from the 
stake, conducted to an empty house, to a log of which 
he was fastened with a buffalo tug fastened round his neck, 
his arms were pinioned behind him with a cord. Until 
late in the night the Indians sat up smoking and talking. 
They frequently asked Slover how he would like to eat 
fire the next day. At length one of them laid down and 
went to sleep, the other continued smoking and talking 
with Slover. Sometime after midnight, he also laid down 
and went to sleep. Slover then resolved to make an 
effort to get loose if possible, and soon extricated one of 
his hands from the cord and then fell to work with the 
tug round his neck ; but without effect. He had not 
been long engaged in these efforts, before one of the In- 
dians got up and smoked his pipe awhile. During this 
time Slover kept very still for fear of an examination. 
The Indian lying down, the prisoner renewed his efforts, 
but for some time without effect. He resigned himself 
to his fate. After resting for awhile, he resolved to 
make another and a last effort, and as he related, put his 
hand to the tug, and without difficulty slipped it over his 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 273 

head. The day was just then breaking. He sprang 
over a fence into a cornfield, but had proceeded but a 
little distance in the field, before he came across a squaw 
and several children, lying asleep under a mulberry tree. 
He then changed his course for part of the commons of 
the town, on which he saw some horses feeding. Passing 
over the fence from the field, he found a piece of an old 
quilt. This he took with him. It was the only covering 
he had. He then untied the cord from the other arm, 
which by this time was very much swelled. Having 
selected, as he thought, the best horse on the commons, 
he tied the cord to his lower jaw, mounted him and rode 
off at full speed. The horse gave out about ten o’clock, 
so that he had to leave him. He then traveled on foot 
with a stick in one hand, with which he put up the weeds 
behind him, for fear of being tracked by the Indians. 
In the other hand he carried a bunch of bushes to brush 
the gnats and mosquitoes from his naked body. Being 
perfectly acquainted with the route he reached the river 
Ohio in a short time, almost famished with hunger and 
exhausted with fatigue. 

Thus ended this disastrous campaign. It was the last 
one which took place in this section of the country during 
the revolutionary contest of the Americans with the 
mother country. It was undertaken with the very worst 
of views, those of murder and plunder. It was conducted 
without sufficient means to encounter, with any prospect 
of success, the large force of Indians opposed to ours in 
the plains of Sandusky. It was conducted without that 
subordination and discipline so requisite to insure success 
in any hazardous enterprise, and it ended in a total dis- 
comfiture. Never did an enterprise more completely 
fail of attaining its object. Never, on any occasion, had 
the ferocious savages more ample revenge for the murder 
of their pacific friends, than that which they obtained on 
this occasion. 

Should it be asked what consideration led so great a 

274 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

number of people into this desperate enterprise ? Why, 
with so small a force, and such slender means, they 
pushed on so far as the plains of Sandusky ? The an- 
swer is, that many believed that the Moravian Indians, 
taking no part in the war, and having given offense to 
the warriors on several occasions, their belligerent friends 
would not take up arms in their behalf. In this con- 
jecture they were sadly mistaken. They did defend 
them with all the force at their command, and no wonder, 
for, notwithstanding their Christian and pacific principles, 
the warriors still regarded the Moravians as their rela- 
tions, whom it was their duty to defend. 

The reflections which naturally arise out of the history 
of the Indian war in the western country, during our 
revolutionary contest with Great Britain, are not calcu- 
lated to do honor to human nature, even in its civilized 
state. On our side, indeed, as to our infant government, 
the case is not so bad. Our congress faithfully en- 
deavored to prevent the Indians from taking part in the 
war on either side. The English government, on the 
other hand, made allies of as many of the Indian nations 
as they could, and they imposed no restraint on their 
savage mode of warfare. On the contrary the com- 
mandants at their posts along our western frontier received 
and paid the Indians for scalps and prisoners. Thus the 
skin of a white man’s, or even a woman’s head served, 
in the hands of the Indian, as current coin, which he 
exchanged for arms and ammunition, for the farther 
prosecution of his barbarous warfare, and clothing to 
cover his half naked body. Were not these rewards 
the price of blood ? Of blood, shed in a cruel manner, 
on an extensive scale ; but without advantage to that 
government which employed the savages in their warfare 
against their relatives and fellow Christians, and paid for 
their murders by the piece. 

The enlightened historian must view the whole of the 
Indian war, from the commencement of the revolutionary 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 275 

contest, in no other light than a succession of the most 
wanton murders of all ages, from helpless infancy to 
decrepid old age, and of both sexes ; without object, and 
without effect. 

On our side, it is true, that the pressure of the war 
along our Atlantic border was such that our government 
could not furnish the means for making a conquest of 
the Indian nations at war against us. The people of the 
western country, poor as they were at that time, and 
unaided by government, could not subdue them. Our 
campaigns, hastily undertaken, without sufficient force 
and means, and illy executed, resulted in nothing bene- 
ficial. On the other hand, the Indians, with the aid 
their allies could give them in the western country, were 
not able to make a conquest of the settlement on this 
side of the mountains. On the contrary, our settlements, 
and the forts belonging to them, became stronger and 
stronger from year to year, during the whole continuance 
of the wars. It was therefore a war of mutual but un- 
availing slaughter, devastation and revenge, over whose 
record humanity still drops a tear of regret, but that tear 
cannot efface its disgraceful history. 


Attack on Rxcf/s Fort. 

This fort consisted of some cabins and a small block 
house, and was, in dangerous times, the residence and 
place of refuge for twelve families of its immediate 
neighborhood. It was situated on Buffalo creek, about 
twelve or fifteen miles from its junction with the river 

Previously to the attack of this fort, which took place 

276 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

in the month of September, 1782, several of the few 
men belonging to the fort had gone to Hagerstown to 
exchange their peltry and furs for salt, iron, and ammu- 
nition, as was the usual custom of those times. They 
had gone on this journey somewhat earlier that season 
than usual, because there had been a still time . That is 
no recent alarms of the Indians. 

A few days before the attack on this fort about 300 
Indians had made their last attack on Wheeling fort. 
On the third night of the investment of Wheeling, the 
Indian chiefs held a council, in which it was determined 
that the siege of Wheeling should be raised, two hun- 
dred of the warriors return home, and the remaining 
hundred of picked men make a dash into the country 
and strike a heavy blow somewhere before their return. 
It was their determination to take a fort somewhere and 
massacre all its people, in revenge for their defeat at 

News of the plan adopted by the Indians was given 
by two white men who had been made prisoners when 
lads, raised among the Indians, and taken to war with 
them. These men deserted from them soon after their 
council at the close of the siege of Wheeling. The 
notice was indeed but short, but it reached Rice’s fort 
about half an hour before the commencement of the at- 
tack. The intelligence was brought by Mr. Jacob Mil- 
ler who received it at Dr. Moore’s, in the neighborhood 
of Washington. Making all speed home, he fortunately 
arrived in time to assist in the defense of the place. On 
receiving this news, the people of the fort felt assured 
that the blow was intended for them and in this con- 
jecture they were not mistaken. But little time was 
allowed them for preparation. The Indians had sur- 
rounded the place before they were discovered ; but they 
were still at some distance. When discovered the alarm 
was given, on which every man ran to his cabin for his 
gun and took refuge in the block house. The Indians, 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 277 

answering the alarm with a war whoop from their whole 
line, commenced firing and running towards the fort from 
every direction. It was evidently their intention to take 
the place by assault ; but the fire of the Indians was an- 
swered by that of six brave and skilful sharpshooters. 
This unexpected reception prevented the intended assault 
and made the Indians take refuge behind logs, stumps 
and trees. The firing continued with little intermission 
for about four hours. In the intervals of the firing the 
Indians frequently called out to the people of the fort, 
“ Give up, give up, too many Indian. Indian too big. 
No kill.” They were answered with defiance. “ Come 
on you cowards ; we are ready for you. Show us your 
yellow hides and we will make holes in them for you.” 

During the evening, many of the Indians, at some 
distance from the fort, amused themselves by shooting 
the horses, cattle, hogs and sheep, until the bottom was 
strewed with their dead bodies. 

About ten o’clock at night the Indians set fire to a barn 
about thirty yards from the fort. The barn was large 
and full of grain and hay. The flame was frightful and 
at first it seemed to endanger the burning of the fort, but 
the barn stood on lower ground than the fort. The 
night was calm, with the exception of a slight breeze up 
the creek. This carried the flame and burning splinters 
in a different direction, so that the burning of the barn, 
which at first was regarded as a dangerous if not fatal 
occurrence, proved in the issue the means of throwing 
a strong light to a great distance in every direction, so 
that the Indians durst not approach the fort to set fire 
to the cabins, which they might have done, at little risk, 
under the cover of darkness. After the barn was set on 
fire, the Indians collected on the side of the fort opposite 
the barn, so as to have the advantage of the light and 
kept a pretty constant fire, which was as steadily answered 
by that of the fort, until about two o’clock, when the 
Indians left the place and made a hasty retreat. 

278 Early Settlement and Indian TVars of 

Thus was this little place defended by a Spartan band 
of six men, against one hundred chosen warriors, ex- 
asperated to madness by their failure at Wheeling fort. 
Their names shall be inscribed in the list of the heroes 
of our early times. They were Jacob Miller, George 
Lefler, Peter Fullenweider, Daniel Rice, George Fele- 
baum and Jacob Lefler jr. George Felebaum was shot 
in the forehead, through a port hole, at the second fire of 
the Indians and instantly expired, so that in reality, the 
defense of the place was made by only five men. 

The loss of the Indians was four, three of whom were 
killed at the first fire from the fort, the other was killed 
about sun down. There can be no doubt but that a 
number more were killed and wounded in the engage- 
ment, but concealed or carried off. 

A large division of these Indians on their retreat, passed 
within a little distance of my father’s fort. In following 
their trail, a few days afterwards, I found a large poul- 
tice of chewed sassafras leaves. This is the dressing 
which the Indians usually apply to recent gun shot 
wounds. The poultice which I found had become too 
old and dry, was removed and replaced with a new one. 

Examples of personal bravery, and hairbreadth escapes, 
are always acceptable to readers of history. An instance 
of both of these happened during the attack on this fort, 
which may be worth recording. 

Abraham Rice, one of the principal men belonging 
to the fort of that name, on hearing the report of the 
deserters from the Indians, mounted a very strong, active 
mare and rode in all haste to another fort, about three 
and a half miles distant from his own, for further news, if 
any could be had, concerning the presence of a body of 
Indians in the neighborhood. Just as he reached the 
place he heard the report of the guns at his own fort. 
He instantly returned as fast as possible, until he arrived 
within sight of the fort. Finding that it still held out, he 
determined to reach it and assist in its defense, or perish 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 279 

in the attempt. In doing this, he had to cross the creek, 
the fort being some distance from it on the opposite 
bank. He saw no Indians until his mare sprang down 
the bank of the creek, at which instant about fourteen 
of them jumped up from among the weeds and bushes, 
and discharged their guns at him. One bullet wounded 
him in the fleshy part of the right arm above the elbow. 
By this time several more of the Indians came up and 
shot at him. A second ball wounded him in the thigh 
a little above the knee, but without breaking the 
bone; the ball then passed transversly through the neck 
of the mare ; she however sprang up the bank of the 
creek, fell to her knees and stumbled along about a rod 
before she recovered; during this time several Indians 
came running up, to tomahawk him. He made his 
escape after having about thirty shots fired at him from 
a very short distance. After riding about four miles, he 
reached Lamb’s fort much exhausted with the loss of 
blood. After getting his wounds dressed and resting a 
while, he set off late in the evening with twelve men, 
determined if possible to reach the fort under cover of 
the night. When they got within about two hundred 
yards of it, they halted. The firing at the fort still con- 
tinued ; ten of the men, thinking the enterprise too 
hazardous, refused to go any farther and retreated. 
Rice and two other men crept silently along towards the 
fort ; but had not proceeded far before they came close 
upon an Indian in his concealment. He gave the alarm 
yell, which was instantly passed round the lines with the 
utmost regularity. This occasioned the Indians to 
make their last effort to take the place and make their 
retreat, under cover of the night. Rice and his two 
companions returned in safety to Lamb’s fort. 

About ten o’clock next morning, sixty men collected 
at Rice’s fort for the relief of the place. They pursued 
the Indians who kept in a body for about two miles. 
The Indians had then divided into small parties and took 

280 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

over the hills in different directions, so that they could 
be tracked no farther. The pursuit was of course 
given up. 

A small division of the Indians had not proceeded 
far after their separation, before they discovered four 
men coming from a neighboring fort in the direction of 
that which they had left. The Indians waylaid the path 
and shot two of them dead on the spot. The others fled. 
One of them being swift of foot soon made his escape. 
The other, being a poor runner, was pursued by an In- 
dian who after a smart chase came close to him. The 
man then wheeled round and snapped his gun at the In- 
dian. This he repeated several times. The Indian 
then threw his tomahawk at his head, but missed him ; 
he then caught hold of the ends of his belt which was 
tied behind in a bow knot. In this again the Indian 
was disappointed, for the knot came loose so that he get 
the belt, but not the man, who wheeled round and tried 
his gun again. It happened to go off and laid the Indian 
dead at his feet. 


Expected Attack on my Father’s Fort. 

When we received advice at my father’s fort of the 
attack on Rice’s blockhouse, which was but a few miles 
distant, we sent word to all those families who were out 
on their farms, to come immediately to the fort. It 
became nearly dark before the two runners had time to 
give the alarm to the family of a Mr. Charles Stuart who 
lived about three-quarters of a mile from the fort. They 
returned in great haste, saying that Stuart’s house was 
burned down, and that they had seen two fires between 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 281 

that and the fort, at which the Indians were encamped. 
There was, therefore, no doubt that an attack would be 
made on our fort early in the morning. 

In order to give the reader a correct idea of the mili- 
tary tactics of our early times, I will give, in detail, the 
whole progress of the preparations which were made for 
the expected attack and, as nearly as I can, I will give 
the commands of Capt. Teter, our officer, in his own 

In the first place, he collected all our men together, 
and related the battles and skirmishes he had been in, 
and really they were not few in number. He was in 
Braddock’s defeat, Grant’s defeat, the taking of Fort 
Pitt, and nearly all the battles which took place between 
the English and the French and Indians, from Braddock’s 
defeat until the capture of that place by Gen. Forbes. 
He reminded us, u That in case the Indians should suc- 
ceed, we need expect no mercy, that every man, woman 
and child would be killed on the spot. They have been 
defeated at one fort and now they are mad enough. If 
they should succeed in taking ours all their vengeance 
will fall on our heads. We must fight for ourselves 
and one another, and for our wives and children, brothers 
and sisters. We must make the best preparations we 
can, a little after day break we shall hear the crack of 
the guns.” 

He then made a requisition of all the powder and lead 
in the fort. The ammunition was accurately divided 
amongst all the men, and the amount supposed to be 
fully sufficient. When this was done, “ now,” says the 
captain, cc when you run your bullets, cut off the necks 
very close, and scrape them, so as to make them a little 
less, and get patches one hundred finer than those you 
commonly use, and have them well oiled, for if a rifle 
happens to be choked in the time of battle, there is one 
gun and one man lost, for the rest of the battle. You 
will have no time to unbreach a gun and get a plug, to 

282 Early Settlement and Indian W ars of 

drive out a bullet. Have the locks well oiled, and your 
flints sharp, so as not to miss fire. 

Such were his orders to the men. He then said to 
the women, “ These yellow fellows are very handy at 
setting fire to houses, and water is a verv good thing to 
put out fire. You must fill every vessel with water. 
Our fort is not well stockaded, and these ugly fellows 
may rush into the middle of it, and attempt to set fire 
to our cabins in twentv places at once.” They fell to 
work, and did as he had ordered. 

The men having put their rifles in order, u Now,” says 
he, “ let every man gather in his axes, mattocks and hoes, 
and place them inside of his door, for the Indians may 
make a dash at them with their tomahawks, to cut them 
down, and an axe, in that case, might hit, when a gun 
would miss fire.” 

Like a good commander our captain, not content with 
giving orders, went from house to house to see that every- 
thing was right. 

The ladies of the present day will suppose that our women 
were frightened half to death, with the near prospect of 
such an attack of the Indians ; on the contrary, I do not 
know that I ever saw a merrier set of women in my life. 
They went on with their work of carrying water and 
cutting bullet patches for the men apparently without 
the least emotion of fear, and I have every reason to 
believe, that they would have been pleased with the crack 
of the guns in the morning. 

During all this time, we had no sentinels placed around 
the fort ; so confident was our captain that the attack 
would not be made before day break. 

I was at that time thirteen or fourteen years of age ; 
but ranked as a fort soldier. After getting my gun and 
all things else in order I went up into the garret loft of 
my father’s house, and laid down about the middle of 
the floor, with my shot pouch on and my gun by my side, 
expecting to be waked up by the report of the guns at 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 283 

day break, to take my station at the port hole assigned 
me, which was in the second story of the house. I did 
not awake till about sun rise, when the alarm was all 
over. The family which we supposed had been killed, 
had come into the fort about day break. Instead of the 
house being burnt it was only a large old log on fire, near 
the house, which had been seen by our expresses. If 
they had seen anything like fire, between that and the 
fort, it must have been fox fire. Such is the creative 
power of imagination when under the influence of fear. 


Coshocton Campaign. 

This campaign took place in the summer of 1780, and 
was directed against the Indian villages at the forks of 
the Muskingum. The place of rendezvous was Wheel- 
ing. The number of regulars and militia about eight 
hundred. From Wheeling they made a rapid march, 
by the nearest route, to the place of their destination. 
When the army reached the river a little below Salem, 
the lower Moravian town, Colonel Broadhead sent an 
express to the missionary of that place, the Rev. John 
Heckewelder, informing him of his arrival in his neigh- 
borhood with his army, requesting a small supply of pro - 
visions and a visit from him in his camp. When the 
missionary arrived at the camp the general informed him 
of the object of the expedition he was engaged in, and 
enquired of him, whether any of the Christian Indians 
were hunting, or engaged in business, in the direction of 
his march. On being answered in the negative, he 
stated that nothing would give him greater pain than to 
hear that any of the Moravian Indians had been molested 
by the troops, as these Indians had always, from the com- 

284 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

mencement of the war, conducted themselves in a manner 
that did them honor. 

A part of the militia had resolved on going up the 
river to destroy the Moravian villages ; but were pre- 
vented from executing their project by General Broad- 
head, and Colonel Shepherd of Wheeling. 

At White Eyes’ Plain, a few miles from Coshocton, 
an Indian prisoner was taken. Soon afterwards two more 
Indians were discovered, one of whom was wounded, but 
he, as well as the other, made his escape. 

The commander, knowing that these two Indians 
would make the utmost dispatch in going to the town to 
give notice of the approach of the army, ordered a rapid 
march, in. the midst of a heavy fall of rain, to reach the 
town before them and take it by surprise. The plan 
succeeded. The army reached the place in three divi- 
sions. The right and left wings approached the river a 
little above and below the town, while the center marched 
directly upon it. The whole number of the Indians in 
the village on the east side of the river, together with 
ten or twelve from a little village some distance above, 
were made prisoners, without firing a single shot. The 
river having risen to a great height, owing to the recent 
fall of rain, the army could not cross it. Owing to this 
the villages with their inhabitants, on the west side of the 
river, escaped destruction. 

Among the prisoners, sixteen warriors were pointed 
out by Pekillon, a friendly Delaware chief, who was with 
the army of Broadhead. 

A little after dark a council of war was held, to deter- 
mine on the fate of the warriors in custody. They were 
doomed to death and by the order of the commander 
they were bound, taken a little distance below the town, 
and dispatched with tomahawks and spears and scalped. 

Early the next morning an Indian presented himself 
on the opposite bank of the river and asked for the big 
captain. Broadhead presented himself and asked the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 285 

Indian what he wanted ? To which he replied, “ I want 
peace.” u Send over some of your chiefs,” said Broad- 
head. u May be you kill,” said the Indian. He was an- 
swered, ct They shall not be killed.” One of the 
chiefs, a well looking man, came over the river and 
entered into conversation with the commander in the 
street; but while engaged in conversation a man of the 
name of Wetzel came up behind him with a tomahawk 
concealed in the bosom of his hunting shirt, and struck 
him on the back of his head. He fell and instantly ex- 

About eleven or twelve o’clock, the army commenced 
its retreat from Coshocton. Gen. Broadhead com- 
mitted the care of the prisoners to the militia. They 
were about twenty in number. After marching about 
half a mile, the men commenced killing them. In a short 
time they were all dispatched, except a few women and 
children who were spared and taken to Fort Pitt, and 
after some time exchanged for an equal number of their 


Captivity of Mrs. Brown. 

On the 27th day of March, 1789, about 10 o’clock 
in the forenoon, as she was spinning in her house, her 
black woman who had stepped out to gather sugar water, 
screamed out “ here are Indians.” She jumped up, ran 
to the window and then to the door, where she was met 
by one of the Indians presenting his gun. She caught 
hold of the muzzle and turning it aside, begged him not 
to kill, but take her prisoner. The other Indian in the 
meantime caught the negro woman and her boy, about 

286 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

four years old, and brought them into the house. They 
then opened a chest and took out a small box and some 
articles of clothing, and without doing any further damage, 
or setting fire to the house, set off with herself and son 
about two years and a half old, the black woman and 
her two children, the oldest four years and the youngest 
one year old. After going about one and a half mile, 
they halted and held a consultation, as she supposed, 
about killing the children. This she understood to be 
the subject by their gestures and frequently pointing at 
the children. To one of the Indians who could speak 
English, she held out her little boy and begged him not 
to kill him, as he would make a fine little Indian after a 
while. The Indian made a motion to her to walk on 
with her child. The other Indian then struck the negro 
boy with the pipe end of his tomahawk, which knocked 
him down and then dispatched him by a blow with the 
edge, across the back of the neck and then scalped 

About four o’clock in the evening, they reached the 
river, about a mile above Wellsburg, and carried a canoe, 
which had leen thrown up in some drift wood, into the 
river. They got into this canoe and worked it down to 
the mouth of Rush run, a distance of about five miles. 
They pulled up the canoe into the mouth of the run, as 
far as they could, then went up the run about a mile and 
encamped for the night. The Indians gave the prison- 
ers all their own clothes for covering and added one of 
their own blankets. A while before daylight, the In- 
dians got up and put another blanket over them. 

About sun rise they began their march up a very steep 
hill, and about two o’clock halted on Short creek, about 
twenty miles from the place from whence they had set 
out in the morning. The place where they halted had 
been an encampment shortly before, as well as a place 
of deposit for the plunder which they had recently taken 
from the house of a Mr. Vanmeter, whose family had 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 287 

been killed. The plunder was deposited in a sycamore 
tree. They tapped some sugar trees when there before. 
Here they kindled a fire and put on a brass kettle, with 
a turkey which they had killed on the way, to boil in 
sugar water. 

Mr. Glass, the first husband of Mrs. Brown, was 
working with an hired man in a field, about a quarter of 
a mile from the house, when his wife and family were 
taken, but knew nothing of the event until two o’clock. 
After searching about the place and going to several 
houses in quest of his family, he went to Mr. Wells’s 
fort, and collected ten men besides himself, and the same 
night lodged in a cabin, on the bottom on which the 
town now stands. 

Next morning, they discovered the place from which 
the Indians had taken the canoe from the drift, and 
their tracks at the place of their embarkation. Mr. 
Glass could distinguish the track of his wife by the print 
of the high heel of her shoe. They crossed over the 
river and went down on the other side until they came 
near the mouth of Rush run ; but discovering no tracks 
of the Indians most of the men concluded that they 
would go to the mouth of the Muskingum by water, and 
therefore wished to turn back. Mr. Glass begged of 
them to go as far as the mouth of Short creek, which 
was only two or three miles farther. To this they 
agreed. When they got to the mouth of Rush run, 
they found the canoe of the Indians. This was identi- 
fied by a proof which goes to show the presence of mind 
of Mrs. Brown. While going down the river, one of 
the Indians threw into the water several papers which 
he had taken out of Mr. Glass’s trunk ; some of these 
she picked up out of the water, and under pretense of * 
giving them to the child dropped them into the bottom 
of the canoe. These left no doubt. The trail of the 
Indians and their prisoners up the run to their camp, and 
then up the river hill, was soon discovered. The trail 


288 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

at that time, owing to the softness of the ground and 
the height of the weeds, was easily followed. 

About an hour after the Indians had halted, Mr. Glass 
and his men came within sight of the smoke of their 
camp. The object then was to save the lives of the 
prisoners, by attacking the Indians so unexpectedly, as 
not to allow them time to kill them. With this view 
they crept as slily as they could, till they got within 
something more than one hundred yards from the camp. 
Fortunately Mrs. Brown’s little son had gone to a sugar 
tree to get some water, but not being able to get it out 
of the bark trough, his mother had stepped out of the 
camp to get it for him. The negro woman was sitting 
some distance from the two Indians who were looking 
attentively at a scarlet jacket which they had taken some 
time before. On a sudden they dropped the jacket, and 
turned their eyes towards the men, who, supposing they 
were discovered, immediately discharged several guns, 
and rushed upon them, at full speed, with an Indian yell. 
One of the Indians, it was supposed, was wounded the 
first fire, as he fell and dropped his gun and shot pouch. 
After running about one hundred yards a second shot 
was fired after him, by Maj. M’Guire, which brought 
him to his hands and knees ; but there was no time for 
pursuit, as the Indians had informed Mrs. Brown that 
there was another encampment close by. They there- 
fore returned home with all speed, and reached the 
Beach Bottom fort that night. 

The other Indian, at the first fire, ran a little distance 
beyond Mrs. Brown, so that she was in a right line 
between him and the white men ; here he halted for a 
little to put on his shot pouch which Mr. Glass, for the 
moment, mistook for an attempt to kill his wife with a 
tomahawk. This artful manoeuvre, no doubt, saved the 
life of the savage, as his pursuers durst not shoot at him, 
without risking the life of Mrs. Brown. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 289 


Escape of Lewis Wetsel. 

The following narrative goes to show how much may 
be effected by the skill, bravery and physical activity of 
a single individual in the partizan warfare carried on 
against the Indians on the western frontier. 

Lewis Wetsel was the son of John Wetsel, a German, 
who settled on Big Wheeling, about fourteen miles from 
the river. He was amongst the first adventurers into 
that part of the country. His education, like that of his 
cotemporaries, was that of the hunter and warrior. 
When a boy, he adopted the practice of loading and firing 
his rifle as he ran. This was a means of making him so 
destructive to the Indians afterwards. When about 
thirteen years old, he was taken prisoner by the Indians, 
together with his brother Jacob, about eleven years old. 
Before he was taken he received a slight wound in the 
breast from a bullet, which carried off a small piece of 
his breast bone. The second night after they were 
taken, the Indians encamped at the big lick, twenty 
miles from the river, on the waters of M’Mahan’s creek. 
The boys were not confined. After the Indians had 
fallen asleep, Lewis whispered to his brother Jacob, that 
he must get up and go back home with him. Jacob at 
first objected but afterwards got up and went along with 
him. When they had got about one hundred yards from 
the camp, they sat down on a log. u Well, ” said Lewis, 
u We can’t go home barefooted, I will go back and get 
a pair of moccasons for each of us, ” and accordingly did 
so, and returned. After sitting a little longer u Now, ” 

290 Early Settlement and Indian lEars of 

says he, “ I will go back and get father’s gun, and then 
we’ll start. ” This he effected. They had not traveled 
far on the trail by which they came, before they heard 
the Indians coming after them. It was a moonlight 
night. When the Indians came pretty nigh them, they 
stepped aside into the bushes, let them pass, then fell 
into their rear and traveled on. On the return of the 
Indians they did the same. They were then pursued by 
two Indians on horse back, whom they dodged in the 
same way. The next day they reached Wheeling in 
safety, crossing from the Indian shore to Wheeling is- 
land on a raft of their own making. By this time Lewis 
had become almost spent from his wound. 

In the year 1782, after Crawford’s defeat, Lewis went 
with a Thomas Mills, who had been in the campaign, 
to get his horse, which he had left near the place where 
St. Clairsville now stands. At the Indian springs, two 
miles from St. Clairsville, on the Wheeling road, they 
were met by about forty Indians, who were in pursuit 
of the stragglers from the campaign. The Indians and 
white men discovered each other about the same moment. 

Lewis fired first and killed an Indian, the fire from 
the Indians wounded Mills in the heel ; he was soon 
overtaken and killed. Four of the Indians then singled 
out, dropped their guns> and pursued Wetsel. Wetsel 
loaded his rifle as he ran. After running about half 
a mile, one of the Indians having got within eight 
or ten steps of him, Wetsel wheeled round and shot him 
down, ran, and loaded his gun as before. After going 
about three-quarters of a mile farther, a second Indian 
came so close to him that when he turned to fire, the 
Indian caught the muzzle of the gun, and as he expressed, 
it “ He and the Indian had a severe wring.” He how- 
ever succeeded in bringing the muzzle to the Indian’s 
breast, and killed him on the spot. By this time he, 
as well as the Indians, were pretty well tired ; the pur- 
suit was continued by the two remaining Indians. 

IVestern Virginia andPennsylvania. 291 

Wetsel, as before, loaded his gun and stopped several 
times during this latter chase, when he did so, the In- 
dians tree’d themselves. After going something more 
than a mile, Wetsel took advantage of a little open piece 
of ground over which the Indians were passing, a short 
distance behind him, to make a sudden stop for the 
purpose of shooting the foremost, who got behind a little 
sapling which was too small to cover his body. Wetsel 
shot and broke his thigh. The wound, in the issue, 
proved fatal. The last of the Indians then gave a little 
yell and said, u No catch dat man, gun always loaded,” 
and gave up the chase, glad, no doubt, to get off with 
his life. 

It is said that Lewis Wetsel, in the course of the In- 
dian wars in this part of the country, killed twenty-seven 
Indians, besides a number more along the frontier settle- 
ments of Kentucky. 


The Struggle of Adam Poe. 

In the summer of 1782, a party of seven Wyandots 
made an incursion into a settlement some distance below 
Fort Pitt, and several miles from the Ohio river. Here 
finding an old man alone, in a cabin, they killed him, 
packed up what plunder they could find, and commenced 
their retreat. Amongst their party was a celebrated 
Wyandot chief, who, in addition to his fame as a warrior 
and counselor, was, as to his size and strength, a real 

The news of the visit of the Indians soon spread 
through the neighborhood, and a party of eight good rifle- 
men was collected, in a few hours, for the purpose of 

292 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

pursuing the Indians. In this party were two brothers 
of the names of Adam and Andrew Poe. They were 
both famous for courage, size and activity. This little 
party commenced the pursuit of the Indians with a deter- 
mination, if possible, not to suffer them to escape, as 
they usually did on such occasions, by making a speedy 
flight to the river, crossing it, and then dividing into small 
parties, to meet at a distant point, in a given time. 

The pursuit was continued the greater part of the 
night after the Indians had done the mischief. In the 
morning the party found themselves on the trail of the 
Indians, which led to the river. When arrived within a 
little distance of the river Adam Poe, fearing an ambus- 
cade, left the party, who followed directly on the trail, 
to creep along the brink of the river bank, under cover 
of the weeds and bushes, to fall on the rear of the Indians, 
should he find them in ambuscade. He had not gone 
far, before he saw the Indian rafts at the water’s edge. 
Not seeing any Indians he stepped softly down the bank 
with his rifle cocked. When about half way down, he 
discovered the large Wyandot chief and a small Indian, 
within a few steps of him. They were standing with 
their guns cocked, and looking in the direction of our 
party, who by this time had gone some distance lower 
down the bottom. Poe took aim at the large chief, but 
his rifle missed fire. The Indians hearing the snap of 
the gun lock, instantly turned round and discovered Poe, 
who, being too near them to retreat, dropped his gun and 
instantly sprang from the bank upon them, and seizing 
the large Indian by the cloths on his breast, and at the 
same time embracing the neck of the small one, threw 
them both down on the ground, himself being uppermost. 
The Indian soon extricated himself, ran to the raft, got 
his tomahawk, and attempted to dispatch Poe, the large 
Indian holding him fast in his arms with all his might, 
the better to enable his fellow to effect his purpose. 
Poe, however, so well watched the motions of the Indian 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 293 

that when 'in the act of aiming his blow at his head, by 
a vigorous and well directed kick with one of his feet he 
staggered the savage and knocked the tomahawk out of 
his hand. This failure, on the part of the small Indian, 
was reproved by an exclamation of contempt from the 
large one. 

In a moment, the Indian caught up his tomahawk 
again, approached more cautiously, brandishing his toma- 
hawk and making a number of feigned blows, in defiance 
and derision. Poe, however, still on his guard, averted 
the real blow from his head, by throwing up his arm, 
and receiving it on his wrist on which he was severely 
wounded ; but not so as to lose entirely the use of his 

In this perilous moment Poe, by a violent effort, broke 
loose from the Indian, snatched up one of the Indian’s 
guns, and shot the small Indian through the breast, as 
he ran up the third time to tomahawk him. 

The large Indian was now on his feet, and grasping 
Poe by a shoulder and leg, threw him down on the bank. 
Poe instantly disengaged himself and got on his feet. 
The Indian then seized him again and a new struggle 
ensued, which, owing to the slippery state of the bank, 
ended in the fall of both combatants into the water. In 
this situation it was the object of each to drown the 
other. Their efforts to effect their purpose were con- 
tinued for some time with alternate success, sometimes 
one being under the water and sometimes the other. 
Poe at length seized the tuft of hair on the scalp of the 
Indian, with which he held his head under the water, 
until he supposed him drowned. Relaxing his hold too 
soon, Poe, instantly found his gigantic antagonist on his 
feet again, and ready for another combat. In this, they 
were carried into the water beyond their depth. In this 
situation they were compelled to loose their hold on each 
other and swim for mutual safety. Both sought the 
shore, to seize a gun, and end the contest with bullets 

294 Early Settlement and Indian JVars of 

The Indian being the best swimmer reached the land 
first. Poe, seeing this, immediately turned back into the 
water to escape, if possible, being shot, by diving. Fortu- 
nately the Indian caught up the rifle with which Poe 
had killed the other warrior. 

At this juncture, Andrew Poe, missing his brother 
from the party, and supposing from the report of the gun 
which he shot, that he was either killed, or engaged in 
conflict with the Indians, hastened to the spot. On 
seeing him, Adam called out to him to cc kill the big 
Indian on shore.” But Andrew’s gun, like that of the 
Indian, was empty. The contest was now between the 
white man and the Indian, who should load and fire first. 
Very fortunately for Poe, the Indian, in loading, drew 
the ramrod from the thimbles of the stock of the gun 
with so much violence that it slipped out of his hand and 
fell a little distance from him ; he quickly caught it up, 
and rammed down his bullet. This little delay gave 
Poe the advantage. He shot the Indian as he was rais- 
ing his gun to take aim at him. As soon as Andrew 
had shot the Indian, he jumped into the river to assist 
his wounded brother to shore ; But Adam, thinking 
more of the honor of carrying the big Indian home, as a 
trophy of victory, than of his own safety, urged Andrew 
to go back, and prevent the struggling savage from rolling 
himself into the river and escaping. Andrew’s solicitude 
for the life of his brother prevented him from complying 
with this request. 

In the meantime the Indian, jealous of the honor of 
his scalp, even in the agonies of death, succeeded in 
reaching the river and getting into the current, so that 
his body was never obtained. 

An unfortunate occurrence took place during this con- 
flict. Just as Andrew arrived at the top of the bank, 
for the relief of his brother, one of the party who had 
followed close behind him, seeing Adam in the river and 
mistaking him for a wounded Indian, shot at him and 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 295 

wounded him in the shoulder. He, however, recovered 
from his wounds. During the contest between Adam 
Poe and the Indians, the party had overtaken the re- 
maining six of them. A desperate conflict ensued, in 
which five of the Indians were killed. Our loss was 
three men killed and Adam Poe severely wounded. 

Thus ended this Spartan conflict, with the loss of 
three valiant men on our part and with that of the whole 
of the Indian party with the exception of one warrior. 
Never, on any occasion, was there a greater display of 
desperate bravery, and seldom did a conflict take place 
which, in the issue, proved fatal to so great a proportion 
of those engaged in it. 

The fatal issue of this little campaign, on the side of 
the Indians, occasioned an universal mourning among 
the Wyandot nation. The big Indian, with his four 
brothers, all of whom were killed at the same place, 
were amongst the most distinguished chiefs and warriors 
of their nation. The big Indian was magnanimous, as 
well as brave. He, more than any other individual, 
contributed, by his example and influence, to the good 
character of the Wyandots, for lenity towards their pri- 
soners. He would not suffer them to be killed or ill 
treated. This mercy to captives was an honorable dis- 
tinction in the character of the Wyandots, and was well 
understood by our first settlers, who, in case of captivity, 
thought it a fortunate circumstance to fall into their 

It is consoling to the historian, to find instances of 
those endowments of mind which constitute human 
greatness, even among savages. The original stamina 
of those endowments, or what is called genius , are but 
thinly scattered over the earth, and there can be but little 
doubt, but that the lower grades of society possess their 
equal proportion of the basis of moral greatness, or in 
other words, there is as much of native genius , in propor- 
tion to numbers, among savages, as there is among civi- 

296 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

lized people. The difference between these two extremes 
of society, is merely the difference of education. This, 
view of human nature, philosophically correct, is well 
calculated to increase the benevolence, even of the good 
Samaritan himself, and encourage his endeavors for the 
instruction of the most ignorant and the reformation of 
the most barbarous. 

Had the aborigines of our country been possessed of 
science to enable them to commit to the faithful page of 
history, the events of their intercourse with us, since the 
discovery and settlement of their native land, by the 
Europeans, what would be the contents of this history ? 
Not such as it is from the hands of our historians, who 
have presented nought but the worst features of the In- 
dian character, as exhibited in the course of their wars 
against the invaders of their country, while the wrongs 
inflicted on them by civilized men have occupied but a 
very small portion of the record. Their sufferings, their 
private virtues, their bravery and magnanimity in war, 
all individual instances of greatness of mind, heroism, 
and clemency to captives, in the midst of the cruelties of 
their barbarous warfare, must soon be buried with them- 
selves in the tomb of their national existence. 


The Affair of the Johnsons. 

The following narrative goes to show that the long 
continuance of the Indian war had inspired even the 
young lads of our counrry, not only with all the bravery, 
but even the subtlety of the Indians themselves. 

In the fall of the year 1793, two boys of the name of 
John and Henry Johnson, the first thirteen and latter 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 297 

eleven years old, whose parents lived in Carpenter’s 
station, a little distance above the mouth of Short creek, 
on the west side of the Ohio river, were sent out in the 
evening to hunt the cows. At the foot of the river hill, 
at the back of the bottom, they sat down under a hickory 
tree to crack nuts. After some time they saw two men 
coming towards them, one of whom had a bridle in his 
hand ; being dressed like white men they mistook them 
for their father and an uncle in search of horses. When 
they discovered their mistake and attempted to run off, 
the Indians, pointing their guns at them, told them to 
stop, or they would kill them. They halted and were 
taken prisoners. 

The Indians, being in pursuit of horses, conducted 
the boys by a circuitous route over Ahe Short creek hills 
in search of them, until, late in the evening, they halted 
at a spring in a hollow place about three miles from the 
fort. Here they kindled a small fire, cooked and ate 
some victuals, and prepared to repose for the night. 

Henry, the oldest of the boys, during the ramble had 
affected the greatest satisfaction at having been taken 
prisoner. He said his father was a hard master, who 
kept him always at hard work, and allowed him no play ; 
but that for his part he wished to live in the woods and 
be a hunter. This deportment soon brought him into 
intimacy with one of the Indians, who could speak very 
good English. The Indian frequently asked the boys 
if they knew of any good horses, running in the woods. 
Sometime before they halted, one of the Indians gave 
the largest of the boys a little bag, which he supposed 
contained money, and made him carry it. 

When night came on, the fire was covered up, the 
boys pinioned and made to lay down together, the In- 
dians then placed their hoppis straps over them, and laid 
down, one on each side of them, on the ends of the 

Pretty late in the night, the Indians fell asleep, and 

298 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

one of them becoming cold caught hold of John in his 
arms and turned him over on the outside. In this situa- 
tion, the boy, who had kept awake, found means to get 
his hands loose; he then whispered to his brother, made 
him get up, and untied his arms. This done, Henry 
thought of nothing but running off, as fast as possible ; 
but when about to start, John caught hold of him, say- 
ing, “ We must kill these Indians before we go.” After 
some hesitation, Henry agreed to make the attempt. 
John then took one of the rifles of the Indians, and 
placed it on a log with the muzzle close to the head of 
one of them. He then cocked the gun, and placed his 
little brother at the breach with his finger on the trigger, 
with instructions to pull it, as soon as he should strike 
the other Indian. He then took one of the Indian’s 
tomahawks and standing a straddle of the other Indian 
struck him with it. The blow, however, fell on the 
back of the neck and to one side, so as not to be fatal. 
The Indian then attempted to spring up ; but the little 
fellow repeated his blows with such force and rapidity 
on the scull, that as he expressed it, u The Indian laid 
still and began to quiver.” 

At the moment of the first stroke given by the elder 
brother with the tomahawk, the younger one pulled the 
trigger, and shot away a considerable portion of the In- 
dian’s lower jaw. This Indian, a moment after receiving 
the shot, began to flounce about and yell in the most 
frightful manner. The boys then made the best of their 
way to the fort and reached it a little before day break. 
On getting near the fort they found the people all up and 
in great agitation on their account. On hearing a woman 
exclaim, “ Poor little fellows, they are killed, or taken 
prisoners,” the oldest one answered, “ No ! mother, we 
are here yet.” 

Having brought nothing away with them from the 
Indian camp, their relation of what had taken place be- 
tween them and the Indians was not fully credited. A 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 299 

small party was soon made up, to go and ascertain the 
truth or falsehood of their report. This party the 
boys conducted to the spot by the shortest route. On 
arriving at the place, they found the Indian whom the 
eldest brother had tomahawked lying dead in the camp. 
The other had crawled away, and taken his gun and 
shot pouch with him. After scalping the Indian, the 
party returned to the fort, and the same day a larger 
party went out to look after the wounded Indian, who 
had crawled some distance from the camp and concealed 
himself in the top of a fallen tree, where, notwithstanding 
the severity of his wound, with a Spartan bravery he de- 
termined to sell his life as dearly as possible, and having 
fixed his gun for the purpose, on the approach of the 
men to a proper distance, he took aim at one of them, 
and pulled the trigger, but his gun missed fire. On 
hearing the snap of the lock, one of the men exclaimed, 
“ I should not like to be killed by a dead Indian.” The 
party concluding that the Indian would die at any rate, 
thought best to retreat and return and look for him after 
some time. On returning, however, he could not be 
found, having crawled away and concealed himself in 
some other place. His skeleton and gun were found 
some time afterwards. 

The Indians who were killed, were great warriors and 
very wealthy. The bag which was supposed to contain 
money, it was conjectured was got by one of the party 
who went out first in the morning. On hearing the 
report of the boys, he slipped off by himself, and reached 
the place before the party arrived. For some time after- 
wards, he appeared to have a greater plenty of money 
than his neighbors. 

The Indians themselves did honor to the bravery of 
these two boys. After their treaty with Gen. Wayne, 
a friend of the Indians who were killed, made inquiry 
of a man from Short creek, what had become of the boys 

300 Early Settlement and Indian W ars of 

who killed the Indians ? He was answered that they 
lived at the same place with their parents. The Indian 
replied, “You have not done right, you should make 
kings of those boys.” 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 301 


Sketch of Major Samuel McColloch. 


Among the earliest settlers in North Western Virginia, 
were the McCollochs, who emigrated from the south 
branch of the Potomac, in 1770, and located on the 
borders of Short creek, a stream which empties into the 
Ohio river, nine miles north of Wheeling creek. The 
family consisted of four brothers, Abraham, George, 
Samuel and John, and several sisters, one of whom was 
the wife of Col. Ebenezer Zane, who, with his brothers, 
Jonathan and Silas, was from the same neighborhood, 
and about the same period settled at the mouth of 
Wheeling creek. 

The name which graces the head of this article is not 
unknown to readers of border history, in which some of 
his daring exploits are recorded. At present, however, 
we propose noticing only a few particulars, more imme- 
diately connected with the final scene of his eventful 
career, which were communicated to the writer by the 
widow of his brother, the late Major John M'Colloch, 
of Ohio county, Virginia, and, in substance, corroborated 
by Col. M. Moorehead, of Zanesville, and the Hon. T. 
Scott, of Chillicothe, Ohio. 

Between the two younger brothers of the M’Colloch 
family, Samuel and John, of whom alone we shall speak, 
there existed a more than fraternal intimacy, arising not 
only from congeniality of disposition, but from com- 
munity of interests and pursuits ; consequently, they 
were much together, and their history is in some degree 
blended. Both were early distinguished for intrepidity 
and successful prowess in Indian warfare ; possessing, in 

302 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

an eminent degree, firmness and decision of character, 
they were wont, in cases of exigency, which in those 
days of peril were of frequent occurrence, to determine 
quickly and execute promptly. These qualities, combined 
with untiring energy and perseverance, in circumventing 
the various stratagems of the Indians, and indomitable 
courage in opposing them in open combat, soon placed 
the brothers in the van of the frontier bands, required 
by the peculiarly exposed condition of the country to be 
ever on the alert and ready for conflict with the wily 
enemy, whose frequent irruptions into the infant settle- 
ments, for purposes of rapine and murder, kept the in- 
habitants in a state of continual dread and apprehension. 

To many of the savages they were personally known, 
and objects of fear and intense hate. Numerous artifices 
were employed to capture them ; their enemies antici- 
pating, in such an event, the privilege of satiating their 
vindictive and fiendish malice, by the infliction of a 
lingering and cruel death. Of this design, on the part 
of the Indians, the brothers were aware ; and in their 
almost miraculous preservation, in various contests with 
them, gratefully acknowledged the interposition of an 
invisible Power in their behalf. 

Major Samuel M’Colloch commanded at Fort Van 
Meter, in 1777, styled the Court . House Fort, from 
the circumstance of the first civil court in North Western 
Virginia, being held in it, immediately after the organiza- 
tion and separation of Ohio county from West Augusta. 
This fort was one of the first erected in this part of 
Virginia, and stood on the north side of Short creek, 
about five miles from its confluence with the Ohio river. 
During many consecutive summers, the inhabitants of 
the adjacent neighborhood sought security from the 
tomahawk and scalping knife of the merciless aborigines, 
within its palisades ; agricultural labor being performed 
by companies, each member of which, like the Jews of 
old, when rebuilding the walls of the Holy City, after 

W e stern Virginia and Pennsylvania < 303 

their return from the Babylonish captivity, wrought with 
one hand while the other grasped a weapon of defense. 

On the 30th July, 1782, arrangements were made by 
the inmates of the fort, for the performance of field labor. 
To the commander and his brother, John, was assigned 
the dangerous duty of reconnoitering the paths leading 
from the river, to ascertain, if possible, whether there 
were any Indians lurking in the vicinity. Leaving early 
in the morning, in the discharge of their mission, after 
proceeding some distance, the former, impelled perhaps 
by a sudden premonition of the tragic fate which befel 
him, returned ; and depositing with the wife of his bro- 
ther John, his watch and several other articles, gave di- 
rections as to their disposition, in the event of his not 
returning, and leaving a kindly message for his youthful 
bride, soon rejoined his wondering companion. 

They traversed the path lying along the south bank of 
the creek till within a short distance of its junction with 
the Ohio, where they crossed, and followed the direc- 
tion of the river to the Beach bottom, a distance of three 
miles ; when, perceiving no indications of an enemy, 
they retraced their steps to the mouth of the creek, a 
short distance above which, they ascended a steep and 
rugged eminence, well known in the neighborhood by 
the significant cognomen of Girty’s Point . The no- 
torious renegade, Simon Girty, having on several oc- 
casions, when conducting parties of Indians into the 
settlement, with difficulty escaped capture by the infu- 
riated whites, by. a rapid flight over the craggy and pre- 
cipitous path. 

Congratulating themselves on the absence of immedi- 
ate danger, the brothers pursued their course in the 
direction of the fort, on the summit of the elevated ridge 
rising abruptly from the northern bank of the creek, and 
had arrived at the termination of a deep ravine which 
made up from the stream — John, being somewhat in ad- 
vance of his brother, and riding round the top of a large 

304 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

tree, which had fallen across the way — when a low, half- 
suppressed growl, from a well trained hunting- dog which 
accompanied them, arrested their attention. No time, 
however, intervened for scrutinizing the cause ; a volley of 
bullets from an invisible foe revealed it. On reaching 
the path, John turned to look for his companion, whose 
bleeding form, with feelings of unutterable anguish, he 
beheld falling from his horse, and, ere it reached the 
earth, a stalwart savage sprang from his covert, toma- 
hawk and scalping-knife in hand, with which to complete 
the bloody tragedy, and secure a trophy of victory. 
While the exulting victor was in the act of scalping, the 
younger brother, with frenzied resolution, suddenly 
wheeled his horse, and, amid a shower of balls, elevating 
his rifle, quickly sent the swift messenger of death to the 
heart of the murderer, whom he had the exquisite grati- 
fication of seeing spring into the air, and then fall to rise 
no more. Having performed this feat, he rapidly as 
possible, his enraged enemies in full pursuit, their balls 
perforating his hat and hunting-shirt, made his way down 
the ravine, and soon reached the fort in safety ; his bro- 
ther’s horse closely following him. 

The next morning a party from the fort proceeded to 
the spot where the sanguinary deed had been perpetrated 
and found the mutilated remains of their beloved com- 
mander. The Indians, influenced no doubt, by that 
species of hero-worship, inherent in their nature, causing 
an unbounded admiration of personal valor, had ab- 
stracted the heart of their victim ; which, it was after- 
ward learned, from one belonging to the party, had been 
eaten by them ; a practice in which they occasionally 
indulged. Parkman, who was well acquainted with their 
habits, says : u the Indians, though not habitual cannibals, 
sometimes eat portions of the bodies of their enemies, 
superstitiously believing that their own courage and hardi- 
hood will be increased thereby.” 

This fatal rencounter was, doubtless, instrumental in 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 305 

the salvation of the lives of all in the fort ; it being sub- 
sequently ascertained that the party committing the 
murderous act, consisted of upwards of one hundred 
warriors, en route to attack it. After the escape of the 
surviving brother, aware that notice of their propinquity 
would be given, and immediate pursuit made, they 
hastily retreated to their towns west of the Ohio. 

The remains of Major Samuel M’Colloch were in- 
terred in Fort Van Meter; but not unwept nor un- 
honored. There were present very many who knew 
and appreciated the sterling worth of the forest soldier, 
and by whom the memory of his noble qualities and 
tragic fate was long cherished ; and to this day, in the 
vicinity where the circumstances transpired, the name 
and fate of the hero are as familiar as household words. 

Capt. Oliver Brown. 

Memorandum of Capt. Oliver Brown, made by himself 
at Wellsburg, Brooke Co., Virginia, in Feb. 1845. 
He died in the following year, at a very advanced age, 
respected and beloved by all. — N. D. 

April 8, 1775, I stood in front of the first cannon fired 
by the British on the Americans at Lexington. June 17, 
of the same year, I was in the engagement at Bunker hill. 
Was with our army on York Island, participated in the 
battle of Harlem heights, where we beat the British. I 
commanded a company of thirty men and two field pieces. 
Lost fifteen of my men killed and wounded. Next, I 
was in the battle of the White Plains, where we were 
defeated. I was at the battle of Trenton, also in the 
battle of Princeton, was stationed at Bound brook after 
that engagement. Was next stationed at Meed fort. 
Was at the battle of Brandywine, where we were en- 
gaged throughout the day. At sundown our army drove 
the red coats into Germantown, where they took refuge 
in an old stone house. Winter coming on we did not 

306 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

do much. Next year I was in the battle of Monmouth, 
where our artillery did much execution. After this 
battle I was ordered to Fort Schuyler, where, during the. 
year, we had some skirmishing with the Indians. I always 
belonged to the artillery of the Massachusetts line ; was 
capt. lieut., in the artillery, and served under Gen. 
Washington four years, by whom I was entrusted with 
many small adventures, for the execution of which I re- 
ceived his personal thanks. I was present at the Boston 
Tea-party, a looker on only. I pulled down the king’s 
statue, in New York, a leaden one, which we made into 

I came to this place, Wellsburg, in 1790, no town 
here then. The Indian war was not yet ended. I 
served in the militia ranks. Every one at that early 
period was obliged to carry arms for self-defense. I be- 
lieve I am the oldest revolutionary soldier in this state, 


The power of association in the human mind was 
perhaps never more strongly illustrated than in the follow- 
ing instance, which is said to have occurred at Carlisle, 
Pa., on the return of Colonel Boquet from his successful 
military expedition to the Muskingum, against the 
Delaware and Shawanee Indians, in 1764. Having, by 
his firmness and address, without the shedding of blood, 
compelled the Indians to submit to his own terms to 
obtain peace and the withdrawal of his army from their 
country, Col. Boquet resolved forthwith to enjoin com- 
pliance with one of the stipulations of his agreement with 
his wily antagonists, which was, the immediate delivery 
of all the white prisoners among them, the greater part 
of whom returned with the army to Eastern Pa. The 
relatives of many who were known to have been captured 
by these Indians, entered the ranks of Boquet with the 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 307 

hope of finding their long lost children and friends. 
Others, met the army on its return, having the same 
object in view. 

At Carlisle, a woman appeared whose little daughter 
had been carried off nine years before. In the crowd of 
female captives, she discovered one in whose wild and 
swarthy features she recognized the somewhat altered 
lineaments of her long lost child; but the young girl, who 
had almost forgotten her native language, returned no 
answering sign of recognition to her eager words, and 
the despairing mother bitterly lamented that the daughter 
whom she had so often sung to sleep on her bosom, had 
utterly forgotten her. At this stage of the proceedings, 
the humanity and superior knowledge of Col. Boquet 
readily suggested an expedient ; said he to the desponding 
mother, “sing the song that you used to sing to her 
when a child.” The woman did so ; when a sudden 
start, a look of bewilderment, and a flood of tears, re- 
moved every doubt, and restored the long lost daughter 
to the overjoyed mother’s fond embrace. 

Van Meter’s Fort. 

This fort was situated on the south side of Short 
creek a few miles above its junction with the Ohio 
river, in Ohio county, Virginia. The land on which 
it was located belonged to the widow and heirs of Mr. 
Joseph Van Meter, and was subsequently owned by his 
eldest son, Morgan Van Meter. It now, 1847, belongs 
to the heirs of Mr. George Mathews, and adjoins the 
farm formerly owned and occupied by the late Captain 
John Bukey, son-in-law to Maj. William M’Mahon. 

There are many interesting reminiscences connected 
with this early fort in the wilderness, some of which 
have perhaps never been recorded, indicative of the suffer- 
ings and bravery of those who lived in its vicinity, and 
who frequently sought refuge within its rude palisades. 

308 Early Settlement and Indian TVars of 

Mr. John Van Meter, at one time lived in this 
fort, and at the period of the occurrence narrated, 
resided on the farm now owned by Alexander Walker, 
Esq., in the immediate neighborhood of the fort. It was 
during his occupancy of this farm, in 1789, that a party 
of Indians visited his peaceful domicil, murdered his wife, 
daughter, and two small sons, taking the three elder 
sons prisoners, and burning the house. 

Hannah, the daughter who was killed, was washing at 
a spring a short distance from the house ; she had on a 
sun-bonnet and was stooping over the tub, unconscious 
of danger, when one of the savages stealthily advanced, 
and, supposing her to be an old woman, buried his toma- 
hawk in her head. When the Indians saw her face and 
perceived that she was young and beautiful, they deeply 
lamented their precipitancy, saying, <c she would have 
made a pretty squaw.” This information was subse- 
quently communicated by the notorious Simon Girty, 
who was one of the party which committed the murders. 

The spring at which this tragedy was enacted, is still 
designated as Hannah’s Spring. 

Whilst these events were transpiring at his home, the 
husband and father, John Van Meter, was absent at a 
neighbor’s house, Mr. Charles Hedges, breaking flax. 
He heard the report of the guns, and saw the flames in 
which his house was enveloped, without power to afford 
the least relief, well knowing that to go single-handed, 
would but insure his own destruction, without bene- 
fitting his beloved family. 

Abraham, Isaac and John were the names of the 
three sons carried into captivity. They were taken 
in one of their father’s fields, in which they were at work. 
The two former ultimately escaped, and returned to 
their friends. John remained with his captors, became 
attached to their mode of life, and finally married 
a young squaw. He subsequently visited his father 
several times, but could never be prevailed on to remain 

IVestern Virginia and Pennsylvania . 309 . 

with the whites, preferring that reckless independence, 
self-reliance and irresponsible freedom enjoyed in forest 
life, to the vapid and wearisome conventionalities of ci- 
vilized society. 

Several years after the murder of Mr. Van Meter’s 
family, he married the widow of Mr. John Bukey, one 
of the early emigrants from New Jersey to Western 
Virginia. Mrs. Bukey had four daughters by her first 
marriage. Mary, the eldest, became the wife of Major 
John M’Colloch, of Short Creek, Va. Marcy, the 
second, married Col. Harman Greathouse, late of Lex- 
ington, Kentucky. Elizabeth, the third, from whom 
the writer has received the particulars of this article, is 
Mrs. Jacob Roland, of West Liberty, Va. Jemima, 
the fourth daughter, became the wife of Rev. Dr. Joseph 
Doddridge, of Wellsburg, Brooke co., Va. She had 
also three sons, John, Hezekiah and Rudolph. The 
two former were for some years spies under Capt. Samuel 
Brady, lived and died in Virginia. Rudolph, at an early 
age emigrated to Kentucky, where many of his descend 
ants still reside. 

Mrs. Bukey had but one child by Mr. Van Meter, 
Sarah, who is now the wife of Robert Patterson, Esq., 
of Wheeling, Va. 

The Capture of Members of the Doddridge 
Family, by the Indians. 

The particulars of the following account of the murder 
of a member of the family of Philip Doddridge, sen., and 
the capture of three of his children by a party of Wy- 
andots in 1778, were communicated to the writer by 
Mrs. Eleanor Brown, late of Wellsburg, Virginia, and 
Mrs. Ruth Carson, recently deceased in Ross co., Ohio. 

Philip Doddridge, sen., emigrated from Maryland in 
1770, and settled near the mouth of Dunkard creek, a tribu- 
tary of the west branch of the Monongahela in Virginia. 

310 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

At the time of this sad occurrence he had a comfortable 
cabin and a tolerably well improved farm. His house- 
hold consisted of a wife and four young children, also 
his wife’s father, mother and a nephew, a lad of twelve 
years. Early one morning in the month of May, 
1778, Mr. Doddridge went into one of his fields to 
work, some distance from his house, his wife also being 
absent ; she having taken her infant and gone some 
miles to the house of a friend, to do some weaving for 
her family. Her three little girls, between the ages of 
two and seven years, were left in the care of her parents 
and the boy above spoken of. While he was amusing 
the children at the base of a high bank of the creek on 
which they lived, he espied in the distance, a party of 
Indians approaching the house, which they, without see- 
ing him, entered, tomahawked and scalped the aged grand- 
father, took such articles from the cabin as they fancied, 
and then set fire to it, leaving the body of the murdered 
man to be consumed with it. 

The nephew, well aware that if he remained with his 
little charge, he could not protect them, and would be 
himself killed or captured, fled to the field in which his 
uncle was at work, and informed him of what was trans- 
piring at home. They both saw the flames of the burn- 
ing buildings, and the savages amusing themselves by 
ripping up the feather beds and throwing their contents 
high in the open air. Having finished their work at the 
cabin, the deeply distressed father was compelled to re- 
main where he was and see the Indians bearing off into 
the forest, his three little girls and their grandmother 
without the power to afford them the slightest relief. 

Soon after this catastrophe, Philip, with his wife and 
remaining child, left the neighborhood of the Mononga- 
hela, removed to the house of his brother John Doddridge, 
who had, in 1773, settled in the western part of Wash- 
ington county, Pa., not far from the present village of 
West Middletown, in the same county. Philip subse- 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 311 

quently purchased from his uncle, Captain Samuel Teter, 
a farm near his brother’s, on which he resided till about 
the year* 1818, when removed with his family, then con- 
sisting of one son, John, and five daughters, to the state 
of Indiana, himself performing the journey on foot, for 
although having plenty of this world’s goods, he was 
never known to ride on horseback. He was one of the 
early friends and supporters of Methodism in the western 
country, and so exemplary was his life, that wherever he 
was known, his influence was felt. 

The fate of the grandmother was never ascertained, 
but many years subsequent to the captivity of their child- 
ren, the parents learned that they had been taken to 
Detroit, where the oldest girl was sold to a French officer, 
who finally married her and took her to France. The 
second one died, and the third, being reared with the 
children of her tawny captors, became as one of them, 
married a chief, and although acquainted herself with her 
parentage, so strong was her attachment to the mode of 
life in which she had been brought up, that she carefully 
endeavored to conceal her relationship to her family. 

The late Philip Doddridge, Esq., of Wellsburg, Va., 
averred that this woman had often been at his house, 
with other Indians, who came into Western Virginia to 
sell baskets and other articles. After seeing and con- 
versing with her several times, he recognized her re- 
semblance to her family, and one day made some enquiries 
of her respecting her history, telling her that he was her 
cousin, and offering to take her to see another of her 
relations, Rev. Joseph Doddridge. He said she looked 
displeased, ceased to converse, and never to his knowledge 
returned to that part of the country. 

2 7 

312 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 


Written in Charleston, Brooke County, Va., Feb. 22, 1800, 
By P. Doddridge. 

Hail all auspicious glorious morn ! 

On which for mighty deeds was born 
Columbia’s son. 

The chief who freedom’s flag unfurl’d 
To free from chains the western world 
Great Washington ! 

Thy chief we sing, the good and great, 

Who freed by blood and toil the state, 

From slavery. 

In power, and worth, he kings outvied, 

His country’s glory, boast, and pride, 

Who made her free. 

In war he was her strength 5 in peace 
He steered her bark to purest bliss 
To nations given. 

He trod the paths where virtue trod, 

And show’d the source of civil good, 

The gift of Heaven. 

But why is every heart dismay’d ? 

Why a whole land in mourning clad? 

And solemn gloom ? 

Why weeps the thoughtless youth, and why 
Flows the sad tear from beauty’s eye, 

In virgin bloom ? 

Say friend of peace, and hast thou flown ? 

Has Heaven just claim’d thee for her own ? 

And hast thou fled ? 

Our strength in war, art thou no more ? 

Sleep’st thou, borne off to oblivion’s shore, 

Among the dead ? 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 313 

A people’s tears, a nation’s groans, 

The muffled church bell’s chilling moans 
All joys reprov’d. 

The sabled edge on morning’s wings, 

The mournful news in dirges brings 
That thou’rt remov’d. 

Adieu great chief! thy spotless fame, 

Thy virtuous precepts, and thy name 
Remain our boast. 

These be our pride till the last day 
Shall worlds and systems sweep away, 

In chaos lost. 


Of the First Protestant Episcopal Church Minister of Western 
Virginia and Eastern Ohio. 

Presuming that but few of the present members of the 
Episcopalian church in the now flourishing diocese in 
this state, are aware that it was owing, in a great measure, 
to the early labors and indefatigable exertions of the in- 
dividual above named, that an episcopate was obtained 
in Ohio, we feel persuaded that a few brief reminiscences 
connected with his self-denying and persevering efforts 
for the establishment in the West, of the church of his 
fathers, will not be unacceptable at the present period : 
indeed, as the early and intimate friend of this pioneer 
herald of the cross in our western borders, we deem it 
but a measure of justice to the memory of a man, who, 
for a series of years, labored in the good cause, single- 
handed and almost without remuneration. We shall, 
however, only advert to his labors in general, not having 
at hand the data to enable us to do so in detail. 

My first acquaintance with the subject of this notice 
commenced in 1788, in Hampshire county, Va. He 

314 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

was then about nineteen years of age and a successful 
and highly esteemed laborer among the Wesleyan Meth- 
odists, in connection with whom he continued several 
years. Being recalled from his field of labor, to the 
paternal mansion, in Western Pennsylvania, by the sud- 
den decease of his father, in consequence of which event, 
the younger members of the family — of whom he was 
the eldest — were placed in circumstances requiring, for 
a time, his personal supervision, the youthful itinerant 
felt it to be his duty to resign his charge, and, in con- 
formity with the last wish of his deceased parent — who 
had appointed him the executor of his will — to apply 
himself to the settlement of his estate. 

This accomplished, he found himself in possession of 
sufficient means to enable him to prosecute his educa- 
tion, which as yet, was limited, owing to the few facili- 
ties for obtaining one, afforded by their wilderness location. 

Accompanied by his younger and only brother, Philip, 
who subsequently became eminent in Virginia, as a 
lawyer and legislator, dying while a member of con- 
gress, in Washington city, in 1833, he entered Jefferson 
Academy, at Canonsburg, Pa., they being among the 
first students at that pioneer literary institution, in what 
was, at that period, in the trans-montane states, denomi- 
nated the u far west.” 

The Wesleyans having now laid aside the Prayer- 
Book, or ritual, enjoined to be used on occasions of 
public worship, by the founder of their society, the Rev. 
John Wesley, a formula which Dr. Doddridge’s judg- 
ment sanctioned as being not only beautifully appropriate, 
but highly edifying ; he did not therefore resume his 
connection with them, after his return from college, but 
diligently applied himself to an examination of the claims 
of the Protestant Episcopal church, of which his parents 
had been members prior to their removal to the West. 
Suffice it to say, this examination resulted in a determin- 
ation to offer himself a candidate for orders in that 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 315 

church. Early in the year 1792, he received ordination 
at the hands of the Rt. Rev. William White, of Phila- 
delphia, soon after which, he located, temporarily, in 
Western Pennsylvania ; but in the course of a few years, 
settled, permanently, in Charlestown, now Wellsburg, 
in Brooke co., Va. 

At this early period of the settlement of the country, 
the greater portion of the population of Western Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania consisted of emigrants from 
Maryland and Virginia, where many of them had been 
attached to the mother church ; hence the advent of a 
preacher of their own denomination was hailed by them, 
as an auspicious event, filling their hearts with gladness. 
He was everywhere greeted with kindness, cheered and 
encouraged in his labors by the presence of large and 
attentive congregations ; albeit, in most places where 
they assembled for public worship, their only canopy was 
the umbrageous trees of the unbroken forest, whose sol- 
emn silence was, for the time being, rendered vocal by 
their devotions. 

During the year 1793, I occasionally attended the 
ministrations of this zealous advocate for the cause of 
Christ, at West Liberty, then the seat of justice for 
Ohio co., Va., and the residence of many respectable 
and influential families. At this place divine service was 
held in the Court House. Although still a young man, 
Dr. Doddridge was an able minister of the New Cove- 
nant. When preaching, there was nothing either in his 
language or manner that savored of pedantry or awkward- 
ness, yet he did not possess that easy, graceful action, 
which is often met with in speakers, in every other re- 
spect, his inferiors ; but this apparent defect was more 
than compensated by the arrangement of his subject, the 
purity of his style, the selection and appropriateness of 
his figures, and the substance of his discourses. He was 
always listened to with pleasure and edification, com- 
manding the attention of his hearers not so much by 

316 Early Settlement and Indian W ars of 

brilliant flights of imagination or rhetorical flourishes, as 
by the solidity of his arguments and his lucid exhibition 
of the important truths which he presented for their de- 
liberate consideration. 

In person, he was tall and well proportioned, walking 
very erect. He possessed fine colloquial powers, was 
social, an agreeable companion, and highly esteemed by 
those who knew him, on account of his plain, unosten- 
tatious manners, courteous demeanor, and rigid devotion 
to duty. 

The first Episcopal Church in Western Virginia — 
if I remember rightly — called St. John’s, was erected 
in 1792-3, in a country parish, a few miles distant from 
the residence of Dr. D., whose pastoral connection with 
it, I have been informed, continued for nearly thirty 
years — when declining health compelled him to dissolve 
it. At no great distance from St. John’s, and occupied 
by the same pastor, another edifice, also in Virginia, 
was erected at a very early period, the name of which 
I cannot now recollect. 

In the course of a few years after he took up his abode 
in Virginia, many families, reared in the Episcopal 
church, removed from the older states and settled west 
of the Ohio river, where they were as sheep in a wilder- 
ness without a shepherd. To those of them within a 
convenient distance from his residence, he made fre- 
quent visitations, holding service in temples not made 
with hands, but by the Great Architect of nature. 

We have been credibly informed, that Dr. Doddridge 
was the first Christian minister who proclaimed the gos- 
pel of salvation in the now flourishing town of Steuben- 
ville, in this state, and that, some years previous to the 
close of the last century, he officiated there, monthly, 
the place at that time containing but a few log cabins 
and a portion of “Fort Steuben.” The parish of St. 
James, on Cross creek, in Jefferson county, was early 
formed by him, and was for many years under his pas- 

We stern Virginia and Pennsylvania . 317 

toral charge. At St. Clairsville, Belmont co., he had 
a congregation and church, the pulpit of which he oc- 
cupied from time to time, until another pastor could be 
obtained. Occasionally his missionary excursions in- 
cluded Morristown, Cambridge, and Zanesville. In the 
autumn of 1815, this untiring apostle of the church, with 
a view of preparing the way for future missionaries, made 
a tour through part of Ohio, coming as far west as this 
city, Chillicothe, preaching in the immediate towns and 
ascertaining where Episcopal services would be accepta- 
ble. He was, I think, the first regularly ordained clergy- 
man of that church, who officiated in our place, which 
he did several times, during his stay among us. 

In Virginia, at a very early period, he held religious 
services at Charlestown, Grave Creek and Wheeling. 
At the latter place, was quite a number of Episcopalians, 
whom he frequently visited, keeping them together till 
the arrival of that pious and devoted servant of God, the 
Rev. John Armstrong, their first resident pastor. 

From the time of his ordination, he made it a practice 
to visit and preach wherever he could find a few who 
desired to be instructed in the faith of their fathers. 
These efforts to collect and keep within the fold of the 
church, the scattered sheep of the flock, imposed upon 
him the necessity of traversing a wide extent of country, 
which, being but sparsely settled, was poorly provided 
with roads, consequently, all his journeys had to be per- 
formed on horseback. 

In labors this Christian minister was most abundant, 
sustained under their performance by the approbation of 
his own conscience and the long deferred hope, that the 
time was not far distant, when Episcopalians in the At- 
lantic states, to whom, through letters to several of their 
bishops, and otherwise, he made request and earnest ap- 
peals in behalf of a field already white for the harvest, 
would awake from their apathy to a lively consciousness 
of the imperative duty of making the long neglected West 
a theatre for missionary exertion. 

318 Early Settlement and Indian Wars of 

Some years subsequent to his entrance into the minis- 
try of the Protestant Episcopal church, he found it 
necessary, in order to meet the wants of an increasing 
family, to combine with his clerical profession, one that 
would be more lucrative in a new and sparsely settled 
country ; he accordingly studied medicine, completing 
his course under Dr. Benjamin Rush, in the Medical 
Institute of Philadelphia. To the avails of the latter 
profession, he was mainly indebted for means to rear 
and educate a large family of children. 

His life was one of close application and incessant 
toil ; but his health eventually failed, and an asthmatic 
disease, with which, in his later years, he was sorely 
afflicted, in a great measure impaired his ability for use- 
fulness. In the fall of 1824, he attended a convention 
of his church, holden in this city, but he appeared 
greatly enfeebled. In the course of the succeeding 
summer, he spent some weeks here, in the family of a 
beloved sister, Mrs. N. Reeves, hoping, though vainly, 
that a cessation from labor, change of air and scene, 
would in some measure renovate his exhausted energies. 
During this period the friendship of our youthful days 
and the remembrance of former years, revived. He 
often visited me at my own domicile, where we held 
free converse and communion together, and I found him 
the same cheerful, agreeable companion, as in days cc lang 
syne.” Nothing ever occurred to mar our friendly in- 
tercourse or to diminish our kindly regards for each 
other. But he is taken from our midst — his disencum- 
bered spirit has been called to its reward, by the Great 
Head of the church. 

Finding that neither traveling nor rest availed to 
arrest the progress of disease, my friend returned to his 
home and family in Virginia, as he emphatically said, 
“ to die among his own people.” He lingered, in much 
bodily affliction, till November, 1826, when, strong in 
the faith which he had preached, in the 58th year of his 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania . 319 

age, his sufferings were terminated by death, to him a 
most welcome messenger. 

Of the published writings of the Rev. Dr. Doddridge, 
his “Notes on the Settlement and Indian Wars, together 
with a View of the State of Society, Manners, Customs, 
etc., of the Early Settlers of the Western Country,” is 
the principal. 

This graphic picture of pioneer scenes, manners, cus- 
toms and events, is peculiarly interesting as well as val- 
uable, on account of its fidelity : it being the result of 
the writer’s personal experience and observation. The 
work was undertaken by its author, not only for the pur- 
pose of preserving the facts therein recorded, but also 
with a view of enabling those who come after him, pro- 
perly to estimate the advantages of position in a civilized 
and refined state of society, by contrasting them with 
those possessed by their forefathers, in the Western 

Thomas Scott. 

Chillicothe , Ross- Co ., O., 

June 25, 1855. 



Where Alleghany’s towering, pine clad peaks 
Rise high in air, and sparkle in the sun, 

At whose broad base the gushing torrent breaks, 
And dashes through the vale with curling foam, 

My father came While yet our world was young, 
Son of the trackless forest, large and wild, 

Of manners stern, of understanding strong, 

As nature rude but yet in feeling, mild. 

Then our Columbia, rising from the woods, 

Obeyed the mandates of a foreign king, 

And then the monarch as a father stood, 

Nor made us feel his dread ambition’s sting. 

320 Early Settlement and Indian IVars of 

For him no splendid mansion reared its head, 

And spread its furniture of gaudy forms, 

His was the humble cot of forest wood, 

Made by his hands, a shelter from the storms. 

No costly dress, the work of foreign hands, 

Nor silks from Indian, or Italian realms, 

His clothing plain, the produce of his lands, 

Nor shaped with modern skill, nor set with gems. 

Simple his fare, obtained from fields and woods, 

His drink, the crystal fountain’s wholesome streams, 
No fettered slave for him e’er shed his blood, 

To swell in pomp ambition’s idle dreams. 

Look back, ye gaudy sons of pride and show, 

To your forefather’s humble, lowly state — 

How much they suffered, much they toiled for you, 

To leave their happier offspring rich and great. 

With meek Aurora’s earliest dawn he rose, 

And to the spacious, trackless woods repaired, 

When Boreas blew in autumn’s whirling snows, 

To hunt the prowling wolf, or timid deer. 

And when stern winter howl’d thro’ leafless woods, 
And filled the air with bitter, biting frost, 

He hunted to his den, the grisly bear 5 

Nor without danger faced the frightful beast. 

The shaggy native cattle of the west, 

The bounding elk, with branching antlers large, 

The growling panther, with his frowning crest, 

Were victims to his well aim’d, deadly charge. 

In hunting frock, and Indian sandals trim, 

O’er lengthening wastes, with nimble steps he ran, 
Nor was Apollo’s dart more sure in aim, 

Than in his skillful hand, the deadly gun. 


To masters, schools, and colleges unknown, 

The forest was his academic grove, 

Self taught : the lettered page was all his own, 

And his the pen, with nicest art to move. 

Think not ye lettered men with all your claims, 

Ye rich in all the spoils of fields, and floods, 

That solid sense, and virtue’s fairest gems, 

Dwell not with hutsmen in their native woods. 

Western Virginia and Pennsylvania. 

When chang’d the woodsman, for hard culture’s toil, 
To fell the forest, and to clear the field, 

And cover o’er with waving grain, the soil, 

He was the husband, father, and the friend. 

His was an ample store of ardent mind, 

Rich in liberal and creative arts, 

To trace the landscape with correct design, 

And ply in many ways, the tradesman’s parts : 

With feeling heart sincere, and ever kind, 

He was the friend and father of the poor, 

His was the wish for good to all mankind, 

And pity often taxed his little store. 

His length’d years of sickness, toil, and pain, 

When cherish’d by religion’s heavenly call, 

Strong was his faith in the Redeemer’s name, 

He sunk in death, and died beloved of all. 

My father and my friend, it was thy aim 
To make thy children rich, in mental store, 

To thy expanded mind, the highest gain, 

And may they honor well thy tender care. 

My mother, sweetest, loveliest of her race, 

Fair as the ruby blushes of the morn, 

Adorn’d with every captivating grace — 

Her piety sincere, and heavenly born. 

With hope elate she saw her little throng, 

Ruddy as morn, and fresh as zephyr’s breeze, 
Chanting with voice acute their little song, 

Or sporting thro’ the shade of forest trees. 

By fatal accident, in all her charms 

Snatch’d from her babes, by death’s untimely dart, 
Resigned me to my second mother’s arms, 

Who well fulfilled a tender mother’s part. 


Say, then, shall the rough woodland pioneers 
Of Mississippi’s wide extended vale, 

Claim no just tribute of our love, or tears, 

And their names vanish with the passing gale. 

With veteran arms the forest they subdued, 

With veteran hearts subdued the savage foe, 

Our country, purchased by their valiant blood, 

Claims for them all that gratitude can do. 

322 Early Settlement and Indian W ars. 

Their arduous labors gave us wealth and ease, 

Fair freedom followed from their double strife, 
Their well aim’d measures gave us lasting peace, 
And all the social blessedness of life. 

Then let their offspring, mindful of their claims, 
Cherish their honor in the lyric band — 

O save from dark oblivion’s gloomy reign, 

The brave, the worthy fathers of our land 

My dear Eliza 1 (Oh! fond hope beguil’d) 

Sweet as the rose bud steeped in morning dew, 
Tho’ withered now, I claim my lovely child j 
Nor have I bid thee yet a long adieu. 

Sweet little tenants of this dark domain, 

Yours was but a momentary breath, 

You ope’d your eyes on life, disliked the scene, 
Resign’d your claim, and shut them up in death. 

Soft be your rest, ye tenants of my tom b ! 

Exempt from toil and bitter biting care $ 

Sacred your dust until the general doom 

Gives the reward of heavenly bliss to share. 

1 The author’s daughter, aged fifteen. 


Abrams, John, 13. 

Absalom, burial of, 74. 

Adams, William, 12. 

Adventure, region of, 213. 

Africa, 71 $ deserts of, 61 ; regions of, 199. 
Allbright, Frederick, 16. 

Alleghany, great chain of, 201 ; mountains, 

Allen, Lieut., 234. 

Altars for sacrifice, 74 
Ambuscade, an, 153. 

America, discovery of, 77 j sepulchral 
mounds in, 73. 

American revolution, 195. 

Amherst, General, 223. 

Anabaptists, 20. 

Ancient, forts, the, 69 ; tombs, 74. 
Angikoks, of Greenland, 88. 

Apostolic succession, 8, 9. 

Appendix, 301. 

Apple, crab, 117, 120 ; trees, 121. 
Arbuckle, Capt. Matthew, 233, 239, 240. 
Architecture, of use, 206. 

Armstrong, Rev. John, 317. 

Arrow heads, 67, 68 

Arts, monuments of, 78, 79 ; of navigation, 
gunnery, engraving, writing, 212. 
Asbury, Rev. Francis, 6. 

Ashley, Lieut., 270. 

Asia, 71 ; cotemporaries of, 79 ; sepulchral 
mounds in, 73 ; red men of, 86 ; re- 
gions of, 199. 

Asiatic Tartars, 86 j Tartary, 83, 88 ; Tur- 
key, 199. 

Association, 306. 

Astronomy, science of, 79. 

Assyria, Shalmaneser, king of, 94. 
Assyrians, 48. 

Atimea of the Greeks, 185. 

Atkinson, George, 12; William, 12. 
Atlantic cities, 20 0. 

Atwater, Caleb, 75. 

Attack, expected, on my father’s fort, 280. 
Avarice, insatiable, 82. 

Ayres, Rev. Robt., 17. 

Azof, sea of, 75. 

Babel, tower of, 75. 

Baker, family of, 231. 

Bald knobs, 118. 

Baptism, 189. 

Baptists, 209. 

Barbary coast, 198. 

Barter for salt and iron, 147. 

Barton, Dr., 83. 

Baxter, William, 12. 

Beach Bottom fort, 288. 

Beans, 137. 

Bear, 104. 

Bear meat, 371. 

Bear’s oil, 137. 

Beasts and birds, 103. 

Beck, Samuel, 13 ; Thomas, 12. 

Bed gown, 14.2. 

Bees, honey, 106; hunter of, 106 ; Treat- 
ise on the culture of, 37. 

Beetle bug, the, 119. 

Bells, an article of traffic 97 ; stolen, 147. 
Belt, the, 141. 

Bent, Silas, 16. 

Biggs, Capt., 259; Benjamin, 12, 245; 

Captain John, 270 ; Zacheus, 13. 
Biography of Cornstalk, 240. 

Birch, the, 193. 

Birds and beasts, 103. 

Bite of snakes, specifics, 169, 170. 
Blackberries, 118. 

Black Betty, 156, 157 j birds, 106; haws, 
1 19; sea, 75 j snake, different kinds 
of, in. 

Bly, John, 16. 

Bold hives, 168. 

Boquet, Col., 306, 307. 

Borrowed days, 101. 

Bosphorus, Thracian, 76. 

Boston tea party, 306. 

Bouquet, Col., 223 ; major, 224. 

Bow and arrow, boys taught the use of, 
175 . 

Bowers, Rev. Mr., 207. 

Bowls, wooden, 137. 

Braddock’s defeat, 64, 224. 

Brady, Capt. Samuel, 35. 

Brainard, 251, 

Brandywine, battle of, 305. 

Brannan, Mary D., 44; B. T., 44. 
Bravery, instance of, 278. 

Bread rounds, the, 186. 

Breeches, 141. 

Bridegroom put to bed, 156. 

Bride put to bed, 155. 

Britt, James, 12. 

Broadhead, Col., 283, 284, 285. 

Brooke Academy, Episcopal services held 
in, 15. 

Brown, Colonel, 138; Mrs., 287; cap- 
tivity of, 285 ; Mrs. Eleanor, 309 ; 
Oliver, 16 ; Capt. Oliver, memoran- 
dum of, 305. 

Brutus, 181. 

Bryan, Mr., 32. 

Buckberries, 119. 

Buffalo, 104. 

3 2 4 


Buford, Captain, 2.34. 

Building, no traces of the art of, 77. 
Buildings, substantial, effect of, 205. 
Bukey, Elizabeth, 309; Hezekiah, 35, 
309 ; Jemima, 309; John, 35 ; Capt. 
John, 34, 307 ; John, widow of, 309 j 
Marcy, 34 , 3°9 i Mary, 34, 309 ; Ru- 
dolph, 35, 309. 

Bullet bag, 141. 

Bunker hill, 305. 

Burns, remedies for, 168. 

Buzzards, 105. 

Cabin, a half-faced, form of, 149 ; work of 
building, 158. 

Cairns ofScotland, 72. 

Calcined bones, 74. 

Caldwell, Alex., 16. 

Calendar, Christian, 183. 

Calmuc Tartars, 78. 

Calvinists, 21. 

Camp Charlotte, treaty of, 237 j site for 
the, 150. 

Campaign, Crawford’s, 264 j Gen. McIn- 
tosh’s, 244. 

Canal of Constantinople, 76. 

Cancer, tropic of, 183. 

Canestoga Indians, 225. 

Cannonsburg, Academy established at, 

Captina, massacre at, 230, 237. 

Capricorn, tropic of, 183. 

Caravans and mode of trade, 146. 
Carpenter, John, 248, 262, 264. 
Carpenter’s station, 297. 

Carson, Mrs. Ruth, 309. 

Carthagenians, country of, 198. 

Caspian sea, 75. 

Cassius, 1 81. 

Catacombs of Ancient Greece, and Pales- 
tine, 51 ; of Egypt, 72 5 of Palestine, 
72 j of Syracuse, 72. 

Cayuga chief, 237. 

Cedar ware, 166. 

Ceremony of house warming, 157, 160. 
Chaldeans, 48. 

Chapline, Moses, 12. 

Charcoal, 74. 

Charlestown church, 15. 

Charm, manuscript of, 66. 

Charms and incantations, 172. 

Chase, Rev. Philander, 19, 20, 24, 28, 
30; Bishop, 40. 

Cherries, wild, 120. 

Cherry trees, 121, 123. 

Chestnuts, 121. 

China, tea from, 138. 

Chinese alphabet, 199. 

Christian calendar, 183. 

Church of England, clergyman of, 124. 
Cicero, pronunciation of, 85. 

Cissner, Mr., 40. 

Civilization, evidences of, 78 ; monuments 
of, 79; means of present, 2ilj ob- 
jects of, 204 ; western, 197 $ grade of, 


Clark, Col., 246 ; James, 16. 

Clasp knives, 140. 

Clergymen, Presbyterian, 207. 

Climate, influence of, 89, 90. 

Coffee, first time ever tasted, 138; tree, 

Coins, gold and silver, 78. 

Color, resemblance of, 83 ; sameness of, 88 j 
physical cause of, 89. 

Comet, the, 181. 

Commander-in-chief, election for, 265. 
Commerce, introduction of, 202. 

Common prayer, book of, 13. 

Community of origin, evidences of a, 83. 
Conclusions, important, drawn, 92. 
Connel, John, 16. 

Constantinople, canal of, 76; streets of, 
199 - 

Convention, memoranda relative to, 25, 
26 ; report, 17 ; time and place for 
holding, 24. 

Convicts, tortures inflicted on, 190, 192. 
Cook, Capt., 75. 

Cooper ware, 166. 

Copper, beads, 69 j trinkets of, 69, 77. 
Copper head snake, hi. 

Corn, 137 ; destroyed by frost, 98; man- 
dan, 123 5 squaw, 123. 

Cornstalk, 235, 236; the death of, 239, 

Coshocton campaign', 283 ; retreat from, 

Costume, professional, 203. 

Cotton plant, 122. 

Coughs, 172. 

Council of war, 284 j of warriors, 241. 
Court house fort, 302. 

Court house, 40 ; built in the reign of 
George III, 40. 

Crab apple, 117, 120. 

Crawford, 13; Col., 265, 266, 269, 270 ; 
execution of, 270, 271 ; John, 12, 269 ; 
Thomas, 12; William, 269. 
Crawford’s campaign, 264 ; defeat, 290. 
Cresap, Capt., 230, 242 ; Col., 237. 

Croup, cure for, 168, 169. 

Crows, 106. 

Cully, John, 13 ; William, 13. 
Cunningham, Mr., 25, 26. 

Curculio, the, 119. 

Customs, resemblance of, 83. 

Cuthbertson, Dr. John, 127. 

Cyclops, story of the, 177. 

Cyprus, island of, 78. 

Dalyell, Captain, 223. 

Damson plums, 119. 

Dancing, 155, 174, 176. 

Darrow, James, 16. 

David, son of, 74. 

Davis, John, 12 ; William, 12. 

Death bell, 181 ; watch, 181. 

Debts, 186. 

Deer, 104 ; season for hunting the, 148. 
Defenses, 143. 

Delft, 138. 


3 2 5 

Delusion, the witchcraft, 179. 

Dement, Benijah, 13 ; George G., 13 ; 
William, 13. 

Dements, Mr., 31. 

Demosthenes, 54. 

Desert of Sahara, 199. 

Despotic governments, institutions of, 202. 

Derr, Sebastian, 16. 

Dhoura bread, 198. 

Dickerson, Thomas, 13. 

Dickinson, Mr., 34. 

Diet, articles of, 137. 

Dillon, Lieut., 234. 

Dinner, the, 154. 

Diocese of Ohio, first annual convention, 
29; second annual convention, 31, 32, 
33 , 34 . 

Dirge, iv, 311. 

Diseases, and their remedies, 168 ; inflicted 
by witchcraft, 180; cure of, 180. 

Dishes, pewter, 137. 

Dives, 194. 

Divination, profession of, 182 

Divine providence, allotment of, 132; re- 
velation, 80. 

Division lines, 133. 

Doddridge, 309; Ann, 6 ; Charles Ham 
mond, 44 ; Dr., elected cor. mem., of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
35 ; letter to his son, 37, 38, 41, 42 ; 
letter to his wife, 39, 40 ; Eliza M., 
43 ; family, capture of members of, 
309; Joseph, 40, 43 ; foreman of 
grand jury, 40 ; John, 5, 360 ; Joseph, 
6,38,43, 3 1 1 : Narcissa, iii, iv, 26 ; 
Philip B., 6, 38, 44; P., 312; 

Philip, 7, 8, 16; Philip sen., 309, 
310; Reeves, 41, 43 ; death of, 41 ; 
Ruth, 6 ; Rev. Dr. Joseph, letters from, 
20-24 ; memoir of, 5-44. 

Doddridge’s fort, attack on, 280. 

Douglas, Mr., 29. 

Dramatic narrations, 177. 

Doyle, Benj., 16. 

Dress, influence of, 202 ; of the Indians 
and first settlers, 140 ; of the sexes, 
153 . 

Dunkards, the, 49. 

Dunmore, Earl of, 232, 233, 235, 236, 238 ; 
war of, 1 31. 

Duval, Harriet T., 44 ; Maj. William, 44. 

Eagles, grey and bald, 105. 

Earthenware, fragments of, 69. 

East Ohio, Medico Surgical Society of, 35. 

Ecayer, Captain, 223. 

Ecclesiastical history, 211. 

Eclipse of the sun, 1 8 1 . 

Eden, garden of, 95. 

Egypt, catacombs of, 72 ; py ramids of, 51, 
72, 76, 78 ; built of hewn stone, 78 ; 
upper, 199. 

Egyptian mummy, 72. 

Egyptians, the ancient, 72, 73. 

Elbow room, 205. 

Ele gy, 319- 

Elk, 104. 

Elliot, Charles, 12 ; George, 12 ; Simon, 
12 ; Simon jr., 12. 

Ellson, Archibald, 12 ; John, 12 ; Richard, 
12 ; Richard T., 12. 

Embalmed bodies, 73. 

England, history of, 220. 

English, cavaliers, 197 ; government, 203 ; 

historians, 220 ; language, 84 ; the, 48. 
Engraving, art of, 212. 

Epaminondas, 54. 

Episcopal clergymen, 22 ; church, 210. 
Equilibrium, conflict for, 103. 

Erysipelas, 172. 

Europe, 71 ; cotemporaries of, 79 ; pre- 
sent languages of, 84. 

Extermination, war of, 215, 217, 220, 222. 
Extinct people, remains of an, 68. 
Faculties, intellectual, of man, 79. 

Fall hunt, a, 205. 

Fame, 214. 

Fate of the Moravians, 251. 

Family mansions, 204. 

Fatigue party, 158. 

Fear, passion of, 66. 

Felebaum, George, 278. 

Fever, treatment of, 173. 

Fields, Col., 234. 

Fire arms, 175. 

Five brothers, the, 71, 

Fleming, Col., 234. 

Fling, John, 16. 

Flood, catastrophe of the, 80. 

Florida, gulf of, 61. 

Forbes, Gen., 224. 

Forefathers, something due to the memory 
of, 51. 

Fortifications, remains of, 67, 71. 

Fort and other defenses, the, 143. 

Fort Laurens, 244, 248; McIntosh, 244, 
246, 247; Pitt, 244, 250, 257, 259, 
260; Schuyler, 306; of Pittsburg, 
221 ; Bedford, 221 ; 222 ; Ligonier, 
129, 221, 222; Niagara, 221, 222; 
Detroit, 221, 222; Presque Isle, 221, 
222; St. Joseph, 221, 222; Michili- 
mackinac, 221, 222. 

Forts, the ancient, 69. 

Foster, Christian, 13 ; John, 12. 

Fout, Andrew, 13. 

Fouts, Lyman, 13. 

Fox squirrels, ic6. 

Francis, Stephen G., 13, 17. 

Franklin library of Philadelphia, 72. 
French, the, 48 ; Jesuits, influence of the, 
220 ; language, 84. 

Freshet of the Tiber, 181. 

Friends, 20; societies of, 209. 

Friends Cove, 5. 

Frost, crop of corn destroyed by, 98. 
Fruits, history of native, 117. 
Fullenweider, Peter, 278. 

Furniture for the table, 137. 

Gaelic language of Scotland, 85. 

Games and diversions, 174. 

Garden of Eden, 95. 

Geese, tame, 138. 

Generation, present, 48. 

Gentlemen, dress of, 15S. 

German, glass blowers, 181 j language, 85 ; 

Lutheran, 209 ; soldier, the, 66. 
Giants, graves of, 76. 

Gibson, Col. John, 244, 246, 248. 

Gilmore, killed, 240. 

Girty, Simon, 271, 308. 

Girty’s Point, 303 . 

Gist, 13. 

Gladwin, Major, 222. 

Glass blowers, German, 181. 

Glass, Mr., 287, 288. 

Glendennin, Mr. Archibald, 226; Mrs., 

Goddesses of good or bad luck, 65. 

Gog, tomb of, 72. 

Gold, trinkets of, 77, 78. 

Goldsby, Lieut., 234. 

Golgotha, an immense, 67. 

Goodrich, Mr., 26. 

Gooseberries, 119. 

Gourds, 137. 

Gov. Dunmore’s war, 229. 

Government of Pennsylvania, interference 
of, 225. 

Grammar schools established, 207. 

Grant’s defeat, 224. 

Grapes, winter and fall, 118. 

Grater, a, 163. 

Grave, the large, 70. 

Great heart and the giant, 178. 
Greathouse, Col. Harman, 309, 345 $ 

Daniel, 230, 231. 

Grecian history, earliest period of, 76. 
Greece, ancient, 71 ; catacombs of, 51 ; 

classic character of, 53. 

Green, A., 16 ; copperas, 168. 

Greeks, the, 53, 54, 215 ; early history of, 
74 ; the atimea of the, 185. 

Grief, paroxysm of, 228. 

Griffith, William, 13. 

Griswold, Ezra, 25, 26; Gen. G. H., 25, 

Gunnery, art of, 212. 

Gun-shot wounds, treatment of, 171. 
Habitations, of the Russian, Tartar, and 
Turkish peasantry, 204. 

Haines, Reuben, 35. 

Hair balls, 179. 

Half way houses, 256. 

Hall, Capt., 240. 

Halliwell, George, 16. 

Hammond, Charles, 14,15; George, 13, 
15; Mr., letter from, 14, 15; Wil- 
liam, 14. 

Handkerchief, a, 142. 

Hand mills, 162, 164. 

Hanlon, Moses, 16. 

Hannah’s spring, 308. 

Hardie, Thomas, 124, 126. 

Harding, Nathan, 12. 

Hardshelled squashes, 137. 

Hargus, John, 242, 243. 

Harlem heights, battle of, 305. 

Harmar, campaign of, 55. 

Harris, John, 13. 

Harrison, Major, 269. 

Harrows, 166. 

Hatchets, 69. 

Hating the offender out, 185. 

Haws, black and red, 119, 120. 

Hay, Peter, 12. 

Hazelnuts, 121 . 

Heaven, signs of, 79. 

Hebrew language, 84. 

Hebrews, ancient, 74 ; pythoness of the, 
128 ; wizard of the, 182. 
Heckewelder, Rev. John, 259, 283. 
Hedges, Charles, 308; Silas, 13. 

Hendling, William, 13. 

Hendricks, John, 12. 

Herbage, wild, 97. 

Hermit, account of a, 124 ; disciple of, 
126, 127. 

Heroes, tombs of, 74. 

Hickory nuts, 120. 

Highlands of Scotland, 85 ; the Gaelic of 
the, 85. 

Hill, Mr. Walter, 114. 

Hindoo, the, 199. 

Hinds, Thomas, 16. 

Hives, bold, 168. 

Hobart, Rt. Rev. Bishop, 24. 

Hog and hominy, 137. 

Holy city, the, 302. 

Homer, Odyssey of, 178. 

Hominy, 137; block, 162. 

Honey bees, 106. 

Honor, point of, 188. 

Hood, 13. 

Horace, quotation from, 102. 

Horse racing, 174. 

House furniture and diet, 135; warming, 
the, 157, 160. 

Human color, varieties of, 89. 

Hunting, camp, form of, 149; shirt, the, 
140, 141 ; snows, 98 ; subsistence by, 

Hydrophobia, victims of, 107 ; wolves 
destroyed by, 104. 

Imitative faculty, 176. 

Inability, apprehchension of, 50. 
Incantations, 172. 

Indian, maxim, 259; meal, 130 ; mode of 
warfare, 143, 214 ; nations, 48 ; sum- 
mer, the, 262, 263 ; the big, 295 ; 
war, 136 ; wars, history imperfect, 46 ; 
loss of, 278 ; origin of the American, 

Indignation, fear of public, 261. 

Influence of dress, 202; of the French 
Jesuits, 220 ; of the sun, 91. 
Institutions of society, municipal and ec- 
clesiastical, 132. 

Intellectual faculties of man, 79. 

Irish, descendants of the, 198 ; language, 
85 ; trot, the, 177. 


3 2 7 

Iron, specimens of, 77; military weapons 
of, 77 ; tools of, 77, 78. 

Ishmael, descendant of, 199. 

Italian language, 84. 

Italians, the, 48. 

Itch, cure for the, 171. 

Jack and the giant, 177. 

Jacket, a laced, 130. 

Jacob, John J., 6. 

Jail, 139. 

Janizaries of the country, 198. 

Jefferson, Mr., 86; President, 70, 93; 

academy, 14 : college, 207, 

Jerusalem, city of, 53, 199. 

Jews, 21 ; wars of the, 215. 

Job, afflictions of, 182. 

Johnny cakes, 131, 137. 

Johnson, Abel, 12; David, 7; John, 296, 
298 ; Henry, 296, 267, 298 ; Robt. H., 
16; Rev. Mr., 22 ; Sir William, 228. 

Johnsons, affair of the, 296. 

Judkins, Anderson, 35. 

Julius Caesar, assassination of, 181. 
Jupiter, movements of, 181 
Kelly, Eli, 16 ; Tady, 242. 

Kenyon College, 24. 

Kilbourn, Rev. James, 23, 24, 25, 30. 
Kirk, John, 13. 

Knight, Dr., 269, 270, 271. 

Labor and discouragements, 160. 

Lackey, Andrew, 12. 

Ladies, dress of, 153. 

Lads, escape of two, 253. 

Lakes, chain of, 61. 

Land, sold, 133. 

Language, the present Saxon, 85 ; the 
Welsh of England, 85; Gaelic of 
Scotland, 85; Irish, 86; written and 
unwritten, 84. 

Languages of Europe, 84. 

Larimore, Capt. Robert, 43; Susan A., 

43 - 

Latin language, 85. 

Law, morality and religion, 184. 

Lawrence, epithet of, 185. 

Lazarus, 194. 

Leek, Mr., 32. 

Leet, Maj., 267. 

Lefler, George, 278 ; Jacob jr., 278. 

Legal government, want of, 184. 

Leggins, 141. 

Leonidas, 54. 

Lewis, Gen., 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 238 ; 

Col. Charles, 234. 

Lexington, 305. 

Library, Franklin, 72. 

Life, resemblance of mode of, 83. 

Ligonier, Fort, 129. 

Limestone, 80. 

Line of mercy, 250. 

Lingen, Hugh, 12. 

Logan, 237, 240 ; family of, 232 ; speech 
of, 237 ; the last of the race of Shik- 
ellimus, 39. 

Logic of Christian nations, 92. 

Long, John, 16. 

Looms, 166. 

Lover of the whites, 232. 

Lowther, William, 12. 

Lycurgus, 54. 

Magog, tomb of, 72. 

Mahan, George. 16. 

Mahon, George, 12. 

Maneally, Andrew, 12. 

Man, in his primitive state, 215 ^intellec- 
tual faculties of, 79 ; physical happi- 
ness of, 81. 

Mankind, original color of, 90, 91. 
Manners, resemblance of, 83. 

Marble, 80. 

March, the, 153. 

Marriage ceremony, the, 154. 

Massacre at Captina, 230. 

Mathews, Mr. George, 307 ; John, 28. 
M’Cammant, Mr. John, 104, 107, 109; 

bitten by a wolf, 107. 

M’Clenachan, Capt., 234. 

McColloch, Abraham, 301 ; George, 301 , 
Major John, 34, 301, 303, 309; 

Major Samuel, 301, 302, 304; sketch 
of, 301 ; remains of, 305. 

McColnall, William, 16. 

McConnell, John, 16 ; William, 16. 
M’Donald, Capt. Angus, 242. 

M’Guire, Maj., 288; Mary, 16; widow, 

McIntosh, General, 246; campaign of, 

M’Key, Charles, 12. 

McKnight, John, 16. 

M’Mahon, Major William, 30I. 

M’Millan, Rev. John, 207. 

Meed fort, 305. 

Mechanic arts, the, 162 ; introduction of, 

Mercer, Rev. Mr., 17. 

Messiah, followers of the, 92. 

Metals, ornamental use of, 78. 

Methodist society, 21, 33, 208. 

Mexico, silver from, 138. 

Mice, a new kind, 106. 

Milk and mush, 137. 

Miller, Jacob, 276, 278. 

Mills, Thomas, 269, 290. 

Mississppi, valley of the, 61. 

Mittens, 141. 

Moccasons, 141. 

Mode of living, influence of 89 ; Indian, 

Mohammedans, 92. 

Molasses, 137. 

Monmouth, battle of, 306. 

Monteur, family of, 260. 

Monuments, antiquity of, 75. 

Moody, David, 15. 

Mooney, Peter, 13. 

Moore, Bishop, 10 ; Dr., 15; Robert T. 

Moores, Dr., 276. 

3 28 


Moorehead, Col. M., 301. 

Morai, 75. 

Moral philosopher, the, 79; philosophy, 
an interesting subject in, 128. 
Moravian brethren, 221 ; campaign, the, 
248 \ settlements, history of the, 255 ; 
broken up, 257. 

Moravians, fate of, 251. 

Morehead, Andrew, 12. 

Morris’ fort, 13 1. 

Morrow, Alex., 12 j Jane, 12. 

Morse, Rev. Intrepid, 17, 31. 

Moscow, 71. 

Mummy, Egyptian, 72. 

Murders, at Camp Charlotte, 237 ; Y ellow 
creqk, 237. 

Murray, Nicholas, 16. 

Murrey, Capt., 234. 

Mush and milk, 137. 

Mussulman, 93. 

Myers, John, 12. 

National history important, 53. 

Nations, pagan, high places of the, 75. 
Navigation, imperfect, 955 art of, 212. 
Nevill, General, 17. 

Newton, Sir Isaac, 79 : intellectual facul- 
ties of, 79. 

Nicholson, Thomas, 12, 242. 

Noggins, wooden, 137. 

North America, 71. 

North Western Virginia and Ohio, early 
churches in, 11. 

Notes on Virginia, 86, 94 ; quotation from, 

86 . 

Odyssey of Homer, 178. 

Ohio, diocese of, 15 ; parish convention, 
29 j Protestant Episcopal church in, 

Opossums, 106. 

Oram, Thomas, 16. 

Oranoo, 75. 

Origin, of the American Indians, 83 ; evi- 
dences of identity of, 83 ; evidences of 
community of, 83. 

Ossian, resemblance to the poems of, 177. 
Owhyhee, island of, 75. 

Owings, Asel, 12. 

Owl, moan of, 63. 

Pagan nations, high places of the, 75. 
Painting, no traces of the art of, 77. 
Palestine, 53 ; catacombs of, 72; ancient, 
51 , 

Palma christi, 123. 

Palmer, Mr., 25. 

Panther, 106 ; shriek of, 63. 

Parkman, 304. 

Patriarch, sarcophagus of the, 73. 
Patterson, Rev. Robert, 7; Robert, Esq., 

Pawpaws, 88, 120. 

Pawwawing days, 100, 263. 

Paxton boys, the, 225, 226. 

Peace, treaty of, 220. 

Peach tree, 121, 122. 

Pear trees, 121, 122. 

Pekillon, 284. 

Penn, William, 225. 

Peru, copper abundant in, 78. 

Petticoat, linsey, 142. 

Philanthropy of the good Samaritan, 81. 
Philosopher, the, 80 ; the moral, prince 
of, 79. 

Philosophy, conclusions of, 122 $ fashion- 
able, 80. 

Physical happiness of man, 81 ; cause of 
various of colors, 89. 

Pickaway plains, 61. 

Pilgrim’s Progress, 178. 

Pipe, Delaware chief, 270. 

Pitched battles, 188. 

Plates, 137. 

Pleurisy, 172, 173. 

Plows, 166. 

Plums, damson, 119; wild, 119. 

Poe, 292, 294; Adam, 291, 292, 293, 294, 
295; struggle of, 291. 

Political instittuions of the world, 81. 
Pone, 137. 

Porcelain, 138. 

Pork, 137. 

Portuguese language, 84. 

Possums, see Opossums. 

Potatoes, 137. 

Potato tops, growth of, watched, 13 1. 

Pot pie, 138. 

Prather, Charles, 16 ; Henry, 16. 

Preface, iii, iv, 50-57. 

Presbyterian clergymen, 207. 
Presbyterians, 20. 

Priests, 88. 

Prince, David, 25, 26. 

Princeton, battle of, 305. 

Printed documents, want of, 55. 

Prisoners, slaughter of 215. 

Protestant Episcopal clergy, meeting of 
of the, 18. 

Pumpkins, 137. 

Punisi... ent for idleness, lying and dis- 
honesty, 185. 

Pyramids of Egypt, 72, 78. 

Pythoness of the Hebrews, 182, 

Raising, the, 158. 

Rankin, Captain, 104, 107. 

Raspberries, wild, 119. 

Rats, 106. 

Rattlesnake, ill. 

Raven, croaking of the, 63, 65. 

Rebellion of the United Irishmen, 215. 
Redhawk, 239. 

Red haws, 120. 

Red men of Asia, 86. 

Reed, Dr. Horace, 25. 

Reeves, Josias, 16 5 Mrs. Nathan, 42, 318, 
Reflections, 274. 

Reformed, 209. 

Refuge, place of, 62. 

Religious worship of savages, 95 ; cere- 
monies, resemblance of, 83 ; rites and 
ceremonies of the Tartars, 88. 
Reminiscences, 313. 


3 2 9 

Rendezvous, place of, 285. 

Reno, Rev. Francis, 17* 

Resemblance of Indian languages, etc., 83. 
Rete mucosum, the basis ol color, 89, 91 j 
various states of, 92. 

Retreat, preparations for a, 268. 
Revelation, divine, 80. 

Revolting fact, 74. 

Revolutionary war, 216, 

Rheumatism, 172. 

Rice, Abraham, 278 ; Daniel, z 78 . 

Rice’s fort, attack on, 275. 

Richardson, George, 12. 

Ritchey, George, 16. 

Robbins, mound described by, 71. 

Robin Hood, 178. 

Robinson, Aaron, 135 Israel, 13 ; James, 


Rocky mountains, 61. 

Rogers, Nicholas, 13. 

Roland, Abraham, 13 ; Mrs. Jacob, 309. 
Roman Catholics, 209; clergy, 21. 

Roman empire, languge of, 84. 

Romans, the, 48, 53 ; early history of, 74. 
Rome, classic character of, 53. 

Rose, Major, 269. 

Ross, Peter, 13. 

Rough and tumble, 198. 

Royal sepulchre, the, 74. 

Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 34, 318. 

Russian peasants, habitations of, 205. 
Russian spy, 39. 

Russia, steppes of, 61. 

Sacraments administered, 32, 33, 34. 
Sacrificial altars, 74. 

Sahara, desert of, 199. 

Saints, a nation of, 212. 

Saltpetre caves, 163. 

Samaritan, good, philanthrophy of the, 81 ; 

religion of the, 218 
Samaritans, 21. 

Sandusky plains, 61. 

Sandwich islands, 75. 

Sarcophagus of the patriarch, 73. 

Saturn, movements of, 181. 

Savages, ferocity of the, 81 j religious 
worship of, 95. 

Saxon language, 85. 

Scalping knives, 140. 

Science, evidences of, 78 ; light of, 208; 

monuments of, 78, 79. 

Scotland, cairns of, 72 ; Gaelic of, 85. 
Scott, John, 16; Hon. T., 301 ; reminis- 
cences of, iv, 6, ii, 12, 13, 42, 43. 
Sculpture, no traces of the art of, 77. 
Searle, Rev. Mr., 29; Rev. Roger, letters 
from, 27, 28. 

Selenite, 80. 

Sepulchral monuments, number and mag- 
nitude of, 72 ; mounds, 67, 70, 71 . 
Serpents, number and variety of, hi. 
Service trees, 118; berries, 118 ; time of 
gathering, 118. 

Settlement of the country, 129; principal, 

Shabosh, 249, 252, 253, 254. 

Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, 94. 

Sharper, the cunning of the, 81. 
Shawanees, the war chief of, 236. 

Shellfish, tribes of, 80. 

Shepherd, Col., 284. 

Shoe thread, 166. 

Shooting at marks, 177. 

Shoepacks, 142. 

Sickness, bed of, 66. 

Signs of the zodiac, 183. 

Silver, trinkets of, 77, 78. 

Singing, 178. 

Single combat, 188. 

Skinner, Walter, 13. 

Sky, appearance of, 65. 

Slain, number of the, 351. 

Slender, 187. 

Slaughter, a scene of, 227. 

Slaves and servants, tortures inflicted on, 
190, 192. 

Sleds, 166. 

Sloughter, 249. 

Slover, Mr., 2725 escape of, 272, 273. 
Smith, Rev. Joseph, 207. 

Snakes, bite of, 169, 170 ; dens of, 113 j 
power of fascination, 114, 115, 116. 
Snow crust, fatal to deer, 99 ; hunting, 98. 
Society islands, 75. 

Son of David, 74. 

Sophocles, 54. 

South America, 71 . 

South sea, 75. 

Spanish language, 84. 

Spartan band, 278. 

Specifics for snake bites, 169, 170. 

Spoons, 137. 

Sports, athletic, 176. 

Squashes, hard-shelled, 137. 

Squirrels, black and gray, 105 ; emigra- 
tion of, 165. 

St. Clair, campaign of, 55. 

St. Clairsviile church, 18. 

Stentor, voice of, 235. 

Steubenville church, 15. 

St. James’s church, 15, 15, 28, 34; report 
of, 30; Zanesville, 30 ; parish, 316; 
germ of, 16 j subscribers for, 1800, 16 ; 
Zanesville, 41. 

St. John’s church, 12, 30, 316 $ parish, 33 ; 

record, 26 ; subscribers, 12. 

Stone pipes, 69. 

St. Paul’s church, 12, 13, 15, 17, 343 
parish, list of names in 1800, 13. 

St. Petersburgh, 71. 

St. Peter’s church, 18 ; report of, 30. 
Stratagem, hypocritical, 230. 

Strawberry, wild, 118; cultivated, 118. 
Streets of Constantinople, 199. 

Strong, John, 12. 

St. Thomas’s church, 17, 18; report of, 30 
Stuart, Mr. Charles, 280 Capt., 240. 
Sulphate of iron, 168. 

Sun, an eclipse of the, 181 j influence of, 
9 1 * 

33 ° 


Superstition, associated with ignorance, 
66; the wilderness a region of, 65. 
Susquehanna, building forts on the, 221. 
Suwarrow, the ferocious, 215. 

Swarms of gnats, mosquitoes, flies, 97. 
Swearengen, Daniel, 12 ; Elzy, 13 ; 

George, 12; Israel, 12. 

Sweating, 193 
Sweep, the, 163. 

Syracuse, catacombs of, 72. 

Table furniture, 137 
Talman, Samuel, 16. 

Tan vat, the, 165. 

Tartar peasants, habitations of, 204. 
Tartars, Asiatic, 86 ; religious rites and 
ceremonies of, 88. 

Tartary oriental plain of, 61, 75. 

Tattling and slandering, 187. 

Taylor, Elizabeth, 16; Isaac, 12. 

Tea from China, 138. 

Teter, Capt., 281 ; commands of, 281 ; 
Capt. Samuel, 311 ; Mr., 64; Samuel, 

Theft, 186. 

Thompson, John, 246. 

Thorp, William, 16. 

Thracian Bosphorus, 76. 

Thrall, Walter, 18. 

Thumb screw, the, 193. 

Tiber, freshet of the, 181. 

Tibergein, Charles, 12. 

Ticy, Cooper, 13. 

Tillinghast, Nicholas P., 16. 

Timber, fallen, 118. 

Timon, 54. 

Tobacco, use of, 69. 

Tomahawk, throwing the, 176 ; right, 130. 
Tombs of heroes, 74. 

Tongue lashing, 186. 

Torture, methods of, 193 ; recollection of, 
194 . 

Tower of Babel, 75. 

Treaty, 237 ; of peace, 220. 

Trenchers, wooden, 137. 

Trenton, battle of, 305. 

Trinity church, 15 ; subscribers for, 1800, 

Trinkets of copper, gold, and silver, 77. 
Truck patch, 137. 

Turkey, Asiatic, 199. 

Turkish peasants, habitations of, 204. 
Turks, the, 54, 215. 

Ulysses, story of, 178. 

United Irish rebellion, 215. 

Van Meter, Abraham, 308 ; Hannah, 308 ; 
Isaac, 308; John, 308, 309; Joseph, 
307 ; Morgan, 307 ; Mr., 286 ; Sarah, 
309 ; Fort, 302, 305, 307. 

Varieties of human color, 89. 

Venison, 137; lean, 130. 

Vernon, Maj., 248. 

Vilettle, Patience, 16. 

Virgil, pronunciation of, 85 ; quotation 
from, 135. 

Virgil’s test of soils, 13. 

Virginia, notes on, 86, 94. 

Vultures, 105. 

Wadinoon, neighborhood of, 71. 

Walker, Alexander, 308. 

Wallace, William, 248. 

Walnut fern, 170. 

Walnuts, English, white and black, 121. 

Wappatomica campaign, 242. 

Ward, Capt., 234. 

War, equipments, want of disgraceful, 
186; dance of savages, 174; Gov. 
Dunmore’s, 229; of 17663,47, 220 ; 
of extermination, 215, 217, 220, 222. 

Warfare, Indian mode of, 143, 214. 

Warriors, council of, 241. 

Wars, the, of the Jews, 215. 

Washington college, 208. 

Waterman, Rev. John, 8. 

Water mills, 164. 

Wayne, Gen., 299 ; campaign of, 55. 

Weather, breeders, 100 ; changes in the 
system of, 96 ; future prospects of, 102. 

Webb, Mr., 29. 

Wedding, and mode of living, the, 152 , a 
description of, 1 52-1 57. 

Wells, Absalom, 12; Alexander, 138; 
Benedict, 13; George, 12; Mary, 5; 
Richard, 5, 12 ; Capt. Thomas, 99, 

Wellsburg church, 15. 

Welsh language, 85. 

Wendell’s Mr., 32. 

Wesley, Rev. John, 314. 

Wesleyan Methodist, 314 ; society, 6, 7, 8. 

Western civilization, 197. 

West Indies, coffee from, 138. 

West Liberty church, 12; supporters of, 
1800, 12, 13. 

Wetzel, 285; Jacob, 289; John, 289; 
Lewis, escape of, 289, 290, 291. 

Wheeling fort, attacks on, 46. 

Whitcraft, William, 16. 

White, Bishop, 10, 18, 23, 315; letter of, 
19, 20; James, 12; James H., 16. 

White clover, 135 ; negroes, 90. 

White Plains, battle of, 305. 

White plantain, 169. 

Whortleberries, 119. 

Wilcoxen, Anthony, 12. 

Wild cats, 106; cherries, 120; plums, 
119; turkey, breast of, 1 3 1 ; noise of 
the, 63, 105. 

Wilderness, solitude a prominent feature 
of a, 62 ; state of the, 59. 

Williams, Alfred, iv ; Joseph, 16. 

Williamson, Captain, 269; Col., 265, 
267 ; Col. David, 250, 259, 260. 

Williamson’s trail, 265. 

Willius, John sr., 13 ; William, 13. 

Wilson, Capt., 234; James, 13; John, 
13; Mr., 33. 

Windsor, John T., 16. 

Wingemond, Delaware chief, 270. 

Winters, Matilda D., 43 ; John, 43. 

Witchcraft, belief in, 179; delusion, 179. 


33 1 

Wizards, 179 ; of the Hebrews, 182. 

Wolf, howl of the, 62 ; trap set, 99 ; man 
caught in, 100. 

Wolves, sagacity of, 1 04 ; destroyed by 
hydrophobia, 104. 

Wooden trenchers and noggins, 137 ; ware, 
137, 166. 

Wood peckers, 105. 

Writing, art of, 212. 

Written language, nothing more perma- 
nent than, 84. 

Wyandot chief, 291. 

W'yman, Thomas, 13. 

Yellow creek, murders at, 237. 

Zane, Col. Ebenezer, 46, 301 $ Col., 230, 
Jonathan, 242, 301 ; Noah, Esq., 46 ; 
Silas, 301. 

Zeisberger, 251. 

Zodiac, signs of the, 183. 

Zoll, Jacob, 13. 





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